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^ird^arologtral journal, 



C^t Kapiil flrdiataloguiil liMtftutt o[ 0r(xt MriUtn anil 





Cbe Carlp anD inttAile Slgtfl. 

Skcond Serifs, Vol. XII. 




The Codhcil op the Royal Akchaeological Ihstitute deairoe 
that it shonld be dietiuctlj DDderatood that it is not reepoDBible for 
any statement or opinions expressed in the ATchaeological Journal, 
the aathora of the several memoirs and cominunicatione being alone 
answerable for the same. 

ly Google 


Japanese Svord Bladei. Part I. B; Alfbid DobbAb 

Some I4oteB oa the Origio and Uim of Low flide Windowa in ADcient 

Churchr*. B; the Ber. H. BiDroBoPm, U.A. 

Diecouioli DD the paper .. 

Prehistoric LoadoD i ee|ieeiatlj coDcerniDg the Late Celtic Settleinsnt aa 

repreeeoted in the Guildhall Huseum. Bj Q. F. LtWBBltOB . . . . 

The Back. B/ the Tiwouot Dillon, Hod. U.A. Oxon., F.S.A. 

Anna and Armour Abroad. Bj the Tiecount Dillon, Hoa. H.A. Oiod., 


Armour in WUU. By the TiKount Dilloh, Hon. H.A. Oion., F.S.A. .. 
The Archaeological CoQgrees at Athena, April 6th-iatb, 1906. Bjr 

Dr. Tkohib HopaKlH, D.C.L 

Roman Aaliquitie*. Bj Dr. 8. Rdssbll Fobbib 

The Church Toven of Somerietahire. B; Bobkbt P. Bbrritoh, M.A. . . 
Notes on a Sculptured Tympanum at Klogiwinford Church, 8t*lfordeIiire, 

and other early representationa in England of Bt. Michael the 

Archangel. Bj Chabus E. Eetsib, M.A., F.S.A 

Symboliam in Nonnan Sculpture at QueDingtou. By Km Jobbpkivi 


Supplementary notea on the eame. By Chiblbb E. Ebtbbb, M.A., F.S.A. 
Shorthampton Chapel and ita Wall Paintinga. By Philip UAiMWABma 


Sir William Cugdale, (barter. By Sir E. W. Bbabbook, C.B., F.8.A., 

F.B.S.L., Vice-President 

A Note on Dame Dorothy Selby and the Qunpowder Plot. By the Ber. D. 


FouiUee daat les Bgliw« de Famagouate de Chypre. By Ciktiu.! Enlist, 

DiiQcteur du Uu*ee de Sculpture Compar4e du Trocadero 
Japanew Sword Blades. Part II, with two Appendicea. By Alfbbd Dobb£b 
The Nurbags of Sardinia and some other llegalilhic Monuments of the 

Mediterranean Kegion. By Williau Chcsobill 

The Lippen Wood Roman Villa, West Meon, Hante. Report of Prelim- 

inaty Eicavations, I90B. By A. Mdbat Wiluakb, B.A 

Not«son Fibulae. By F. HATBEprBLD, LL.D., F.S.A 

Notes on the Have of Chepstow Parish Church. By Chablbs Lthau, F.S.A. 


IV comxKrB. 

Flea for tbe PiiaaiiBtion of the BdinrduD FOTtiSoktioiia of Berwick-oii. 

Tweed. B7 the Bev. Jiiaa Eme, B.D 879 

Frooeediiiga at HeetiDgs of the £071! Arobaeological Initilute . . 76, 18S, SS8 

The Annual Heeting at Tnnbridgc Weill 176 

Biographieal Notice 198 

Notioea of Archaeological Fuhlioatioiu 77, 13S, 198, 186 

Beport of the Coonoil for the jmt IBCH-S 289 

Oaih Aocwmt, 1904-1906 290 

Lilt of Offioen and Hembera of the Institute and Lilt of Suhacribing 


ly Google 























Low-ods Window! 











FUto VI. 
FUto Til. 
P1M« VUI. 
PUt« IX. 

Fig. 1. A Smith mt Work 

Vig. Z. Swnnni ««uiag two Sirordi . . to face 

Tftrioui forms of the Blade ., to/act 

Figs. 1 and 2. Hokume or Oraiaing .. ... •■ 

Fig. 8. Plan andSocHan to fact 

Fig. I. ChawnBword 

Fig. 2. Sword b<r Yukijuu . . tofaet 

Chanctariatic Shapes and File Harka on tlie Tang 


Ths Yakiba or Hardtned Edge .. .. lofaea 

Fig. 1. TheTakiba 

Fig. 2. Coating of Claj Partlj Bemored 

Fig. 3. Hioi, Nije and Bjo-no-me , . tofaet 

Tarious forms of Outlioe in the Yakiba lofaet 

Fig. 1. Drawings of Blade* 

Fig. 2. Oharactera deuoting the parte of a Blade to foot 
Figs. I and 2. Eiamplea of Signatures and Dates 
Fig. 3, HorimoDO or engrared Bgures ■ . to fact 

Figs. \-i. App«nituB for showing the Centre of 

Permuiiou to face 

in Ancient Chunhes : 
Fig, S. Dersingham, Norfolk . . . . to fate 

Fig.1. Mertoa, Oiott 

Fig. 2. Broadwell, Oiod to face 

Fig. 3. Siston, Linoe. 

Fig. 4. Tatafleld, Surrey tafaee 

Fig. 6. AddiogtoD, Surrej .. .. 

Fig. 6. Cowlej, Oion to fact 

Fig. 7. Wlieathampatead, Herts. 

Fig. 8. BinMj, Oiod. .. to face 

Fig. 10. Qarsington, Oion. 

Fig. 11. Orton LoDgaerille, Hnnti. .. tofaee 

Fig. 12. UnipsSeld, Snrrejr, exterior 

Fig. 19. Limpifleld, Burre;, interior .. to fact 

Fig. 14. Grafton Underwood, Ifortbanta 

Fig. 16. Brook, Kent to face 

Fig. 16. Oajtborpe, Lines. 

Fig. 17. Tanfield, Torka to font 


FIbU X. Fig. IS. Cogenho«, HorthuiU, interior 

Fig. 19. Cogenhoo, Noitbant*, exterior . . to face 
FUto XI. Fig. 20. Ch«at AddiDgtoD, North&Dts 

Fig. 21. DutfoTd, Kent fo/oce 

Bonukii Antiquities : 

Plate I. Primitive Tombs on the Sacra Via , . . . to face 

Platell. Cells in the Porum Boarium .. .. to/oot 

Fig. 1. Seotion of Cells in the Forum Boarium. . . . to face 

Fig. 2. Plan of Pedestal of Domitiui's Horw .. .. ioface 

ChuToh Toiren of Somerset ; 

Plate I. Shepton Mallet tofaet 

Plate II. WiDeoorabe to face 

Plate III. North Petherton to face 

Plate IV. Huish Episcopi to face 

Plate V. Staple Fitipaine to face 

Plato VI. Dandrf to face 

Plate VII. Wrington toface 

Plats VIII. Eiercrsech toface 

Plate IX. Iliiiioster toface 

Sculptured Tjinpanutn ut Eingsiriiiford ; 

Plate 1. TheTjmpanuin toface 

ShoFthamptoQ Chapel Wall Paintings : 

Plate I. Shorthampton Church, OiOD., Plan .. toface 
Plate II. Pig. 1. N.W. View 

Fig. 2. Tha Font 

Fig. 3. N. Wall of Nava toface 

Plate III. Fig. 1. Piscina in Nstc 

Fig. 2. Window in S. Wall 

Fig. 3. Low-side Window in Chancel . . toface 

Plate IV. Corbel Heads in Nave toface 

Plate V. Miracle of the Claj Birite .. .. toface 

Plate VI. St.Sjtha toface 

Plate VII. Fig. 1. St. Thomas of Canterbury 

Fig. 2. Hell Cauldron 

Pig. 3. St. Eligius toface 

Plate Vlll. Fig. 1. Bas-relief of »t. Eligius, Or San Micliele,FloreDce 

Fig. 2. Carting at Durweiton Church .. toface 

The Annual Meeting at Tunbridge Wells : 

Plan 1. Bajham Abbey, Susbbj toface 

PUti I[. Bodiam Castle, SuBsei toface 

PlaQ [II. Penahuret Place, Kent tofaet 

Plan IV. Ightliam Mote, Kent, around Floor and Firat Floor 




Fonillea dam I«a Bgliaei de Fsmagouate de Chj pn : 

Plate I. St. Oeorgea dra Latin ■ lo face 

Plate n. L'£glus de« C'armei .. .. ■• •. lofaet 

Fig. 1. Aooiutic Fatterf embedded in the Vaulting of tlie Carmelile 


Fig, 3. Tomb of Guj Babin 

Fig. S. EmblatODcd Ee; 

Fig. 4. Tomb of a I*dy 

Fig. 6. Italiao Tombatuni! 

Fig. 6. Inscribed Uarble Fragmenla, Fifteenth Century .. .. 200 

Fig. 7. Inacription 202 

Fig. 8. Two InKribed Tombatones a03 

Fig, 9, Tomb of Jacme Olerier, . SOS 

Fig. 10, TwoInaoribedTombi SQ7 

Fig, 11. Tomb of L'golino Prifco 209 

Fig. 12. Tomb of Antonio di Sant' Anna ^11 

Fij;. 13. Tomb of Bernardino Prioli 218 

Fig. 14, FragmeDt of a FlfleeDtb Century Baa Relief 21S 

Japaneae Sword Blade* : 

Plate I. Name* of the Principal Parts of a Sword Blade to face 220 

Fig. 1. Tarioua Fomu of Blade* and OrooTes 224 

Platell. No. 1. The Yakodaahi 

No, 2. The ShObu Taukuri to fare 226 

Figa, 2 and 3. Liatof Prorincei in which Sworda were made, showing 

the Japameee Oharaeters and Bcgliah Transliteration . . 232-288 
Figa, 4 and G. CharBcten luod in Names of Sword Smiths .. 234 236 
Figs. 6, 7 and 8, Nengu or Vear Period* with the English Trans- 
literation and Corresponding Date* 236 239-240 

Plate III, A and B. Various forms of the Yakibu . . to face 243 

Plate IV. A and B. Various Forms of the Yakiba .. loface 247 

Fig, !). The Jikkan und, Copiea of InaLTiption*, etc. . . 26G 

Tbe Nurhag* of Surdinia : 

Plate I. A Typical Sardinian Nurhag to face 2S6 

The LippsD Wood Boman Villa; 

Fig. 1. Section of PjIm 263 

Plate I. Plan of the Eicavationa to face 264 

Note* on Fibulae : 

Figa. 1 and 2. 'Ino JCiamplea of Auciua Fibulae , . . . . . 266 
Fig. 3, Fibula from Thirst Houae Cave 268 

Chepstow Pariah Church : 

Fig. 1. Plan of the M»»e and Western Tower 270 

Fig, 2, St. Mary's, Chepitow. South Side 272 

Fig. 3. St. Uarj'K, Oiepitow, NorlhSide .. 278 

Fig. 4. Copford, Eaaei, South Bide, Nare 276 

Fig. 6. Qrcat Clat-ton, Essex, North Wall 277 




Within the limits of a paper such as this it is 
mpossihle to deal adequately, not only with the sword 
ifi a whole, but with any part of it, such as the guard 
uid other fittings. Such space as ia available will there- 
ore be devoted to a very brief and condensed account uf 
he blade and tlie methods employed in making it. 

Such information as I can lay before you on its earliest 
listory is derived from the works of Mr. Gowland and 
IJaptain Brinkley, and from information given to me by 
Tersoual friends among the Japanese themselves. 

It seems to be fairly well established that the art of 
lasting bronze was unknown to the aboriginal inhabitants 
)f the Japanese Islands, but was brought there by the 
uicestors of the Japanese proper as distinguished from 
ihe Ainos. The date of the arrival of these immigrants 
B about the sixth century b.c. Coincident with their 
irrival is the appearance of barrows or tumuli for burial 
mrposes. Many of tliese barrows have been opened and 
explored, and in them have been found a large number 
f objects of metal and pottery, including swords. In 
11 cases the metal-work from the barrows is of bronze. 
Ippai^ently no stone weapons have been found in the 
arrows, so that it would seem that the immigrants had 
Iready passed through their Stone Age, and were nearing 
he end of their Bronze Age. 
These barrows continued to be used for a few hundred 
ears, and were then superseded by the construction of 
legalithic dolmens, the change taking place about the 
jcond century A.D., and being coincident with the 
(rival of a second wave of immigration. During the 
irrow period the Japanese seem to have made some 
rogress in metal- working, and so also, but at a more 

' B«ad at the Meeting of llie lostituta, on lit Februirj, 1903. 



rapid rate, did the members of the parent stem from 
which they sprang. For the Hecond immigration brought 
with it not only the practice of dolmen building, but, 
what was much more important, a knowledge of the 
working of iron. That the second immigration consisted 
not of members of another race, but of a fresh batch of 
colonists from the same patent stem, seems to be con- 
clusively shown by the oontiouity in the forms of the 
objects found in the dolmens with those found in the 
barrows, the change being rather one of material, though 
there was a change in the shape of the swords. This 
change is, of course, to be expected, since, owing to its 
greater rigidity, iron or steel could be wrought into a 
more effective blade than one cast in bronze. 

The ilolmen period came to an end about 600 or 
700 A.D. 

Now, both in the barrows and dolmens many swords 
have been found. The earliest, those in the barrows, are 
of bronze, straight, leaf-shaped, and double-edged, and 
these were cast in one piece in stone moulds. Such stone 
moulds, according to Captain Brinkley, still exist in 
Japan, though their antiquity is a matter of conjecture. 
Similar stone moulds are also found in Korea, and their 
existence, together with the fact that the barrows ai-e 
most numerous in the south-western parts of Japan, 
probably indicates the route taken by the earliest immi- 
grants, namely, by way of Korea, the Island of Tsushima 
and the western parts of Kyiishu. The Island of 
Tsushima is easily visible on a clear day from both 
Korea and Kyushu. 

With the arrival of the second immigration the use 
of bronze for weapons seems to hiive been entirely 
abandoned, though, in a country of the peculiar con- 
figuratii'D of Japan, changes would spread slowly, and 
no doubt the two periods overlapped to some extent. 

In the dolmens are found swords of iron only, and of 
a diffeient shape from those of bronze. Tliey were 
straight and single-edged, similar to those now in use 
but for the absence of curvature. 

The introduction of Buddhism towards the end of the 
dolmen period brought with it another form of blade, 
also of iron or steel, but in shape more like the earlier 



fevnze swords, since it was straight and double-edged. 
This type was called Ken, or Tsurugi, but does not appear 
to have come into general use as a weapon. 

At the close of ihe dolmen period appeared the type 
of blade as we now know it, and this is the only one 
of the tliree forms uf which we have really complete and 
deGnite information. It is therefore to this form that 
I would draw your attention. Progress in the art of 
sword-forging during the doiioen period seema to have 
been rapid, for at the time of the Emperor Ichijo, 
987-1011 A.D., no less than 3,000 bladen were recognised 
■as fine, thirty as excellent, and four as superlative. 

Great impetus wa-s given to the art by the Emperor 
Gotoba, 1186 AD., who certainly tempered, and, I 
believe, forged blades himself, and two or three examples 
of his work are extant in Japan. During the year 
1206 AD. he summoned to his Court twelve of the 
leading smiths of the time, each smith remaining oue 
month. I'heir names in order of their arrival are : — 
Norimune of Bizen, Kuniyasu of Awataguchi, Tsunetsugu 
of Bitchu, Kunitomo of Awataguchi, Muneyoshi of Bizen, 
Tsuguiye of Bitchu, Sukemune of Bizen, Yukikuui of 
Bizen, and Sukenari of Bizen. They were followed by 
twenty-four smiths who came in pairs, two every month. 
Their names in order of urrival are : — Kanemichi of Bizen, 
and Kunitomo of Awataguchi ; Morosane and Nagasuke, 
both of Bizen ; Shigehiro of Yamato, and Yukifcuni of 
Awataguchi ; Chikaiusa of Bizen, and Yukihira of Bungo ; 
Kanechika and Sanefnsa, both of Bizen ; Tomosuke of 
Bizen, and Munetaka of Hoki ; Narisane and Sanetsune, 
both of Bizen, Kanesue and Nobufusa, both of Bizen ; 
Tomotada and Sanetsune, both of Mimasaka ; Kaoesuke 
and Norimune, both of Bizen ; N^orisane of Bitchu, and 
Koresuke of Bizen, Finally six smiths were summoned, 
each for two months, their names in order being : — 
Norikuni, Kagekuni, and Kunitsuna, all of Awataguchi ; 
Muneyoshi, Nobumasa, and Sukenori, all of Bizen.' The 
swords forged by these smiths at these times bear special 
marks cut on the tang. 

It is evident, then, that by the tenth century the 

' All th«*e lumM ue taken from the Koto MtKalnttki, printed, aire. J780. 

B 2 



Japanese smiths had attained to a very high degree of 
excellence and enjoyed a very honourable position. 

Nowhere in the world has the sword occupied so 
important a place as in Japan, where it' hecame an 
object of veneration and almost of worship. The dis- 
tinction it conferred upon the wearer, its association 
with the celebrated deeds of the national heroes, the 
reputation of an expert swordsman, the fabulous value 
attached to a first-rate blade and other reasons gave to 
the sword an importance and, as a factor in the national 
life, an influence which we ourselves cao scarcely realize. 

A sword is included in the three objects, or three 
divine precious things forming the regalia of Japan. It 
is called Murakumo, or the cloud-cluster, and sometimes 
Kusanagi no Tsurugi, or the grass-cutting sword. A 
long sword by Masamuoe and a short one by Kunimitsu 
formed the insignia of the Shogun. 

These considerations make it the more remarkable 
that while other Japanese productions have been care- 
fully studied in Europe the sword has been almost 
entirely neglected. Indeed, I know of only one European 
who has made a really serious study of this subject, and 
I need scarcely say that I refer t-o the late Mr. Gilbertson ; 
and I should like to take this opportunity to acknowledge 
his unfailing kindness to me and the help he was always 
80 ready to give. 

Among a Japanese gentleman's possessions nothing- 
was nearly so precious as his swords. Unique skill and 
perfect taste were lavished upon their ibrgiug and 
decoration, their mounts and furniture, and in their 
complete and best form they represent the highest 
development of artistic metal-working. That this 
enthusiastic view is not altogether unwarranted may be 
shown by quoting two authorities. Mr. Gilbertson 
says : — 

" I look upon a well-finished Japanese blade ae a marvel of mechanicaT 
skill and perfect worlunanahip, aa delightful to contemplate as the 
grinding and polishing of a speculum or large telescope lens. No 
competent judge either of the workmanship of a sword or of it& 
practical value as a weapon can fail to appreciate the extraordinary 
skill displayed by the Japanese awordamiths or to comprehend the 
unique position occupied by a master smith of renown." 





Oouse, the French authority on Japanese Art, says :— 

"Japanese bkdea are incomparably the moet beautiful the world 
has ever produced ; those of Damaacus and Toledo, as examples of the 
working and tempering of steel, appear beside them merely as the 
«fforta of children. 

Now, if we consider the way in which the sword- 
smiths wwked we shall see some of the reasons for this 
almost superhuman excellence. The swordsmiths of 
Japan held a high and honourable position ; they were 
not artizins, but artists, and worked as such. A long 
aeries of smiths existed in the different provinces, 
forming separate schools, and each school has existed for 
very many centuries. Their experience and skill, trans- 
mitted from one generation to the next, grew as time 
went on. The forging of a sword was a aemi-religious 
ceremony, and was only undertaken after considerable 
preparation. As a condition of success the smith must 
live a more or less religious life, and abstain from 
excesses of all kinds. Before commencing his work he 
clad himself in a special ceremonial costume, and wore a 
special head-dress. He suspended at the entrance to the 
smithy a shimenawa, or plaited straw rope, with gohei 
or charms hanging from it to drive away evil inBuences, 
and he prayea to the gods for assistance in his work. 
Fig. 1, PI. I, shows a smith at work.^ 

This Is a very brief and imperfect description of the 
proceedings of the swordamith, but we can scarcely 
wonder that a work undertaken in this spirit should be 
so splendid in its result. The essence of the matter is 
admirably given hy Professor Inazo Nitobe in his book, 
Bushido, The Soul of Japan; and this is what he 

" The swordsmith was not a mere artizau, but an inspired artist, and 
his workshop a sanctuary. Daily he commenced his craft with prayer 
.and purification, or, as the saying was, he committed his soul and spirit 
dnto the forging and tempering of the steel. Every swing of the sledge, 
£very plunge into water, every friction on the stone^ was a religious 

' Tbii illnatration from Talti of Old mtt ttie word "grinil stone," but I hare 

J<ijiiHti« reproduced here brtbecourteaf altered this, ainoe it would convej afulie 

■at Lord bedeadale tnd Henn. Mac- impreMion to Engliih resden, ai nill b« 

jnillsD, seen later. 

* In tlie original, Frofejaor Hitobe 



act of no slight import. Was it the spirit of the master or of his 
tutelary deity that cast auch a spell over our swords Perfect as a. 
work of art, setting at defiance its Toledo and Damascus rivals, tAn^ ' 
was more than art could impart.^ It« cold blade collecting on ite surface, 
the moment it is drawn, the vapours of the atmoephere ; its immaculate 
texture fiashing light of blueiah hue ; its matchless edge upon which 
histories and possibilities hang ; the curve of its back uniting exquisite 
grace with utmost strength; all these fill lie with mixed feelings of 
power and beauty, of awe and terror." 

" There was more thao art could impart" ; in these 
very striking words Professor Nitobe reveals, I believe, 
the swordsmith's principal secret. 

Swords are made iu Japan at the present time, but not 
in any great quantity now that they are no longer worn, 
and the swordsmiths work under the special protection 
of the Government. From a recent number of the 
monthly reports of the Proceedings of the Td-Ken Kwai 
(Sword Society) of TokyO, to which I have the honour 
to belong, it is interesting to note that at some of the 
meetings ewords were exhibited by their maker, Horii 
Taneaki, one of the members, when they were examined 
and discussed. The same member also exhibited two- 
swords made by Horii Taneyoshi, no doubt bis father, 
one made in 1903 and one in 1904, when be was in his 
eighty-second and eighty-third year respectively. We 
may note here that the swordsmith's profession, judging 
from the particulars given in various Japanese works on 
the subject, seems on the average to have been conducive 
to great length of days. 

By the Japanese swords are divided into twQ great 
classes, called Koto and Shinto,* meaning respectively 
old sword and new sword. The KotS swords are those 
made prior to the eighth year of Keicho, or 1603 a.d.,. 
and the Shinto swords those made after this date. This 
division was made by the Taiko, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, 
in whose time flourished the first sword expert whose 
judgment was accepted as infallible. His name was 
Honami KCsetsu, and Hideyoshi appointed him the first 
official sword expert. This office nas been held by the^ 
same Honami family down to the present time. 

' The itslirg are mine.— A. D. flie same reading of two entirel; differ«iit 

' Tbu word has no connection with choraotere. 
ihe Shinto religion, which happens to be 




— c\| (O >o 






Very fine specimenB of swords have been made in 
recent tiniep, but the greatest value is ' attached to the 
Koto swords, especially those made in the twelfth, 
thirteenth, and ii>urteenth centuries. Plate II shows 
various forms of the blade. Nos. I and 2 are two 
f>rins of the Tsurugi or Ken. No. 3 is the To or 
Katana, No. 4 is the Chitbai Katana or sniall sword, 
No. 5 is the Wakizaahi, used in the performnnce of 
Harakiri. No. 3 was usually called Dai To. and No. 5 
Sho To, or collectively Daisho. The two together formed 
the pair of swords the wearing of which was the dis- 
tinguishing m»rk of the Samurai cla-^s. At the same 
time the smaller one of the pair of swords not infrequently 
took the form shown in No. 4. All the blades I to 5 
were mounted with a guard or tttuha, but No. 6, the 
Tanto, often carried by women in the upper part of their 
dre'^s, had uo guard. 

Fig. 2, PI. I, shows a Samurai bearing his two 

The metal from which swords were forged was derived 
from the deposits of magnetic iron ore and ferruginous 
sand, the iron being converted into steel by what we 
should call the cementation process. The blade itself is 
made of a soft elastic iron combined with steel, both of 
very high quality, or, for the best work, of two or three 
grades of steel combined together.' 

Many different methods were employed in building up 
the billet from which the blude was finally for;iefl, and 
the following is one of the most favoured. The smith first 
prepared some iron and steel plates of equal size and 
thickness and of suitable dimensions. A plate of iron 
and steel were then welded together to form one plate. 
This plate was notched across the middle on a line 
perpendicular to its length, folded on itself, welded 

as length 
of 2 '3 iDGfaes. The following it the analyBU of tlie wmc blade :— 

Soft Fart. Enrdfiipd Ed^e. 

Combined carbon . . . . -47 per cent. 2 -52 per cent. 

Dnoombinad carbon . • .. Trace. IFrare. 

Sulphur -005 per cent. rToo'>in»U for 

Silicon 0-079 „ 1. eitiuintion, 

' Fhoapbomt and maoganeae were t«iled for, but could not be detected. 




together and drawn out under the hammer to its original 
size. This process was repeated from twelve to eighteen 
times, resulting in a billet containing many thousands ot 
layers of alternate iron and steel, and from this billet 
the blade was forged. In some cases, several such billets 
■were prepared, welded together and folded and welded 
as before. In any case, the resulting billet was then 
drawn out under the hammer and the proper curve given 
to it.' Some very fine effects were produced by ham- 
mering the hillet on the narrow side until this oecame 
the broad face, or by hammering on the angle, and this, 
combined with folding the metal in a particular way, 
pioduced the beautiful effect known as the Gassan style. 
This style is charucteristic of a school founded by a smith 
named Gassan, who lived in the province of Yamato in 
the latter part of the twelfth century. 

The smith's fire was made of pine charcoal of peculiar 
•quality. At the commencement of his forging, the smith 
coats the metal with a thin layer of clay strewn with 
burnt straw ashes before placing it in the fire, and 
■during the forging is most careiul to keep his anvil 
•scrupulously clean lest arty piece of grit should get 
worked into the metal and produce flaws or specks in 
the finished blade. 

On examining many Japanese blades, beautiful wavy 
markings like the grain of a piece of planed wood are 
■seen. This effect is called mokume, or wood graining. 
To describe in words the means by which this effect and 
ihe Gassan style is produced is not easy, but as far as the 
mokume is concerned, we can imagine that if a billet 
consisting of alternate layers of different grades of metal 
is heavily punched in different places on one side with a 
round-ended punch, similar but larger protuberances will 
be raised on the opposite side. If these protuberances 
are partly ground off and the whole brought- level again 
with the hammer, there will be exposed the edges of the 
overlapping layers forming a series of more or less 
irregular concentric rings. Fig. 3, PI. Ill, will make 
this clearer. 

In Fig. 1, PI. Ill, I have tried to draw the appearance 

* A irooden acale, called kiiiagata, wai nied to meuiire the length and oiurratura. 







' ' SiTY 




of a form of the Gassan style in Fig. 2, PI. IIT, is an 
exact as possible copy of a portion of a blade in my own 
possession attributed to tne master smith, Masamune, 
living in the early part of the fourteenth century. 

Fig. 1, PI. IV, shows an actual example of the Gassan 
style. This sword was made by Gassan Sadayoshi so 
lately as 1865. Fig. 2, PI. IV, is an actual example of 
^nokume somewhat different from that on my drawing. 
This sword was made in 1352 by Yukiyasu. The last 
two illustrations are of swords in the collection of the 
late Mr. Gilbertson, and were made from very fine 
photographs most kindly given to me by his son, 
Mr. Charles Gilbertson. 

When the forging was completed the blade was scraped 
with a kind of draw knife, called "sen," and was then 
filed all over, the surface being carefully examined for 
defects. At the same time the smith shapes the tang 
and files it in a particular way, for these file marks or 
" yasuri-me," fuf well as the shape of the end of the tang 
itself, ai-e characteristics of the different schools of forging. 
Plate V, shows all the forms of yasuri-me in use, 
as well as some of the shapes given to the end of the 
tang. As will be seen, they have their appropriate 
names : — 

No. 1, Yoko yasuri, ov transverse file niarks. 

„ 2. Higaki. — The Higaki is a lattice fence of 

hinoki wood, 

„ 3. Katte ngaru. 

„ 4. Taka no ka. — The hawk's feather. 

,, 5. Shinogi suji kai hira kii-u. 

,, 6. Katte sagaru. 

„ 7. Saka taka 7io ha. — Inverted hawk's feather. 

„ 8. Shinogi kiH hira suji kai. 

„ 9. Sen suji. 

„ 10. Midare yasuri. — Irregular. 

At this stage the most important operation in the 
making of the swoid is undertaken. This is the pro- 
duction of the yakiha, or hardened edge, which appears 
AS a clouded band of pearly lustre from one quarter to 
one half inch wide ^ong the edge of the blade. In 



Plate VI, and Fig. 1 , of PI. VII, some actual examples 
are shown. 

The yakiba was produced in the following way : — The 
smith first covers the whole blade with a mixture of clay, 
sand, and a small proportion of powdered charcoal. The 
clay was of a ferruginous character, called sabidore, or 
literally " rust-earth." When this coiiting had hardened 
a little the smith took a piece of sharpened bamboo and 
with it cut through the coating near and along the edge 
on both sides in the particular outline desired. The clay 
over the edge, thus separated from the rest, was then 
removed. Fig. 2, PI. VII, shows the appearance of tlie 
sword at this stage. 

When the remaining coating was dry and hard the 
smith held the blade edge downwards and ran it back- 
wards and forwards over the fire until he saw by the 
colour that the proper temperature was attained. To be 
able to estimate exactly when the proper temperature 
was reached required great experience, and this tempera- 
ture would no doubt vary with the composition of the 
particular blade under treatment. The blade was then 
plunged into water horizontally if curved, and vertically 
if straight. The temperature of the water seems to have 
been of great importance, as also its quality ; and it is 
remarkable that many people in this country ascribe the 
excellence of the Sheffield cutlery not so much to the 
steel as- to some peculiarity in the Sheffield water. The 
same belief existed in Japan, and the smiths usually 
worked near some source of water which was considered 
specially suitable for their purpose. We may note here 
that when a sword is dated and the month is also given, 
this month is nearly always the eighth. If not, then it 
is the second, which is the opposite one of a twelve 
months' cycle. The reason for this is that the water at 
those times of the year was considered most suitable for 
hardening the edge. I have, however, seen two or three 
blades dated the first month, and one dated the thii-d 
month. Cold water does not seem to have been used, 
but it was slightly warmed, different smiths using 
different temperatures, the exact temperature being a 
sort of trade secret of each smith. There is an interest- 
ing story told illustrating this. 







Goi'5 Njudo Masamune of Sosliu, who flourished at 
the end of the thirteenth and beginning of the fourteenth 
century, though placed second in order of merit by some 
of the Japanese experts, whb the most famous of them 
all. He had eleven pupils, to whom no doubt, as their 
progress and skill deserved it, he imparted his secrets 
and experience. His favourite pupil was Samonji, who 
was to have become his adopted son, and to have married 
his daughter, an only child, Samonji appears to have 
been of an inquisitive nature, for one day, when 
Masamune was tempering a sword, Samonji stealthily 
put his hand into the water to ascertain its temperature. 
He was detected by Masamune, who immediately struck 
off the offending hand with the sword. Samonji, of 
course, fell into hopeless di'*grace, and died at the early 
age of thirty, hia place being taken by Hadamune, who 
became Masamune's adopted son, and married the 
daughter. This interesting wedding took place In the 
third year of Geno, or 1321. 

The difficulty of producing the hardened edge, find at 
the same time keeping the blade perfectly straijiht and 
true, is very great, hut for the Japanese smiths this 
difficulty, like many others, seems to have existed oidy 
to be overcome. If the edge was found to be too hard, 
it was possible to let it down, as we should say — that is, 
after having been made roughly bright sdl over, the blade 
was gradually and uniformly heated from the bnek until 
the colour of the film of oxide forming on the edge 
showed that the required reduction in hardness had been 
obtained, when it was plunged into water. This opera- 
tion was, however, considered to impair the quality of 
the blade, and to diminish its value. 

The idea of using a hardened edge, while the body of 
the blade remained relatively soft, is the most essential 
point of difference between Japanese blades and all others, 
and it may be interesting to consider this ditterence a 
little more closely. The Japanese blade is essentially 
a cutting weapon, and was made with a view to the 
production of a blade with an extremely hard and keen 
edge, 80 as to obtain the best cutting effect combined 
with durability of the edge, while at the same time to 
avoid all danger of breakage, however hard a blow might 



be struck. Now, the European sword is made equally 
hard all over, and, to avoid danger of breaking, it cannot 
be made of more than a certain degree of hardness. 
This degree of hardness is insufficient to produce a real^ 
keen and durable edge. If a European sword were made 
as hard all over as the edge of a Japanese blade, it would 
be nearly as brittle as glas.s, and quite useless for practical 

The outline of the yakiba, as wiU have been seen, is 
of many different forms, and these variations in outline 
form the characteristics of different schools and smiths. 
There are thirty-two recognised principal classes, with 
some further subdivisions. On Plate VIII, will be 
seen drawings of some of the more interesting ones, as 
well as some of the diflerent forms given to the yakiba 
at the hoshi, or head of the blade. The outlines at the 
hoshi do not necessarily correspond with the outline along 
the edge in these drawings, but have been shown in this 
way to economise space. The various outlines shown 
have their special names, and are : — 

No. 1. Suguha. — Straight yakiba. 

,,. 2. Dai Midare.- — Large irregular. 

„ 3. Yahazu. — The repeated forms here represent 
the notch called yahazu at the end of an arrow, 
into which the now string fits, 

„ 4. Uma no ha. — Horse's tooth. 

„ .'). Juzu. — The rosary. 

„ 6. Hyotan. — The gourd, i.e., the Japanese gourd, 
consisting of two roughly hemispherical parts 
connected by a waist. 

,, 7. Nokogiri.- — ^The saw. 

„ 8. Notare. — Undulating. 

„ 9. Notare-midare. — Undulating combined with 

,, 10. Saka ushi. — Literally, the " road-up-mountain- 
leg." If the illustration is turned round so 
that the "legs" are vertical, the edge will 
represent the slope of a steep mountain. 

The outlines shown at the hoshi have also their 
appropriate names, and are : — ■ 


T»t-V- t^::« ^-^-^ 

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UN .■■-■ .TY 1 



No. 1. Boshi sagaru. — Low boshi. 
„ 2. Yaki Uumete. — The hardened edge stopped 

„ 3, 4, and 5. Bdski maru, dai mam, and ko maru, 

or round, large round, and email round 


6. Boshi togrtre. — Pointed. 

7. Boshi midare. — Irregular. 

8. Kayen boshi. — Flame boshi. 

9. Jizo no boshi. — The head of Jizo. 
10. Kayeri Jukaku. — Deeply turned back. 

Of these No. 9 is the most interesting. The outline 
here is intended to represent the upper part of a human 
head seen in profile, and is called the h(»d of Jizo. He 
is the god whose special business is to look after children, 
and is one of the most beautiful conceptions in the' 
Japanese Pantheon. He is generally represented as a 
young and handsome man with a beautiful smile. This 
particular outline is characteristic of one smith only, 
namely, Sadamune, the favourite pupil of Masamune, 
already referred to. 

A careful study of the yakiba. and a knowledge of the 
characteristics of different smiths in this respect, are of 
great importance in forming an estimate of a blade and 
determining its age and maker if not signed or dated, or 
whether the name appearing on the tang is genuine. 

The blade had now to be ground, sharpened, and 
finished. For the first part of the operation a large 
stone of a special kind, called the to-ishi, is used. It is 
mounted on a board laid across a circular wooden vessel 
containing water to be applied to the stone as required. 
The sword was held in both hands with pieces of cloth, 
and rubbed backwards and forwards on the stone. The 
sword was forged by the smith to a very exact shape, 
and it was only necessary to remove a very thin layer of 
metal ; but with such a large aggregate surface, this 
naturally took a long time. This preliminary grinding 
left the blade quite true and smooth, but with unfinished 
surfacea To finish it a series of small stones of graduated 
size and fineness were used, but these were held in the 
hand, and the blade rubbed with them. Finally, the 



back and the flat surfaces running along each face" of the 
blade near the back were burnished with a migaki hari, 
or burnishing needle of steel. 

The blade is then minutely examined, for many things 
have now become visible which could not be seeu at an 
earlier stage. Besides the graining of the metal and the 
quality of the yakiba, these are more especially the nioi, 
the niyc, the ryo-no-me, &c. Fig. 3, PI. VII, will make 
these clearer. The specks or dots along the inner side 
of the yakibft represent the nioi. These appear as small 
and very brilliant specks of a whiter colour than the 
surrounding metal. The niye is tlie somewhat differently 
coloured baud running along the inner edge of the 
yakiba. In some blades this is very marked, in others 
it is scarcely visible, and in the same way the nioi may 
be almost entirely absent. The riio-no-mti, or dragon s 
eye, is the elliptical spot formed of a ring of hardened 
metal with a 8ofl«r centre. A long time la required for 
grinding and finishing, as will easily be realized on 
examining a good blade. To enable us to form some 
idei:. of what has to be done we will now consider the 
shape and section of a blade. Fig. 1, PI. IX, gives 
drawings of a blade with sections. The usual length 
of the blade without the tang is about 30 inches. Each 
face of the blade consists of three surfaces ; the face 
shown ou the drawing is called the omote, and the 
opposite one the ura. Of the three surfaces the broader 
one sloping down to the edge is slightly rounded or 
convex, and is called the jigane. Tbe narrower one, 
called the shinogi, is flat, and the portion at the head, 
called the boshi, is convex. The blade is curved and 
diminishes in width from butt to point. The three 
surfaces meet on lines of intersection as shown, and of 
these lines those dividing the shinogi from the jigane 
and boshi are curved, while that dividing the jigane and 
the boshi is straight, and is called the yokote. All these 
edges of intersection of the surfaces are perfectly sharp 
and true, and not rounded off in the least. The back 
may be of three forms as shown, called in order of 
numbering, Kahu mune, Maru mune, and Mitsu mune, 
that is, square or two-sided, round and three-sided back 
respectively. The shinogi on one face is not necessarily 






?♦ «■»( 







paraUel to that on the other, but they may be inclined 
to one another as in Drawing No. 3. Here the junction 
line between the Jigane and shinogi is the highest part 
of the face, and in this form the shinogi is technioilly 
said to be takaku, or high. This is characteristic of the 
blades made in the province of Bingo, and especially those 
of Mihara in that province. The shinogi may be narrow, 
wide, or medium, as in Drawings 4, 5, and 6, and the 
boshi may be short, medium, or long, as in 7, 8, and 9. 
All these variations are also characteristics. 

The blade is remHrlcnble for its three exactly similar 
curves, that of the edge, that dividing the shinogi from 
the jigane, &nd the back. Thesecurves are all absolutely 
true without the smallest variation from the true sweep. 
Also the line dividing the shinogi from the jigane is 
always at the same proportionate distance from the edge 
and back. The blade is, in fact, a true geometrical 
figure. To accomplish this result, keeping all the curves 
perfectly true, preserving a uniform, transverse convexity 
of the jigane, and a uniform sharpness from butt to 
point, is a marvellous technical feat. The curves are the 
arcs of circles, the average radius being about 8^ feet. 
There is an exception to this rule in the swords made in 
the province of Bizen — which province, by the way, 
produced by far the greatest number of smiths, and in 
this case the curves are made up of the arcs of two 
circles of different radii which become tangential ut 
a point 3 or 4 inches from the butt. This gives the 
Bizen blades their peculiar " cocked-over" appearance. 

Fig. 2, PI. IX, shows the characters used to denote 
the principal parts of the blade. Many of these have 
been already referred to, but we may note the nakago, 
or tang, the mekwji ana, or hole in the tang through 
which passes the mehn/i or peg for securing the handle 
or tsuka, the hissaki or point. The degree of curvature 
is called sort, and is the distance between a line drawn 
between the butt and point and the back at the centre 
of the blade. This will be seen in the right-hand tigure. 
Particular attention is to be given to the two portions of 
the yakiha indicated at the top and bottom of the blade 
on the right-hand drawing, each 3 or 4 inches long. 
That at the top is called the mono-uchi, and at this 






the blade. The distance of the centre of gravity from 
the butt averages 31 per cent, of the length of the 
blade, and its distance from the end of the tang averages 
44 per cent, of the total over all length of the sword. 
The distance of the centre of percussion from the 
mehugi ana, or hole in the tang, averages 63 per cent, of 
the distance of the tip of the blade from the same 

In all the swords I have measured these percentages 
*\o not vary more than about I \ per cent, either side of 
H mean ; this close agreement clearly shows that it is the 
result of design, not accident- 
There are a great number of points of which, it will 
have been noticed, nothing has been said owing to lack 
■of space. There are, for example, the characteristics of 
different schook and smiths, the proper method of making 
ii kantei, or critical examination of a blade, the indications 
from which many valuable deductions may be made, the 
differences between Koto and Shinto blades, and the 
estimation of the quality and probable date and style. 
Also there is the extremely interesting social aspect of 
the sword, but these must be left, since for their complete 
treatment not one paper, but several volumes, would be 

That greatly-prized possession — 

" The girded sword of Great Japan was regarded as of divine origin, 
<Icar to the General as the symbol of hie authority, cherished by the 
Samurai as almost a part of his own self, and oonsidered by the common 
people as their protector against violence. What wonder, then, that 
we find it referred to in glowing terms as ' the precious possession of 
lord and vassal from timoB older than the diiine period,' or as ' the 
li\-ing soul of the Samurai.' " ' 

Of exquisite beauty and perfectly adapted to its 
]>urpose, the theme of poets and the pride of warriors, 
we may not improperly regard it as truly symbolic of 
the brave, loyal, and chivalrous spirit of the nation that 
jiroduced it. 




Apparatus for skowing the centre of 

This apparatus consists of a wooden sword fixed in a stand in such 
a way that it is free to swing about the end of the tang. At the 
junction of the tang with the blade, a friction joint is provided, the 
pressure of which can be adjusted by a small bolt passing through it. 
The pressure is adjusted so that the friction at the joint will hold th© 
blade as shown in Fig. 1, Plate XI. A trigger-catch is fixed in the 
upright to hold the sword as shown. A block seen to the left hand 
side of the figure is provided with a leather top, on which the blade 
falls. On re&asing the ttigger the blade falls and the block being as 
shown in the above figure, ^e blade is deflected at the joint as shown in 
Fig. 2, Plate XI. Similarly if the block is placed near the upright 
aiid the blade falls as before, it will now be deflect«d at the joint as 
shown in Fig. 3, Plate XI. Since therefore the direction of deflection 
is reversed as the block is moved from left to right, it is clear that 
there must be some point between these two where no deflection will 
take place when the sword falls, (See Fig. 4, Plate XI.) This point 
is the centre of percussion. 

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B; the Biv. n. BEDFOKD PIU, M.A. 

It is generiilly admitted that the state of our know- 
ledge of this subject is unsatisfactory. It is incomplete 
and unconvincing, and this ia mainly due to two cuuees. 

1. Since the matter was for tiie first time brought 
before the Archaeological Institute in 1844 in Mr. Parker's 
now classical paper, no really systematic method of study 
has been followed out. It is no slur on Mr. Parkers 
ability to describe his pap6r as very fragmentary and. in 
some points, inaccurate, for it was obviously intended to 
be introductory. The fault has lain rather with the later 
writers on this subject. This subsequent literature is 
either the record of isolated examples noticed in the 
fuller descriptions of various churches, or consists of short 
papers of collected examples chosen for the most part to 
illustrate the writer's particular theory. There are no 
collected and illustrated notices of all the .examples to be 
found in the various counties(with certain slight exceptions 
to be noticed presently), and for this reason alone the 
subject has remained almost untouched, and kept in 
the background as a sort of puzzle to be brought out at 
Archaeological Meetings when nothing more serious is to 
be considered. In the last few years it has, however, 
been realised that system is as necessary in examining 
this subject as it is in any other. Consequently we have 
the benefit of Mr. R J. Hodgson's valuable paper con- 
tributed to the Archaeoloyia Aeliana in 1901, containinpra 
complete list of examples in the county of Durham. Mr. 
Johnston has worked out lists for Surrey and Sussex, 
Mr. Cranage is engaged on a Shropshire list, and Mr. 
Brereton has in MSS. an almost exhaustive list for North- 
ampton and Rutland. From this renewed study it 

' Bead before tlie Inrtitule, Harch let, 1906. 

C 2 

Dignzsd ::; 



appears that these windows are of much more common 
occurrence than was formerly supposed, and that their 
variety (in situation and character) is such as altogether 
to preclude the possibility of their explanation by one 
conmion theory. 

2. Hitherto the chances of reaching a sound conclusion 
have been hindered by over-indulgence of the imitative 
faculty. Every succeeding writer copied his predecessor 
and quoted his examples, without verifying the references. 
At the outset these windows were regarded as mysterious. 
Some were found to be blocked up, they must, therefore, 
have been superstitious ; they were in old churches, they 
must have been popish ; and then follow the string of 
absurdities which have been written, and which are still 
to be found in the guide-books used by tourists and in 
the instructions given by caretakers of churches and 
country parsons. The Englishman of fifty years ago 
and many to-day are quite satisfied if you refer anything 
ecclesiastical which they do not understand to the practice 
of confession or the crowds of wanderiug lepers. Both 
are of no account to-day, both are in common estimation 
popish, both are, therefore, the true key to anything 
that happened " before the Reformation." The times of 
this ignorance are now passing away ; we are far better 
equipped as to our knowledge of what the Church of 
England was and is, what it did and does, than were 
those who wrote fifty years ago ; and out of confusion 
there is slowly emerging order and sound knowledge. 
Mr, F. J. Hodgson has shown clearly the method we 
should follow in this study. I wish to acknowledge that 
his paper was the means of turning my attention to 
these windows and attempting to give to them a 
systematic examination. Though I must also admit that 
each successive reading added to an increasing personal 
knowledge of fresh examples has convinced me that his 
theory, which he claims to be of universal application, 
applies only within very narrow limits. 

I propose therefore m these notes, with the help of 
examples, to point out a method of systematic study, 
which appears to have the best chance of leading to 
assured results. Briefly it involves (1) the collection of 
examples and illustrations and the making of an exhaus 



tive catalogue, and (2) claasification based upon experiment 
under as few distinct headings as may be found possible. 
The difficulty that besets this method is personal. Every 
referencemuat be verified, and local information must never 
be relied upon ; there mu&t be a personal visit of the student 
or some one instructed by him and knowing his mind. 
The importance of this condition can at once be appreciated 
by a glance at the ilhistrations which usually accompany 
papers on this subject. They rarely, if ever, show the 
entire wall space in which the window occurs, st> that it 
is impossible to consider it in relation to the normal scheme 
of illumination or architectural fenestration. A picture 
of a window with as little margin round it as possible 
is absolutely useless for purposes of classification ; all 
illustrations should be in sets of two, three, or even four, 
thus : — (a) exterior view of whole wall surface ; (h) interior 
view of same ; (c) detail exterior of window to show 
peculiarities; (d) interior to show any unusual feature; 
(e) there must always be a measured plan if the window 
points directly from or to some internal feature. 

Another condition to be observed is the making of 
actual experiment wherever possible of the uses to which 
the window could be put ; in this way a great many 
picturesque explanations will be found to be impracticable ; 
here again it Is well not to rely upon second-hand informa-t 
tion. It is surprising to find how differently systematic 
instructions can be interpreted by different people. 

I should like to add that the examples I am about to 
quote have not been selected with any ulterior object. I 
have no particular theory of my own to advance, except 
that I consider that canon of criticism to apply which 
compels us to accept a simple and natural explanation in 
preference to a forced though possibly more picturesque or 
mysterious explanation. 

The examples I proceed to note are from pereonal 
observation with certain marked exceptions. 

Pbofosed Classification of Low-Side Openings. 

A. — III the Chancel. 

I. The sill of the westernmost window is dropped below 
the normal level of the window sills. 



(a) On the south side. 

(b) On both north and south sides. This is an arrange- 
ment of very frequent occurrence. It is most usual in 
the Early English period when the windows are simple 
narrow lancets. It is usually found on hoth north and 
south sides of the chancel. 

Examples : — 


Olymping, Sussex. 

Bracebridge, Lines. 

I have seen the same arrangement in the Decorated 

church at Charlton on Otmoor, Oxon., 
in the transitional to Perpendicular church at 

Merton, Oxon., 
and in the Perpendicular church at Coombe, Oxon. 

When this arrangement is seen from the inside it at 
once suggests the purpose of giving more light immediately 
above the shoulders of priest or clerk when reading their 
office from the accustomed place in the chancel. This 
explanation I have found to be borne out in practice by 
continued experiments, and must, I think, be decisively 
negatived betore it can be dismissed or displaced by any 
other theory. The occurrence oi this arrangement in 
successive building periods has not so far, to my know- 
ledge, been noticed ; I have only come across the examples 
quoted from Oxfordshire, but have little doubt that many 
more exist. I know of no examples of this type where 
indications of shutters exist either by way of hinges or 
rebate ; sometimes the internal siil is lowered to form a 

II. A separate window of a different charactef to the 
normal type of fenestration, and at a much lower level, 
is inserted near the angle of the wall separating nave 
and chancel : 

(a) associated with a priest's door ; 

(b) quite independent ; sometimes no priest's door 

This class includes the greater number of openings com- 
monly called " Low-side." Their situation is practically 
uniform, but their individual character is of great variety. 
Their purpose can only be e-stimated when the whole of the 


2. BBOIUWELL. <>. 


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original lighting scheme is considered, and in everj' case 
that I have examined I can come to no other conclusion 
than that given in explanatioQ of the previous class. 
They are so often so far removed from the other chancel 
windows that without them the west end of the chancel , 
would be quite dark. When associated with a priest's 
door they often are seen to have been inserted at one 
and the same time. These windows are sometimes found 
in pairs on the north and south sides of the chancel, 
though generally singly on the south side alone. 
Examples may be quoted as existing at : — 
Ringstead, Norfolk, 
Chalk, Kent, 

Twywell, Northants (north side), 
Blackbourton, Oxon., 
Siston, Lines. 

At Tats6eld, Surrey, is a very unusual form of 
window, a quatrefoil withm a square, in the 
usuiil place ; there is only one otiier window, a 
narrow lancet, in the south wall of the chanceL 
At Broadwell, Oxon., the low window is plain, 
round-headed, and indeterminate in date. The 
chancel is lighted by two fine deconited two- 
light windows, of which the easternmost is 
considerably lowered and the sill within used as 
a sedUe, the lowering being clearly intended to 
bring the light neaier to tlie seat. 
At Upton, Northants, there is a large window 
inserted over the low window, probably of a 
much later date ; but the low window has not 
been blocked. 
At Alvescot, Oxon., is a window on the north side 
of the chancel which lights a recess in the north 
wall, in which are two stone desks, at the 
proper height for use of a reader when sitting 
ana standing. To this class belong the 
circular window in the chancel at Coombes, 
Sussex, the window added above being 

In this class of windows each example must be 
examined independently and its possible use tested- by 



experiment before expressing an opinion ae to its 
original purpose. 

IIT. (a) A window is inserted below an existing- 
window very often below the string-course, sometimes 
of the same, sometimes of diiferent date. 

At Ofiham, Kent, and 
Warbleton, Sussex, 

are examples of the insertion at a later date of a larger 
window encroaching upon and partiall}' destroying an 
existing Early English lancet and having within, a 
common widely splayed opening and the sill arranged as- 
a seat. In these two cases (I have not seen others) I 
have no doubt myself that the purpose in view was the 
increase of light for the reader of the office. At Offhara 
the insertion is a two-light, and at Warbleton a single 
light of decorated date. 

Cowley, Oxon., is peculiar. The chancel is badly 
lighted with t\vo squn re-headed windows usually 
described as Early English. The window is. 
1 foot 9 inches wide and the sill about 
8 feet from the ground ; below is a similar 
type of window out smaller, 8 inches wide 
and 2 feet high ; within are hinges and a 
rebate at the sides only ; the sill has been filled 
up and its characttr destroyed in restoration. 
It would fulfil the purpose of a reader's light, 
but is certainly clumsy. 

Addington, Surrey, belougs to the same class — the 
little Norman window above being obviously 

North Hinksey, Oxon., is said to possess the only 
Norman example. It is certainly round-headeJ 
and oddly moulded. This window is particularly 
interesting, as the plain lancet above seems to- 
have superseded it, and quite answers the 
purpose for which, I believe, they were both 

(h) In another type a small window is found below the 
left-hand bottom comer of a large decorated window oi» 

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the south side of the chanceL They are usually of 
the same date as the window above, and have been very 
careftilly inserted. If the windows above were darkened 
with painted glass they would naturally aflbi-d needful 
hght to the reader ; and if shuttered and not glazed 
would supply needful ventilation. 
Examples are to be seen at : — 

Acle, Norfolk. 

Chaddesley-Corbett, Worcester. 
Wheathampstead, Herts. 
Thuming, Hunts. 
Dallington, Nortliants. 
Claybrook, Leicester. 

A most beautiful, and I believe unique, example is at 
Dersinghaut, Norfolk. 

IV. Existing windows are lowered, and the lower 
portion divided by a transom and wholly or in part 
provided with hing&s and rebate for shutters, and an 
iron grille where not originally glazed. 

(a) Single-lighfc windows as at: — 

Polebrook, Northants. 

Binsey, Oxon. 

Dariey Dale, Derbyshire. 

The transom divides the window almost in two. 
The rebates are external. At Binsey the upper and 
lower half are rebated and the hinges remain for the 
upper half There is no indication of an iron grille, and 
the glazing seems to have been original. 

A later type is seen at : — 

Alwalton, Hunts. 

Melton Constable, Norfolk. 

Both these examples occur in the usual position and 
would serve the same purpose as othei-s, as already 
explained. The shutteis here may hiive been a purely 
local convenience. Binsey is entirely blocked below the 
transom. Polebrooke is partially blocked. This type 'of 
window is not common. I have personally seen only 
these three. 



(0) Two or three- light windows 

(i) with one light only transomed, as at 

Warham, All Saints, Norfolk. 

Here it is the western light. I have unfortunately 
no note as to rebate. 

■ The famous example at Othery, Somerset, belongs 
to this class. 

(ii) with two lights transomed, as at : — 

Garsiogton, Oxon. 
Eynsford, Kent. 

These are both two-light windows and transomed at 
about the lower third. Parker states that rebates and 
hinges were to be seen at Garsington in 1844 ; they are 
now restored away. This feature is doubled at Gar- 
sington, being seen on either side of the chancel. 

(lii) A three-light, transomed throughout. 

Orton Longueville, Hunts. So far as I know, this is a 
soHtary example. 

(iv) A peculiar example is seen at Downton, Wilts. 
A large two-light window has its western half alone 
lowered and transomed ; this was evidently part of the 
original design, for a heavy string-course is continued 
round the bottom of the window so as to include the 
uneven sill. This type of window undoubtedly causes 
the greater part of the controversy as to the purpose of 
these windows, owing to the additional circumstances of 
shutters, gratings, and occasional absence of glazing, 
all of which should if possible be accounted tor. Absence 
of glazing accompanied by gratings and shutters seem 
most naturally to provide for ventilation. The open- 
ings of this kind are usually small, and would not 
provide much extra light when the size of the whole 
window is taken into account. It is no answer to this 
theory to say that there was no idea of ventilation in 
old days. 

V. various peculiar examples occur in the chancel of 
certain churches. They cannot be specially classified, 
and their possible use must be consideied independently in 
connection with local circumstances. I proceed to note a 









Limpsfield (Surrey). A very small window close to 
the ground at the extreme east end of the chancel ou the 
soutn side. Within it is enormoiijily splayed, evidently 
to admit light. Under present aixangemente, it lights the 
south end of the altar. 1 know ofno other similar example. 

Grafton Underwood (Northants). Similarly situated 
to the window at Limpsfield, but about 8 feet from 
ground. This is a small two-light opening, each light 
1^ inches across, and about 1 foot high. Its purpose 
may have been to allow the lights on the altar to oe seen 
from without at a distance, but I have not tested whether 
this would be possible. 

Weekley (Northants). The next parish has a precisely 
similar opening, but placed below the south wiudow of a 
chapel which has encroached along the ch'*ncel. I think 
it probable that it was originally placed in the chancel 
wall, and then moved outwards when the chapel was 
built. These two examples are. so fur as I can hear, 
solitary. There is a large window in a somewhat 
similar position at St. Giles, Northampton. 

Merton (Oxon.). The north wall of the chancel is 
windowless, except for a small opening about the centre, 
which looks directly upon the Easter Sepulchre placed 
(unusually) on the south side. 

Brook (Kent). An elliptical opening on the north side. 
The great outward splay in the exterior seems to 
connect it with a hermitage, such as may have existed at 
. St'iplehurst (Kent), and is still partly existing at Ongar, 
(Essex). At Lowick (Northants), and some other places, 
a squint opens into the sedile, again, in all probability 
from a hermitage, the traces of which to the south of 
the chancel can be seen at Lowick. At Bredon, 
Worcestershire, is a peculiar shuttered opening in 
the Piscina. There are doubtless many more peculiar 
openings which should be collected and arranged for 
examination and comparison. 

Claait B. Low windows in the Nave, or Aiden of the 

1. When found in the north or south wall of the nave, 
or nave aisles towards the east end, they may, as a rule. 

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without hesitation be associated with a subsidiary 
altar to which they were intended to give light. They 
occur not unfrequently in churches with nave and 
chaucel under one roof and with but slightly marked 
division between nave and chancel. These churches 
were usually poorly lighted, and the insertion of a screen 
blocked much light and necessitated a fresh opening- 
or openings when altars were placed to the west of the 

Examples may be seen at : — 

Burnham Deepdale, Norfolk. 
Dovercourt, and High Ongar, Esse.x. 
Acle, Norfolk. 
Swavesey, Oambs. 
Clapham, Sussex. 

At Cotterstock, Northaiits, the purpose is not so 
obvious, as the window is blocked, and the levels within 
and without are very different. For the same reason the 
two blocked windows at Caythorpe, Lines,, are at Srst 
eight puzzling. 

Tanfield, Yorks, is generally spoken of as unique in 
having a low-side window pierced through a buttress. 
The " buttress," however, is not a buttress at nil, but is 
an extension of the space within, in reality a small 
shallow chapel to make room for an altar to the south of 
the chancel arch, and the window, as in the other cases^ 
lights it. 

II. In other situations (in nave or aisles) these open- 
ings may sometimes be connected with some otiier object. 
For example, at Aldermaston, Berks, a low window to the 
west of the north door looks upon a wall-painting of 
St. Christopher in the south transept. 

At Great Addington, Northants, a window in the N. 
wall to the E. end of the N. aisle opens into a tomb recess 
and illuminates the face of the figure lying underneath. 

At Cogenhoe, Northants, is a peculiar example. The 
opening IS in the outer wall of the south aisle towards itsi 
west end ; it is very narrow and within is splayed, and 
looks a little like an aumbry. Across the aisle imriie- 
diately opposite is one of the piers of the south nave 
arcade, and on the pier facing west are the remains of a 








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bracket supported by an image at the same level as the 
sill of this wall opening. A lamp burning on the bracket 
would shine through the opening into the churchyard. 
It is difficult to avoid the suggestion that the pier 
bracket and the opening were intentionally connected. 
III. At the west end of nave or aisles. Instances of 
low windows in the west wall of various parts of a church 
;ire being multiplied. All t)ie examples that I have seen 
can be most easily explained as enabling someone from 
outside to see the light burning on one of the nave altars 
within. Such cases can be seen at : — 

Duston, Northants. 

Dartford, Kent. 

Guildford, Surrey (two openings). 

St. Martin's, Canterbury. 

All these are in the north aisle or on tlie north side 
of central west doorway, 

At Tansor, Nortbants, and Bracebridge, Lines., the 
openings are in the south aisle. Bracebridge has two 
openings, the lower oblong and grated, the upper a 

At Dover Castle the opening is to the south of the 
west door, and relates to the soldiers' altar on the south 
side of the nave, which could thus be overlooked from 
the guard -room in the Pharos. 

Examples are also quoted from : — 

Singleton and Buxted, Sussex, 
Stanford-le-Hope, Essex, 
Bozeat, Nortbants, 

but I have not seen them. 

At St. Michael's, St. Albans, the west wall of the 
south chapel is pierced with a round opening which now 
looks into the porch. I am doubtful whether to include 
the window in the south aisle of Aldwinkle St. Peters, 
Nortbants. It is a large window, but it is transomed 
and the lower part rebated as for a shutter. There is a 
range of low windows beneath the west window of the 
old schoolroom just outside the church at Higham 
Ferrers, Nortbants. 



High Side Windows. 

High side windows should perhaps be mentioned, as they 
may iu some way help to elucidate the purpose of some 
of the low windows. There is a remarkable example at 
Acton Burnell, Shropshire, where there are unmistakable 
maiks of a gallery having once been placed just below 
the window inside. Tansor, Northants, also has a high 
small window in the west wall of the north aisle. 

To sum up. It is clear that one explanation or 
purpose will not satisfy the different conditions of the 
known examples. In associating each window with its 
local surroundings the best chance of discovering its 
purpose would seem to lie. At the same time, constant 
personal experiment leads me more and more to the 
conclusion that a very large proportion of these windows 
were made to give more light to those within the church. 
at a time when the fenestration was found inadecjuate, or 
when the windows, otherwise large, were obscured by 
opaque or coloured glass. The objection to the somewhat 
favoured handbell theory seems to me this : that such a 
practice, if existent, would be universal, and the provision 
made for its observance would have been general instead 
of exceptional. I shall be very grateful for drawings or 
photographs with measurements (internal and external) 
of these windows from any part of Kngland to help 
towards the complete catalogue I am proposing. 

List of Illustrations. 


1. Merton, Oson. 

2. Broadwell, Oxon. 

3. Siston, Lines. 

4. Tatefield, Surrey. 

5. Addington, Surrey. 

6. Cowley, Oxon. 

(6) 7. Wheathampatead, Herts. 
Dersingham, Norfolk. 

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rw 3- 

I 11. 
f '^- 

L 15. 

Binsey, Oxoii. 

Garsineton, Oxon. 

Ortion LongueviUe, Hunts. 

Limpsfield, Surrey, Exterior. 
„ „ Interior. 

GraftoD Undenrood, Northants. 
Brook, Kent. 

I r 16. Caythorpe, Lines. 
" 't 17. TanBeld, Vorka. 

ild. Cofrenhoe, Northants, Exterior of S. aisle 
from H. 
19. Cogenhoe, Northants, Interior of S. tusle 
from N. 
20. Great Addington, Northants, N. aiale. 

„ III.— 21. Dartford, Kent, N.W. corner of N. aisle 
from W. 

Note. — All the illustrations which accompany this paper are by the 
author, with the exception of Fig. 1 1 (Orton LongueviUe), which is by 
Mr. R. P. Brereton. 

D1SCLI8.S10S ON THE Paper. 
Mr. Kevser said these windows were bo email that he could not 
believe they were put into particular positions to give light to anyone 
or anything inside. He agreed that in all probability the windows 
were put in to serve a great many purposes. His own view was that 
thew low side windows were made to enable people outside to see 
something within the church. In ninety-nine cases out of a hundred 
in looking through these windows a person would see the Holy Bood 
and the figure of our Lord hanging over the chancel arch or screen. 
He believed they were placed so as to enable lepers or excommunicated 
people to see into the church, for they were usually towards the figiu'e 
of our Lord over the main screen ; but he did not think they were 
exclusively used for that purpose ; for some were so placed that it 
seemed they were there to enable somebody outside to receive the Holy 
Sacrament and to communicate with the priest inside the church, and this 
was probably more particidarly their use where they found shutters 
and gratings. People might also look through to see the picture of St. 
Christopher. For instance, there was a window on the north side of 
the nave at Aldermaston, which no doubt was put there to fulfil 
requirements which they understood were earned out. The feeling 
which led to the painting of St. Christopher on the walls of their 
churches was that anyone looking at the picture of the Saint was safe 
from death on that particular day. He believed that was the object 
of this window at Aldermaston. But taking the ordinary class of 
these windows he should say, although they were adopted for many 



other purposes, yet as a rule they wore always placed in the position 
to give those outside the chance of seeing the Sgure of Christ. It was 
possible that where they found shutters these were for the protection 
of the church and were closed at night. The two examples which were 
shown at Tortington and St. Michael's, St. Albans, were not windows 
at all. They were simply recesses in which lamps might be placed, 
■and be doubted if they were even pierced right through the wall. The 
one at Cogenhoe might not, however, have fulfilled that purpose. It 
struck him that the old chancel screen might have been across the two 
arches and that there had been chapels at the east end. He was still of 
■opinion that the low side windows were for means of communion or to 
finable persons outside to see something or somebody inside the church, 
and the position they invariably occupied would, he thought, bear out 
Jiis view, although he was quite willing to accept the theory that they 
served other purposes and that they might have been put in to allow 
for communion between the priests and someone outsnle. He felt, 
however, that their main purpose was to enable an^bod^ who had no 
time to go into the church or did not want to go in to see this figure 
■under the chancel arch, and cross himself and pass on. 

Mr. St. John Hope said that this question of low side windows 
was one of those hardy perennials which came up from time to time 
and had never yet produced agreement amongst antiquarians. Mr. 
Pim had referred to the paper lately written liy Mr. Hodgson, which 
extended to almost 300 pages. In it Mr. Hodgson had set forth all 
the theories which had nitherto been put forward except one : that 
which Mr. Keyser bad put forward that day. He was sorry he could 
not accept the theory cJ Mr. Keyser, for he could see no particular 
reason why anyone should desire to look at the back of the Rood, 
which was all that could possibly be seen through a low side window. 
Mr. Hodgson, having dismissed all other theories, had arrived at a new 
one of his own, namely, that these windows were used for throwing a 
light towards the churchyard to drive away the devil, would take a 
long time to discuss all the arguments for or against the different 
theories that had been advanced, especially the one that these windows 
were used for confessions, about which he hiad openly fought several 
times with Mr. Johnston without being able to convince nim. The 
weak point of this theot? seemed to him to be the difficulty of 
believing that any person should want to make his confession kneeling 
in the most awkward place he could possibly find outside the church, 
when there was nothing to prevent him going inside and making his 
confession there in the usual way. If anyone who had any lingering 
Tiold on that theory would reflect how confessions were heard m the 
^fiddle Ages, he would find that they were made inside the church. 
There was one particular rule which was laid down again and again in 
Episcopal Constitutions, that when people went into the church for 
-confession, women were on no account to make theirconfcssions except 
"without the veil," that is outside the Lenten veil which hung 
between the chancel stalls and the altar. ■And they appointed that 
the priest should hear the confessions of women in a prominent place 
inside the church. He (Mr. Hope) thought that Mr. Pim was quite 
Tight in claiming more than one use for these windows. Some which 
he had showed mem seemed undoubtedly for the purpose of throwing 



the light upon the man aitting and saying his office in the chancel. He 
ihougbt if Mr, Pim looked into theory a little he woulil find the same 
«xplajuition held good in the case of such windows in the aisle, l^ecatuo 
the ends of thcaisles were frequently screened off to form little chapels.' 
The Institute had visited many churches where such screened ofT chapels 
remained at the ends of the aisles with seats, etc., and these windows 
would throw a light on those sitting in the seats. There was one 
ilifficulty to be got over both with regard to Mr. Pirn's theory of lighting 
and Mr. Hodgson's theory of the lights to scare the devil, and that was 
the existence and use of the shutter.' Mr. Hodgson had passed it over 
without explaining what was the common sense of putting a light on 
the window sill to be visible in the churchyard and then opening a 
Abutter so that the wind might blow it out. Even if the light were 
put into a lantern, why should there also be a wooden shutter t 
Surely if the window was to show a light, it would be snificient to 
glaze the bottom opening. The wooden shutter must have been for 
some other purpose, and certainly not for admitting light at all. One 
«t Mr. Ke3rser'8 suggestions was that these shuttered windows might 
have been for communicating people who were outside, but he (Mr, 
Hope) would like to know who would be the persons so communicated 
Anyone who was allowed to communicate at all would surely be 
communicated inside the church. And there still remained this great 
difficulty, that these windows were usually pierced in such thick 
walls that it would be impossible for the priest inside to administer the 
Sacrament to anyone outside. It seemed to him that the sacring bell 
theory had most in its favour, and it should not be forgotten that there 
was no necessity for the person ringing the bell to put his hand outside 
the window. He need only open the shutter, which anyone inside 
could easily do, and then ring the bell at the window, so carrying out 
the rule that the bell was to be rung so that the people in the fields 
might hear it and know the moment of the sacring. 

Mr. Keyser pointed out these windows often had an iron 
grille and sometimes might have been used for communicating 

Mr. HoPK said there wus no need, as he had just pointed out, for the 
person ringing the bell to put his hand outside the window ; moreover 
lepers were not permitted even to enter the churchyard. They would 
receive the sacrament in their own lazar houses, where they had their 
own chapels. 

The Chairmax said that before leaving the chair he would ask them 
to return thanks to Mr. Pim for his excellent paper. There were, 
however, some points in it on which he thought they would all agree, 
namely, that these windows were not arbitrary but were meant for some 
tiseful purpose. To suggest that they were all for the same purpose 
was more or less absurd, and he might add one other reason for the 
introduction of the windows in certain positions. It was whether the 
extreme difficulty in crossing the churchyards on winter nights and the 
impossibility of keeping a light in the recess might not have made it a 

' A Mparalo clus for 8uuh chup«l {i«p«r, where the purpose of tlie aliutter 

ttindoiri U nude in tlm piper. in ihis connection ie eiplaioed, Ihoufc'i 

' See poitacriptam to Mr. Uoilgson's notiamjopinioncDnoliuiTelf. — H.B.F. 



convenient thing to have a window through which the light inaide the 
church could fall on the pathe. 

Mr. P. M. Johnston said he had had the privilege o( doing work in 
connection with the restoration of two of the churches which had been 
very much dwelt upon in the arguments of the lecturer — those of 
Clapham and Tortington — and had been instrumental in opening a 
number of low-side windows, including that in the south aisle ofClaphaiD 
Church which had been left l)locked up at a previous restoration. At 
Clapham he found an external rebate for the shutter. It was not 
convenient to put a wooden shutter back, but he put a glazed wooden 
frame. At Tortington, where he recently worked, there was a niche in 
the north wall of what had been the south chapel — now the extreme 
south wall of the chancel. lie referred to the Burrell manuscripts in 
the British Museum, amongst which was a drawing of Tortington 
Church as it existed about 1780. From this drawing the arch 
originally opening into the destroyed southern chapel was then visible in 
the south wall, and that seemed to make it all the more certain that 
the recess to which Sir. Pirn had referred could not have been a lamp 
niche. The whole character of this recess and the rebate for the little 
^oor originally titted there pointed to its having been an ordinary 
aumbry, for use in the destroyed chapel. Mr. Pim mentioned Tatsfield 
Church as having a quatrefoil opening high up in the north wall of the 
chancel. That was not the case ; there was such an opening, but quite 
low down, in the normal position of a low-side window in the south 

Mr. Piu said he had not seen it, but a photograph had been sent 
him, and his informant put it on the north wall. 

Mr. Johnston said there was nothing like it in the north wall. He 
proceeded to say, that no doubt there were many of these low-side 
windows which had some obvious connection with tombs and with the 
people who used those tombs for some purpose. He instanced one in 
connection with the tomb of Bishop Walter de Merton, in the north 
choir transept of Rochester Cathedral datingfrom e. 1277. There they 
had a tomb and window of the same date, and he believed Mr. St. John 
Hope had brought forward the explanation that this window had to 
do with the masses said at or near the toml>. Then there were many 
low-side windows, some of which had two lights, one only of which 
was transonied. He would instance one example — that at Buriton, 
Hampshire. There was a peculiatity about this which emphasised the 
purpose for which this and similar sub-transom openings were formed 
as being something other than, lighting, because they were unlike the 
upper lights rebated for a shutter. He would turn to a piece of 
evidence which came into his hands comparatively recently by the 
kindness of the Rev. E. S. Uewiek, in the shape of an extract from a 
manuscript in the British Museum called "the Rule of the Nuns of 
St Saviour," which reads as follows: — "The Sisters shall make their 
confessions at windows or iron gratings intended for this purpose, 
because while they can be heard they can scarcely be seen ; but they 
shall communiciite at the windows where they can be heard and like- 
wise seen, through which it should be possible to freely adminiater 
to them both the Body of the Lord and the Chalice. Whatever 
hearing this might have on low-eide windows in parish churches, he 



did not know, but there they had a direction for confessions to be 
heard at "windows, or iron gratinffs," in exactly the aame way 
as might be done in the common typical low-side window, and these 
apertures in the wall of the nuna' church are expressly described as 
"intended for this purpose." In connection with this interesting 
extract he might say that Mr. A. P. Boyson had recently l>een to 
Denmark for the express purpose of examining the low-side windows 
which occurred there. He believed it was the only Continental country 
where they were found. Mr. Boyeon had carefuly examined and 
obtained photographs and meaauremente of a great many of these 
Openings, and he took the opportunity of calling upon some of the 
Unii-ersitj' authorities in various place8,and wherever there was anything 
like a chair for Archaeology' he raised a certain amount of interest by 
his enqairies. As a result he had received a great mass of information 
in the shape of more photographs and measurements. If other things 
permitted, Mr. Boyson and himself hopeii to go over to Denmark in the 
course of the summer and follow up the enquiry on the spot. In many 
places throughout England there was still to be seen a window similar 
in its characteristics to the low-side window in churches, which had not 
been alluded to, viz., the low shuttered and grated openings in 
anchorites' cells. They had abundant historical evidence in that 
connection that these must have been used for the purpose of 
confessions. It was well known that the anchorites were walled up for 
life in these little cells, and they had their food brought w them and 
taken through these grated opening. There were several historical 
instances of people (Richard II. and Henry V. amongst others) going to 
make confessions to anchorites. How could they do this T It was 
not to be supposed that they could get through the wall, and the only 
answer was that they must have had speech with the inmate of the 
cell through his narrow grated window. He contended that the idea 
of confession through a window was in this way familiar to people in 
general long before the average low-side window was made. At the 
same time he agreed that these openings were made for more than one 
purpose. All the facts connected with them proved this. Granted, 
fcowever, that there were half-a-dozen or a dozen uses for the openings, 
he did not see why the confessional theory should be scouted 

Mr. PiM asked if the Order referred to was the St. Saviour's Priory, 
South wark 1 

Mr. Johnston said he understood it was the general rule of the 

The Rev. E. S. Dewick said that the Order of St. Sariour was a 
curious one and contained both brothers and sisters. There was a 
wall between their twin churches, and the " window " was simply an 
opening through which the sisters might make their confessions ; such 
window had nothing to do with those which they had been 

The Rev. O. M. Livett said one example had not been discussed, 
namely, the opening in the north wall in Staplehurst Church, Kent, of 
which the blocking on the outside had been lately removed. Probably 
there were several instances of such openings. It was not an opening 
which had been put into a class by Mr. Pim, and there was a 



interesting inetance Btill at Brook Church, near Ashford. He hoped 
that when this subject was being thoroughly thrashed out these instancee 
would not be lost sight of. There was one other photograph of the 
sedilia at L.imberhiirst which appeared to l)c pierced with two 
quatrcfoils, Mr. I'im had spoken of a qiiatrefoil l>eing pierced in tho 
sediliu of St. Giles, Camberwell. He thought that was a class of 
opening which had probably something to do with this question, and 
the consideration of which must be included in this subject. 

In reply to Mr. Pirn, Mr. Livettsaid he should think that the outside 
work at Stapleburst Church was the original stone. 

Mr. PiM said there was another example pierced through an aumbry, 
or Easter sepulchre, at Cogenhoe. There he had no doubt it was 
a round hole cut for a Hue-pipe, because the aumbry here would 
not have an opening to look through at such a height. At 
.Stnplchurst ho thought there was a real opening and that a 
stone with a round hole was put in at a later date to accom- 
modate a flue. He understood that one of the ilifTercnt reasons 
for excluding lepers from participation in the Communion either 
through these or other windows was that when a person was declared 
a leper the Burial Service was read over him and he was considered 
dead. He did not know whether that was correct ; if it was the case, 
then one need not trouble about the leper theory. He did not refer to 
the anchorites' cells as being in rather a difterent class, because it was 
obvious that the windows in anchorite cells were there to allow of 
commimication taking place with the occupant. He could not help 
thinking that, in the case of the windows transomctl at one corner, the 
shutter was provided for the purpose of ventilation. 

Mr. Keyser seemed to think that ho (Mr. Pim) took the view that every 
window, in whatever part of the church ic might be, was intended to 
light somebody who was in a comer and enable him to road. He felt 
inclined to apply that theory only to the first class he had described, 
many of which occurred where there were no surrounding windows at all. 
Those at the west end were clearly intended for the purpose of allowing 
persons to look into the church to see the light burning on the altar 
and HO forth. Indeed, they had a case recorded at Dover Castle, and 
it was quite reasonable to suppose that these windows were placed in 
<lif)'erent parts of the church to allow those outside to sec if the lights were 
burning as they passed by. There was a window at Kiistington that 
had obviously to do with the priests' door, in juxtaposition to which it 
stood. He had seen it stated that many of these cases occurred in 
churches which were known to have been appropriated to the monastic 
houses. He believed that at one time more than half the parish . 
churches were appropriated to some monastery or other, and it was not 
imlikely that the monk would stand in tho same place to say the office 
in the church as that to which ho were accustomed in the monastery, and 
that there would be a window in the wall in order to give him more 
light. He did not desire in any degree to claim for his theory universal 
application, because he knew it was not possible to applv it ; but he felt 
they had definite evidence which would apply to a large number of 
examples which was simple, and which did not strain one's knowledge 
nf practice either past or present, and at the same time it was a 
reasonable explanation for the use of windows in a particular position. 






Of the four gi-eat divisioria of the prehistoric period in 
Britain, the " tirift," or palaeolithic age, is practically 
the earliest, when man simply chipped his implements 
into form, without subsequently gnndinj^ them ; and, 
inhabiting the h:inks of the rivers, lived a precariout* 
hand-to-mouth existence, ofltimes contesting for his 
veiy life with large and fierce beasts, and enduring 
probably great extremes of heat and cold. 

The relics of these early settlers consist merely oi 
their tools and weapons, lying mixed up with the debris 
on the banks of some ancient rivers, such as the Thames, 
whose gravel deposits, some of which are 60 ieet above 
the present level, contain many relics of this far-ofi' time. 
The mere fact nf the promiscuous finding (»f these 
remains is strongly against any proof as to where tlie 
larger settlements of this period were. Stoke Newington 
Common was one, no doubt, but no other spot, nearer 
the City, has afforded reasonable evidence of its being 
a palaeolithic station. 

Stray flakes and implements certainly occur, but the 
nature of the deposit, which appears to be merely a 
sweeping-up of the accumulated refuse from the original 
banks of the stream, by the sudden floods of the period, 
is against any settlement being still in ^itu. In fiict, 
the probability is that the site of the City ot London 
was covered by the liver during this period, and that 
the higher gravels at Acton, Wandsworth (East and 
West Hill, where I have found numbers of implements), 
Erith, and other places were the river margins of tliat 
time, the lower gravel being deposited later (by the 

' Rrtul bpforc the Inslitute April 5tli, 1903. 



erosion of the river) from the breaking up and re-dis- 
tributing of portions of the higher terraces ; thus account- 
ing for the worn appearance of the few worked flints 
found near the City. 

The length of time occupied by this transformation of 
the river levels, and the precise time of the next period 
of prehistoric man, is a very vexed question. Being 
distuictly a geological one, it probably will never be 
definitely settled. 

The decided difference shown by the next phase of 
cidture (the polished Stone period), the beautiful work- 
manship of the implements themselves, the skilful 
grinding and polishing of the axes, the delicate chipping 
shown upon the knives and arrow-heads, all evince a 
distinct and decided advance in the civilisation of the 
human race. 

Unfortunately the City proper has yielded so very- 
few specimens of this period, that I cannot trace that it 
was largely inhabited during this time. 

The British Museum has a polished flint hatchet or 
adze from Great Winchester Street ; Mr. Hilton Price a 
celt from Southwark ; I also know of another polished 
axe from London "Wall, and the Guildhall Museum 
possesses a polished flint chisel from Holborn, and a 
scraper irom London Wall ; but flakes and minor imple- 
ments do not appear to have been foimd, and as these, 
by their frequent occurrence, mark an inhabited site, it 
is impossible to say at present that the City had a settle- 
ment in Neolithic times. 

The next period, the Bronze Age, is also represented 
in the City by very few specimens, and there appears to 
be no connection between the spots where they were 
found. A perforated stone hammer from Queen Victoria 
Street ; a bronze spear butt from Fetter Lane ; two horn 
weapons, one from London Wall and one from Monkwell 
Street ; a bronze socketed celt said to have been foimd in 
Austin Friars, now in the Guildhall Museum, I think, 
sum up the total. 

Of course both during the previous period and the 
Bronze Age, the river banks were inhabited by these 
folk, for numbers of their implements have been found 
within the London reaches of the Thames ; but as I am 



dealing with the City only, it is not in order to mention 
them here as proofs of rny case. 

We are now coming more to my suhiect proper, where 
I can show evidence of a veritable settlement within the 
City boundary. 

The n^xt period, the early Iron Ajjr or late Celtic epoch, 
although probably lasting only a short time (from about 
100 B,c. to 100 A.D.), marks, as I trust I shall now show, 
the first settlement of any importance in the City ; and as 
I have had the opportunity of examining practically 
every specimen in the Guildhall Museum, and many 
others fiom the Thames having passed through my hands, 
I think I may venture to trespass on your patience to 
the extent, at least, of telling you what I think upon 
this matter. 

For some years it has been known that iron was in use 
in Britain prior to the Roman invasion, and that with 
the introduction of that metal a knowledge of enamelling 
was also developed by the Brilons ; but it was not con- 
sidered that ancient London was inhabited to any extent 
by these people. 

Numbers of London relics, although exciting Fome 
doubt as to their being of true Roman workmanship, 
were classed as such by many of the last generation of 
antiquaries, but owing to the discovery, by Mr. Aithur 
Evans, of a cemetery of the late Celtic people at Avlea- 
ford, ill Kent, we are now able to speak with more 
certainty as to the age of other specimens, which, 
although exciting curiosity and admiration as to their 
artistic skill and difference from Roman objects, yet were 
not considered to be more than perhaps local or accidental 
vagaries of Roman art. 

Mr. Evans first, I believe, called attention to most of 
the Celtic specimens in the Guildhall Museum, and 
since I have been there I have found others, in all 
quite enough to make a respectable group of themselves. 

Although lasting such a sboit period, yet the art of 
this race in Britain rose to a high degree of development, 
differing, in fact, from anything even of this same period 
found abroad. 

Their bronze articles especially show great artistic 
motive, unsurpassed in Roman times ; in fact, it is thought 



that Greek ai-t influenced their designs, for the cult caw 
be traced from ancient Etruria, spreading other parts of 
Europe to Britain ; settlements nave been found at La 
T^ne in Switzerland, Hallstadt in Austria, and the 
British Museum has recently acquired a magnificent 
collection irom early Gaul. 

The art reaciied here probably through trade channels, 
but it shows the state of culture to which the inhabi- 
tants of Britain had attained, when it is found that they 
even improved on the original and developed designs of 
their own. 

A comparison of the Celtic specimens and the Roman, 
antiquities will show at once the great difference iu 
the sources from which they individually came, and it 
also sh;iws that wlien the Roman power was once 
established here, the native art gradually died out. 

Of course transitional forms occur, showing that it 
was not the policy of the Romans to depopulate a 
conquered country (for they were excellent colonists) but 
to gradually assimilate the new province to themselves 
and so, by causing them toydopt Romsin usages, to make 
them not only lioman in name but in manners and 

It would be well perhaps after this, I feel somewhat 
long, preamble to give a short account of the relics found 
in tlie City and its environs. 

The bronze work of course stands pre-eminent- 
Some of it is pierced with a sort of openwork, forming a 
spir?»l pattern ; other specimens are covered with devices 
of hatched lines, dots, circles, herring-bone pattern and 
other like ornaments, but the most typical are those 
objects having a pattern deeply incised in theip, the 
hollows Having then been filled with enamels of vaiious 
colours, some of which are stdl bright and beautiful at 
the present day. 

The enamelling art is mentioned by Philostratus, a 
Greek in the ("ourt of Julia Domina, wlio says that 
" the ljarb:irians who live by the ocean pour these colours, 
on heatod brass, and that i hey adhere, become as hard 
as stone and preserve the de-igns that are made in 

Sir A. W. Franks con-idered that this statement 



referred to the excellence of the British enamel work, 
which excited intei'est eveu in Roman times. 

The fibula, being an uiticle of dress, occurs most 
frequently, its distincLive ieature being tliat the whole 
of it, bow, spiral, and pin, is made in one piece, and 
not like the Roman examples, where the pin is fastened 
to the body of the ohjeut by a rivet as in our modern 

One enamelled fibula in the Guildhall Museum, found 
in Tokenhouse Yard, is in the form of a hippocamp, or 
sea horse. Another from London Wall lias a bod}' of 
circular form with enamelled cruciform design. Othei* 
have a loop at the base fur the attacliment of a chani ; 
one with a portion of chain remaining is in tlie Museum. 

There are also several in the same colleciion having a 
triangular plate at the end where the point of the pin 
catches into the slot; this plate is pierced with holes of 
various forms. In s(ime infatances there are only two 
holes divided by a thin wavy uregular strip of bronze. 
Iron fibulae also occur, but naturally rarely ; however, 
these lew instances will show that there is a high degree 
of artistic skill evinced even :n the humble dressfistener 
of the Late Celtic times. 

I ought perhaps to liave cnmnienced with a description 
of the implements of war, but 1 took tlie fibulae first, as 
they are mure important in point of numljer. 

The magnificent shi' Ids of the period are unfortunately 
extremely rare. One found in the liiver Witham is 
perhaps the finest known ; it measures 3 feet 8^ inches 
long, IS of oval foim with raised ornaments composed of 
spirals, bosses, and other characteristic designs, covered 
in vaiious places with the beautiful enamel before 
referred to. 

This shield also has tiaces of an ornament, now 
missing, in the form of a pig ; as this same device occui-s. 
frequently on British coins of this same general period, 
it may have been a religi-iiis symbol, or h:ul some tribal 
significance. Perhaps pigs were to these per;}ile what 
cattle (peciinia) were to the early Komaas, a form of 

A smaller shield was found in the River Thame'^of the 
same oval form decorated simply with raised spirals and 



scrolls ; this also had beeu enamelled in places, traces of 
which still remain. 

The swords have blades of iron, with bronze sheaths 
and mountings; the blades taper towards the sharpened 
point, usually of such thin iron, unfortunately, that little 
remains of the blades at the present day. 

The ornaments on the sheaths are veiy varied and 
artistic ; engraved pattenis of lozenge and other forms, 
raised bosses with spirals, enamel inlay, and even gold 
fittings, show that these barbarians, as the Romans 
esteemed them, had a high artistic feeling. 

The Guildhall Museum possesses the blade of a sword 
of the ordinary form 24 inches long, found in Fenchurch 

The daggers show the same design in form of blade, 
and the decoration of the hUts iind sheatha The 
Museum has a curious specimen, apparently of cast-iron, 
which had two horned projections at the pommel end ; 
the central tang is also prolonged, having on one side the 
representation of a human face, which appears to have 
been tooled over after casting; the other end of the grip has 
two similar homed projections, from between which springs 
the bltide. It measures ISf inches, and was found at 
Southwark ; a somewhat similar weapon, the hilt of cast 
bronze, was found in the Kiver Witbam. 

The javelin and spear heads are of ordinary form, with 
tubular sockets. Tliere is one, however, in the Museum, 
found at Lambeth, which is extrenjely like the ordinary 
leaf-shaped bronze spear-heads found so often in the 
Thames. It is 10^ inches long, 3 inches wide, has a 
large hollow socket ^ inch in diameter, which extends 
nearly to the point of tlie weapon, and which forms a 
sfcrong mid-rib down the centre of the blade ; the inside 
is made unusually hollow, thus strengthening its similitude 
to the earlier bronze spear-head from which there is 
strong reason to believe it was modelled. 

Spear-heads have also been found in Lombard Street, 
London Wall, Finsbuiy, Moorfields, Tooley Street, 
Minories, Tokenhouse Yard and other places. Com- 
paratively few arrowheads have been discovered of this 
period. One with leaf-shaped blade and tang for 
insertion into the socket of the shaft was found at Three 



Cranes Wharf, and three or four of bone of ^tried form 
from the Thames are in the Museum. 

The knives are usually provided with a tang and have 
curved blades, tapering to a sharp point, but tliere are 
two or three with solid handles, having a loop for 
suspension to the girdle ; there is also one specimen with 
a portion of the wooden handle still remaining — this was 
found in London Wall. Two or three specimens in the 
museum are very similar to those found by Gsneral Pitt 
Rivers, at Mount Caburn, near Lewes; which was a Late 
Celtic Camp. 

The sickles are also of iron, with an open ' socket, 
which has a hole for the rivet through the centre. 

There is a curious sickle-like weapon in the Museum 
with the curved outer edge sharp : it is a heavy im 
plement, and has a thick blade measuring 7J inches long 
in the blade ; the socket is open and pierced for two rivets ; 
it was found iii the Thames. Similar objects occurred at 
Mount Caburn Camp. 

The Museum also possesses a portion of a gorget of 
bronze ornamented with rows of embossed dots, lines and 
herring-bone pattern, but unfortunately, as in the case of 
so many of the objecis in the Museinn, there is no 
locality given ; I have, however, every reason to believe 
that it was found In London. 

There is a splendid example of a spoon in the same 
collection, the bowl measuring 4^ inches, is of ordinary 
form, hammered into shape; the handle, springing from 
the bowl in a V shape, terminates at esich end in a 
closely bent spiral. It was found at Holborn Viaduct. 

There are several bronze bowls and paterae in the 
Museum, but again no locality is assigned to any of 

A. torque of thin bronze was found at Moorfields in 
1873, and a British coin of the same metal, of the 
uninscribed type found in London Wall, has been recently 
actjuired. Hair pins of various forms were found at the 

' Since writing this T liaie discoTered eiample of a IiokI. aho of hsmmered 

a bronie basic of iiammered woric, tlie bronze, uitli flat bruHd rim deDtaini at 

inaide devorated nitli incised wary intervi>l». witli straight Kitles and a ringed 

omamcnl, found in Farringdun Street, baee. Tliieapcciin^nnieaeureB 14)) inchea 

froiE. th( Ifa^lieiT Collection, aod the in di-iniete>. i» 4^ inclies high, and was 

MaeeimiaaareceDtlj acquired a splendid found in Chcap»i<le. 




same spot, and also at Smithfield, and a razor of bronze 
of extremely unusual form unearthed in Tokenhouse 
Yard. This last specimen is interesting ; it has a spud- 
shaped blade, sharpened at the broad edge and for a 
short distance up the sides. The handle shaft of the 
object is slender and nearly cylindrical, terminating in a 
flattened conical knob. It measures 5^ Indies in length. 

The horn and bone implements are, as might be 
expected, fairly numerous ; in fact, as so few undoubted 
Bronze Age specimens occur in the City limits, it is 
probable that most of the hone needlea, pins, and 
other like objects which so frequently occur in London, 
especially in London Wall, are of the Laie Celtic period. 

An implement in the collection, from London Wall, of 
stag's horn, has two prongs. The biisal end is cut away, 
and a square hole bored in the remaining portion, 
presumably for the insertion of a handle. 

The Romans had a fork of this form in iron fcr rakinj; 
up or loosening the soil, and called by them t-o^jrcu/jw, 
literally a roebuck or chamois. May not the lioman,<> 
have copied their implement from this earlier tool ? 

Two bone clubs made (i-om the leg bones uf some large 
animal and sraoothtned over a greater portion of their 
surface, were also found in the same place as the bora 

There is a curious object in the Museum found in 
Moorfields, consisting of a stag's liorn carefully polished 
and trimmed to a seven-sided section, anl ornamented 
along each face with a double ring and dot pattern 
incised in the bom ; possibly this was some sort of 
cei-emonial baton or staff. 

There is also an ear-pick of bone, the bead of which 
terminates in a figure of a sea-horse. There are three 
or four objects in the collection having this unusual 
ornament, which was probably symbolic and typical of 
this period. 

The pottery is usually of a thin blackish ware, turned 
on the wheel and hand-polished. Soine specimens occur 
which are hand-made and rougher Jn finir-h than the 
more typical specimens. 

It has sti'uck me while working at this subject that 
some of the Upchurch ware, flgured in Jewitt's and other 



books on the subject, in very Late Celtic in appearance, 
and as Aylesford is not far from Upcburch, I believe it is 
jmssible that the latter plac« was a pottery of the Late 
<!eltic period, afterwards occupied by the Romana It 
woulil explain a puzzling bmiich of the question ; certainly 
two or three of the vases from Upchureh in Jewitt s 
Ceramic Art, cited as Roman, are repref-ented in the 
<.(uildhall Museum by some now classed as Late Celtic. 
Again, some of the vases found by Mr. Arthur Evans at 
Aylesford have the narrow tubular base so usual in the 
Castor and Cologne ware. I fear we have mucli to learn 
about Roman pottery in Britain ere the matter can be 
N.nistactorily decided ; at any rate it helps to bear out the 
opinion that the extinction and alsorption of the Late 
Celtic race was gradual and that its culture left strong 
traces in the later art of the Romans. 

Pile dwellings naturally excite strong interest, being 
iissociated so much with prehistoric times, and one instinc- 
tively looks to see if any pites are found in the City. 
I find mention of tliem in Queen Victoria Street, 
Houthwark, Lothbury, and last but not least in London 

We also see that Southwark, Lothbury, and London 
Wall, or at least the two latter, have produced the greater 
number of our smaller Late Celtic ohjects. 

The late General Pitt Rivers, who first called attention 
to these stnictures in London Wall, considered them to 
lie Roman, 'but I trust I shall be forgiven for contesting 
the statement of so learned and cautious an archaeologist, 

1>leading in extenuation that some of his Woodcuts and 
iotherley specimens are certainly of I^ate Celtic type, 
although he calls the settlements Romano-British, 

London Wall was marshland for ages, and why should 
not the earlier Celts, who in many parts of Europe dwelt 
in pile dwellings, be the first to erect these structures in 
the City of London ? There are traces of an undoubted 
settlement of this period in the Thames at Hammersmith, 
from which I have had many interesting specimens, the 
most noteworthy being a bronze bowl, a horn cheek piece 
tor a bit, pottery (more or less broken), and, most im- 
)>ortaut of all, a stag's bom pick with its original wooden 



Now to marshal my somewhat disjointed array of 

I contend that the City proper was originally a 
settlement of Late Celtic folk, afterwards occupied and 
extended by the Romans. 

Mr, J. E. Price in his book of the ArUiqidties of tlie 
Roman period found on the site of the National Safe 
Deposit Company's premises (in which book, by-the-by, 
he figures two or three Celtic specimens) says, " that the 
earlier Roman London was situated on the ground covered 
by the Dowgate, Wallbrook, Broad Street, Bishopsgate 
Without, Vintry, Cordwainers, Cheap and Coleman 
Street Wards." 

Now on referring to the map in Mr. Price's book and 
also to the Guildhall Museum Catalogue, it will be noticed 
that, including the western portion of Langboume Ward, 
this district includes the spots where most of the Late 
Celtic objects were found. It will also be seen that the 
London Wall site, prolmbly the most important both from 
its position and the number uf inhaoitants (the last 
evinced by the quantity of relics found there), has yielded 
specimens of all the classes of objects of this period. 
Fibulae, pins in bronze and bone, iron implements, bone 
spear-heads, pottery, and a British coin are all known to 
have been discovered there and are now in the Guildhall 

Coming to the head of the outlet of the Wallbrook, 
Bucklersbury, Barge Yard, and Wallbniok itself are also 
fairly prolific spots, most of the various types occurring 

It will also be noted that although pottery has been 
found within the i-adius, yet that no undoubted cinerary 
urns occur within my limits, but that they occur 
regularly outside them ; this goes, I contend, to support 
my proposition. 

We know that the Romans buried their dead outside 
their city boundaries, and there is no reason to doubt that 
the early Iron people did the same ; in fact, their 
civilisation makes it more than probable that they did 
so. Cinerary nrns and other funereal objects have been 
found at St. Martin's-le-Grand and Holborn. 

One found in St. Martin's-le-Grand contained, beside.s 



the calcined bones, a bone pin, fragmeDts of glass, 
vitreous matter, globular beads, and a curious bone object 
in the form of a flattened oval, with a pattern of dots 
six and five respectively on the broad faces, and four and 
three on two of the narrow sides ; these objects had all 
passed through the fire. 

There are naturally a few exceptions to my rule ; 
specimens of this penod have been found at other places 
outside the radius, but not in any conaiderable numbere. 
This may simply mark small settlements outside the main 
one, and not in any way affect my special argument that 
the City proper, within the limits mentioned above,' was 
the site of an original Late Celtic settlement, and that 
the Romans, after the subjugation of the people, occupied 
this spot in the first place, and finally, as was their 
custom, assimilated them and Romanised their 
characteristic art, ultimately extending their area to 
the more generally known confines of the Roman 

> See also map in Mr. Frioe'a book and the Quildhall Hiueam Catalogiu^. 

ly Google 

Bj Thb Viscocst DILLON, Hos. M.A. Oioir., P.S.A. 

The rack aud its use have been so much mifiunderstood 
that a few words on the subject may be of interest to 
some. Unlike the axe, the gallows and tlie wheel, it 
was never an instrument of punishment. There was no 
disgrace attaching to those who had been subject to its 
action, and indeed a man might live many yeai's after an 
interview with the dreadful engine. Sir Thomas Wyatt 
mentions that his father. Sir Henry, had at one time been 
laid on the rack by Richard III. Such an experience 
was certainly not one to boast of, but there was no dis- 
honour. In fact it was not applied, after a man had been 
found guilty of a charge, except when it was used to 
induce him to reveal the names of his associates. It was 
a practical, though not always in its results correct, 
method of enquiry, and unlike the punishments men- 
tioned above, it might be employed more than once on 
the same individual. 

Putting a man on the rack appears to have only beeu 
done in pursuance of orders from the Sovereign or his 
Privy Council, whom we must consider as responsible 
for the use of this procedure. The Privy Council 
directed letters to the lieutenant of the Tower, and " to 
all others that from time to time shall have the ordering 
of the Tower and the prisoners there," and the lieutenant 
would then proceed to assist the Commissioners or other 
persons appointed by the Privy Council in the examin- 
ation of suspected persons, by employing the rack to 
extract information or confession. An expression that 
often occurs in these letters from the Privy Council is 
" for the better 'boulting out of the truth.'" In this 
expre.ssion we have a reference to " bolting cloths," then, 
as now, used by millers for sifting or dressing the flour 

' Bead at th« meeting of the ItutitntejUttySrd, ICOu. 



from the meal. The bolter is the machinery of a flour- 
mill, 8st in motion for separating^ tlie flour from the bran. 
Thus in Henry V., III., 3, is" So tinely bolted didst thou 
seem," :uid a^aiii in Henri/ IV., III., 'I, Falstiiff says he 
jpive his shirts " to bakers' wives to make bolters of." 

Shakespeare, of course, has many references to the raok, 
iis in Mean are Jbr Mcus^irc. '■ To the rack with him ; we'll 
touse yon joint by joint but we will know his purpose. . 
The Duke dare no more stretch this finger of mine than 
he dare rack his own." In the Mn^xhant of Venice, III., 
2, " I live upon the rack " ; and in Winter';! Tale the rack 
is associate J with the wheel. "What, wheels? racks? 
fires 'f " In Henry VI. , II,, 5., Mortimer in the Tower 
says, " Even like a man new haled from the rack, so fare 
my limbs with long imprisonment." In Henry VI., III., 
1, we have " say he be taken racked and tortured." 

This last word reminds us that what was in the 
sixteenth century dignified with the name of torture 
was not always what we should now-a-days understand 
by the term. A good instance of this occurs in a letter 
from the Privy Council in 1580, who in their instructions 
to the Justices suggest tliiit the names of some missing 
malefactors might l)e extracted from the prisoner "by 
some slight kind of torture such as may not touch the 
loss of any limb (as by whipping)," 

Burghley, in a paper dated 1583 and published in 
Vol. I. of Lord Somers' Tracts, states that Campion the 
Jesuit was never so racked but that he was presently able 
to walk and to write, and that there was a perpetual care 
had, and the Queen's servants, the warders whose oflice 
and act it was to handle the rack ever by those that 
attended the examinations, "specially charged to use it in 
as charitable manner as such a thing might be," 

This may sound sarcastic, but ideas of what constitutes 
cruelty were not the same in those days as now. It was 
as late as 1653 that Walton, in his Compleat Angler, 
describing how to bait a hook for pike with a live frc^, 
finishes liis gruesome directions with "and in so doing 
use him as though you loved him, that is, harm him as 
little as you may possibly that he may live the longer." 

Another instance of the exaggeration in which writers 
of old days indulged may be seen in the reference to the 




liorrors of the " dongeon amongst the ivitts" to which 
Tlii>mas Sherwood was to be moved by order of the 
Council, "should he not willingly confess such things as 
shall be demaniled of hiru," This dungeon is described 
by bome of the Catholic writers of the period as a cell 
below high-water mark and totallv dark. Into it were 
driven by a rising tide innumerable rats which infested 
the muddy banks of the river. Now the lowest part of 
the Tower, or rather of the White Tower, is some eleven 
feet above the wharf and consequently al>ove high wuter. 
The sub-crypt of St. John's chapel certainly is dark, but it 
is diy and roomy. Rats could never get nito it but by 
the door, and would hardly be likely to go willingly. 

In Jacob's Law Dictionari/ rack is thus defined : — 

" An engine to extort confession from delinquents : and 
John Holland, Earl of Huntingdon, and created by 
Henry VI., Duke of Exeter, and Uonstable of the Tower 
of London, he and William de la Pole, Duke of Suttblk, 
and others intending to have introduced the Civil law.s 
in this kingdom, for a beginning brought into the Tower 
the rack or brake, allowed in many ciises by the Civil 
law." 3 Inst. 35. 

In a letter dated March 17th, 15'^5, from Thomas 
Cromwell to Henry VIII. about an Irish monk accused 
of treason, be concludes, " I am advised to-morrow ones 
to go to the Tower and see him set in the bracks and by 
torment compelled to confess the truth," 

Sympson had been on the rack three times in one day. 

He said he was, " sett in a rack of iron the space ot 
three hours as I judge. Another day they did grmd my 
two fore-fingers together and put an emace arrow 
betwixt them and drew it though so fast that the blood 
followed and the arrowe brake, then they racked me 

Holinshed, p. 670, "the said Hawkins was cast into 
the Tower and at length brought to the brake called 
the Duke of Excester's daughter by means of which 
pain he showed many things." 

' A rrpresentation of the Eack end rock, and in a (imaUer cut he ia noii in 

alsu of SkeTington'i O-jves, is to be seen llie ({vvcs. The nick lia« two roUera 

UQ p. SS>f9 oi Fuie'ii Aclt and Atonti- worked likea nimllass bj a man at rsvli 

menU, edition 15TU. end oE the frame. There ia do third 

Cuthbert Sympaon ia ibown on the roller. 



Biackstone's Commentaries, Vol. IV., Chiip. xxv, pp. 
320-321, mentions the rack as an engine of State, not of 

See Coke's Instil., 35. Barrington, 69, 3S5. Fuller's 
Worthies, p. 317. 

A portion of this hracks, at one time remaining in the 
Tower, is engraved in the notes to Isaac Reed's edition of 
iShukespeare, Vol. VI., p. 231. 

A part of this horrid engine still remuins in the 
Tower, and the following Ih the figure of it. It consists 
of a strong iron frame ahout 6 feet long, with three rollers 
wood within it. The middle one of these, whicli has 
iron teeth at each end, is governed by two stops of iron, 
and was probably that part of the machine which 
suspended the powers of the rest, when the unhappy 
sufferer was sufficiently strained hy the oords, etc., to begin 

According to the sketch of the. rack frame which 
existed in the Tower at least as late as 1799, the 
working of it would appear to have been by the cords 
attached to the hands and feet being passed over the 
two end rollers, and then made fust to and wound 
round the centre roller, which would of course only 
require one man to work it. The so-called teeth were 
evidently a sort of cog-wheel, Ti'hich was stopped when 
desired by means of pawls which would not allow the 
roller to run back. The Fose's Momiments representation 
was probably from hearsay, and does not seem as simple 
as the system suggested above. In the Foxe woodcut 
there is no idea of keeping up the tension except by 
both men holding the handspikes or levers, whereas 
with the centre i-oUer and pawls the victim might be 
stretched, and then the executioners could withdi-aw if 
the enquiry was to he secret, being recalled when 
necessary either to increase the tension or to release the 
person under examination. 

The execution by being dragged in pieces by four 
horses, which appeurs to have been practised in Paris on 
some occasions, was quite a different affair from the rack, 
and was indeed a punishment, not an enquiry. Hogen- 
berg has left us an engraving, after Perissim and Tortorel, 
of this class of execution as carried out in 1564 at Paris 

Dignz.d by Google 


Oil Poltrot de M^re, a Huguenot fanatic who shot the 
Duke of GuiBe. In the engraving we see, as in later 
examples, that four horses were unequal to the task of 
tearing the body, and in Poltrot's case an executioner 
with a heavy curved sword is seen about to dismember 
the victim while stretched by the four horses with riders. 
Ladies are seen at the windows of the large building in 
front of which the execution takes place. 

It would be interesting to know what is the average 
tensile strength of the human body; in fact, to know to 
'.vbat extent a man could be racked before the arms or 
legs were torn asunder. When Eavaillac was in 1610 
torn in pieces for the murder of Henry IV. of France, a 
German print of the execution shows a man with a 
large chopper assisting the four horses, who, in spite of 
the beatings which excited the pity of the ladies present 
for " les poves ^evaux," failed to dismember the assassin 
in an hour. When on the 28th March, 1757, Robert 
Damiens suffered a similar punishment for his attempt 
on the life of Louis XV., we are told that the execution 
lusted an hour and a half. For fifty minutes the horses 
puUed without being able to rend tne victim's body ; the 
joints were then cut, and he actually lived after the 
thighs had been separated from the body, and it was not 
until they were cutting his arms that the wretched man 

An engraving by Hans Burgkmair entitled "Die 
Folter " [the torture] shows us, in company with the 
strappado and a brazen bull, a man who is undergoing 
what much resembles the torture of the rack. The head 
of the victim is kept in place by two short posts, one on 
either side of his neck, while a rope attached to his feet 
is wound round a horizontal windlass by a man exerting 
all his force. The man who is suffering the strappado is 
evidently making a confession, which is being taken down 
by two wiiters, so we may suppose that the man who is 
being stretched is undergoing this torture for similar 
purposes, not necessarily as a capital punishment. 

As to the matter of women being racked, Burnet in his 
History of the Hcformation declares that in a MS. journal 
of transactions in the Tower written by Anthony Anthony, 
it is distinctly stated that Mrs. Anne Askew in 1546 was 



racked, to extort from her a confeseion as to whether she 
had received any encouracement from any in the Court, 
particularly from the Ducness of Suffolk, the Countess of 
Hertford, and some other ladies. The ra-ck, however, 
failed to elicit this, Foxe in his Acts and Monuments adds 
that the Lord Chancellor, lieing impatient at her refusal, 
bade the Lieutenant of the Tower to stretch her more, 
and on his refusal threw off his own gown, and setting to 
work, almost tore her body asunder. Burnet, however, 
AAvs that though he repeats it, this he cannot credit, and 
adds thjit Foxe does not give his authority for the horrible 
tale. Here we see that the rack was applied to get 
information about others than the victim, who a little 
&tler was can-ied to the stake In SmitbBeld, the effects of 
the racking not permitting her to walk. 

The death on August 23rd, 1628, at Portsmouth, of the 
Duke of Buckingham, by the tenpenny knife of John 
Felton, however dreadful it may have seemed at the time 
or since, had one good result, for it elicited an opinion as 
to the legality of the rack in England. When the Earl 
of Dorset told the murderer, " Mr. Felton, it is the king's 
pleasure you should be put to torture to make you confess 
your complices, and therefore prepare yourself for the 
rack," Felton replied, " I do not believe, my lord, that it is 
the king's pleasure, for he is a just and a gracious piince, 
and will not have his subjects to he tortured against law, I 
do afHim again upon ray salvation that my purpose was 
known to no man living, and more than I have said before 
I cannot. But it it be His Majesty's pleasure I am 
ready to suffer whatsoever His Majesty will have inflicted 
Hpon me. Yet this. I must tell you by the way, that if 
I be put upon the i-ack, I will accuse you, my Lord of 
Dorset, and none but yourself" 

This reply, coupled with the unpopularity of Bucking- doubt contributed very largely to the abandonment 
in this instance of the hitherto customary procedure for 
making a prisuner implicate other persons innocent or 
not, in his actions or words. Kelton was not racked on 
Nov. 14th, 1628,' but on Nov. 27tb was arraigned 

' All llir judgee beins uicmbled iti the land bctortured bj the rack, " forno 

8erj«nt'a Inn, fleet street, agreed in such puniahment is iinowQ or allowed 

ri>nethstFelt4iDfnra«a«matingl.heUiike bv uur liw." — SmiiBsrli, 
.of BuekiDghoa, mi;; ht not bj the law of 



and condemned at the King's Beuch Bar, there being- 
no jury preseut, hebeiiis; convicted by his own confession. 
The sentence wjis that he should be banged, referring the 
time and place to the king's pleasure. On November 28th, 
Felton was hsinged at Tyburn and his body taken a few 
days afterwards in a coach to Portsmouth and hanged in 
chains some two miles this side of the town. 

Mr. David Jardiiie in his Use of Torture in the 
Cnminal Lata, which is the beet if not only authority on 
the subject, points out that the use of torture was a part 
of the prerofrative of the Sovereign, and was thus 
independent of and over-ridin;j: the law of England. 
This is well seen in the case of Felton, when Charles, in 
referring to the Judges the question of Felton's being put 
to the torture to compel him to denounce his accom- 
plices, says, " if the torture might be applied by law he 
would not use his prerogatire in this point." The 
learned author points out the Judges thus appealed to 
must have well known the distinction drawn between 
the law and the king's prerogative, for several of them 
bad previous to being raised to the Bench been employed 
in the examination of suspected persons on the rack. 

It is curious thiit in spite of this apparent discrediting 
of the rack, Charles I. so late as May 21st, 1040, gavt; 
directions to Sir William Balfour, Lieutenant of the 
'lower of London, to cause one John Archer to be shown 
the rack, and in the event of bis not answering certain 
questions to he put to him by Sir Ralph Whitfield and 
Sir Robert Heath, that Archer should be racked " as in 
your and their discretions shall he thought fit." 

Tlie Jesuit Tanner in his Societas Europaea, p.l2, thus 
describes it : 

There is also the torture of the rack or nag. Four beams ar© 
fastened on the ground in a. square. The head and feet of the victim 
are extended to the two ends of this square frame, in which are fixed 
wooden rollers, round which are wound ropes as for lifting weights or 
drawing buckets in a well. The victim is laid out in the space between 
the beams, the hands fastened to the upper, the feet to the lower roller. 
The hands and feet are tie<l to the rollers by ropes or the separate 
lingers and toes by small cords, so that the person to be wrung lies 
witb parted feet and hands. Then two l.ormentors at the head and as 
many at the feet by taming the rollers with great force raise the body 
of the victim from the ground and so open the joints of the limbs 
with terrible pain and a steady convulsion of the nerves, and possible 



laceralion of the interior of the body, bo that somotimas, as ii 
of CuiDpion, by this moat violent atretchiiig the 
Itotiy increased the space rf a palm or 4 inches. 

The chief English sort of torture next after the rack is called the 
Scavenger's Daughter, in all respects the oppotiite of the rack, for 
while that drags apart the jointa by the feet and hands tied, this, on 
the contrary, constricts and binds as into a ball. This hohls the body 
in a threefold manner, the lower legs pressed to the thighs, the thighs 
to the belly, and thus both are lacked with two iron crnnipa which are 
pressed by the tormentors' force against each other into a circular 
form, the body of the victim is almost broken by this compression. 
Bythe cruel torture, more dreadful and complute than the rack, by the 
cruelty of which the whole Wly is so l)ont that with some the blood 
exiidesfrom the tips of their hands anci feet, with others the box of the 
chest being burst, a quantity of bloo<l is expelled from the mouth and 
nostrils." p. 18 Ibid. 

The Scavenger's Daughter, or, as Foxe calls it, 
" Skevington's Gyves,"' is shown in Foxe's Moiatmenis 
iu the Bame woodcut as that in which Sympson is 
exhibited on the rack. In tliis representtition Sympsou 
is seen in the Scavenger's Daughter, and the drawing 
correwponds with an in.stniment so-called in the Tower 
of London at present. Unfortunately, however, for the 
credit of the Tower example, 1 find thut it was purchased 
in 1826 at a bale of armour and other things, by a Mr. 
• Deney, of Craven Street, Strand ; so that if it be actually 
the instrument so-called, there Is a breach of continuity iu 
its history. 

The rack hfis been in many minds solely associated 
with religious persecution ; but such is not the cabe. We 
find it employed in cases of burglary, false coining, murder 
and other offences. 

In 1550, one Fowkes was ordered to be examined and 
put in fear of toi-ment. 

In 1551, one Reede, suspected of a robbery, was 
ordered to be sent to London to be put to torment. 

In November of the same year. Sir Arthur Dareie, and 
all others that from time to time shall have the ordering 
of the Tower, and the prisoners there, '* are ordered to 
assist certain Commissioners (who had been appointed 

570, (>. !0:i3, Bl. ].')83, p. ia43, Ed. 15M, Foic> 



to examine certain prisoners) in putting the prisoneis to 
such tortures as they shall think expedient," 

In November, 1552. Little Euse, the sub-crypt of St. 
John's Chapel in the Tower, is mentioned as the place 
where one Hollnnd is to be put to the torment. 

In 151i3, Wiilson and Warren, suspected of a heinous 
murder, are to be put to the tortures. 

In the same year Man and Gardener are to be put to 
the torture " if need shall be, to the example of otners." 
This was about a theft of hawks. 

In January, 1555, the Mayor of Bristol is directed for 
'■ the better trial and boultmg out of such as be privy 
to some false coining to put the parties to the rack, if he 
shall 80 think good by bis discretion." Evidently there 
was a provincial rack, and the Mayor was trusted to use 

it properly. 
In June, 1 5 

1555, certain "obstinate persons as will not 
otherwise confess points wherein they are touched," were 
to be put to the tortures. 

In December of the same year Nicholas Curat, vehem- 
ently suspected of a robbery, and one Hugh of Warwick, 
suspected of horse-stealing, weie to be put to the rack 
and to some pain " in default of confession." 

Februaiy, 1556. Barton and Tailor are to be examined 
by Sir Henry Bedingtield, who shall " put them upon the 
torture and pain them " if they will not confess. 

In April, 1556, are certam notes for the Queen's 
Majesty s Counsel, for the examination of Stanton. These 
were the points on which he was, if silent, to be racked. 

In June, Richard Guyll was to be examined and put 
to the tortures if his examiners " think it so convenient." 

In July, one Sillvester Taverner, a prisoner at the 
convict prison, Westminster, on suspicion of having 
embezzled some of the Queen's Plate, " shall if he will 
not say where the plate is, be put to such tortures as be 
convenient. ' 

In July, 1557, the Constable of the Tower is to examine 
and put to the torture if thought good, such persons as 
Sir Edward Warner shall inform him of. 

In the same year Lord St. John is ordered by the 
Council to examine those he had taken about a riot and 
robbery of Jane Stourton, " and if they shall not he 


THE kac;k. 57 

jilain therein to put them to some tortures for tiie better 
trying out of the truth." 

In October one Newpt'i-t is to be put to the torture " if 
convenient." This lettei" was addretHed to the Master of 
the Horse. 

In May, 1558, French was to lie examined and brought 
to the torture and to be put in fear thereof and also to 
the pain of the same, if bin examiners think go«id. 

In March, I5j9, Pitt and Nicholls, who had robbed a 
widow, were ordered to be biought to tlie rack and " to 
feel the smart thereof if they persi-st in denial." 

In 1565 Nicholas Hethe is to l>e proceeded " somewhat 
sharply withal" to declare the full truth why he wau- 
dereth abroad, and if he will not be plain Lord Scroope 
is to use "some kind of torture to him, so it be without 
any great b(»dily hurt." 

In Decpmber, 1566, Clem Fisher, a prisoner in the 
Tower, had been examined with " some fear of torture," 
hut as " he is not minded to be plain he is now to feel 
-some touch of the nick, for tlie better Iwtulting out and 
opening of that which is requisite to he known, ' 

In Novemlter, 1569, Thomas Wood, a priest, was 
examined in the Tower. 

In June, 1570, Thomas Andrews, a jn-isoner in the 
Marshalsea on suspicion of a murder in Somersetshire, 
was ordered to be taken to the Tower and " oH'ered the 
torture of the rack," being taken back to the Marshalsea 
after confession. 

A few days later John Felton, charged with possession 
of the printed bull and also speech with the Spanish 
Ambassador, having denied all this, was sent to the 
Tower and " taken to the place of torture and so put in 
fear thereof" If he l>e obstinate then he is to be laid 
upon it {the rack) to the end he may feel such smart and 
pains as shall be thought convenient. 

In April, 1571, Charles Baillv, who was suspected of 
connection with the Bisho]> of Ross' conspiracy, was 
<lirected to be examined by the Lieutenant of the Tower, 
iind Edward Tremayne, who, if nece-ssary, should put him 
lo the torture. Three days later a letter froni the Bishop 
to Bailly tells him that though " they will make him 
afraid, he shall not be racked any more." 



Tn June the Queen, under signet, directed 8ir Thomas 
Smyth and Dr. Wylson to proceed to the further ex- 
amination of Barker and Bmnister, two of the Duke of 
Norfolk's men,' and if they do not seem to confess plainly 
they are to be brouf^ht to the rack to he moved with 
fear thereof, and if that does not move them, they are to 
be put on the rack and to find the taste of it. 

In July, 1572, Lord Hunsdon writes from Berwick to 
Burghley : " yesterday one came into this town as a 
Scotchman desirous to pass into England. I found him 
to he an Enghshman, . . I am now going to examine 
him further as I yet want that I look for ; and therefore 
pray if I find cause, that I may either bring him or put 
him to the rack a little, for he is able to say much. His 
name is William Car brother toRol)ett ami George Gar." 
Three days later Hunsdon asks again, " tell me what to 
do with him. or whether to hang him here ? " 

April, 1573, the Lieutenant of the Tower was directed 
to receive George Bi-own and to assist the Master of the 
Rolls and Justices Southwood and Manwood by bringing 
and putting him to the rack. 

Next year Humphry Nedeham, accused of forgery, was 
directed to be examined as to his abettors. A |iostscript 
mentions that he is to be brought to the rack without 
stretching his bodv. 

In 1575 is another nf "the fear of the rack'" 
being used: a bookbinder named Cicking, lately committed 
to the Tower, was to be sent to Sir Francis Walsinghara, 
and while with him, the Lieutenant of the Tower was 
to send for him and to put him in fear of the rack. 

In November, 1577, Thomas Sherwood, lately com- 
mitted for hearing a mass, and examined about it and 
other matters by the Recorder fif London, had not given 
satisfactory answen-i, so he was sent to the Tower with 
orders that it' he did not confess, the Lieutenant of the 
Tower was to put him "in the dongeon amongst the 
ratts." This evidently did not draw forth a confession, 
so in December there was a letter to the Lieutenant 
"to assaie him at the rack." This also failed, so he was 
sent to his county (Somersetshire) ond there executed. 

' The Duke of Norfolk vus beheaded June 2nd, 1571!. 



In November, 1578, one Harding, who " caiibv nomilde 
course of examination be brought to confess," is ordered 
to be brought to the rack, and John Sanford, equally 
unaffected by mild proceeding, is to be put to the rack, to 
wrest from him the truth of such tilings as he is 
suspected to be priw to. 

In June, l.^>79, Wintei-shall and H. Mellerslie, under 
the suspicion of the murder of R. Mellei-she. and his son 
were ordered to he separately examined, and the 
confession was to be induced " by show of some terror 
by committing to the dongeons and like places of 
obscurity in the Tower, and a short proportion of diet. 
If these failed they should Ije terrified bv a sight of the 

In December, 1580, Sir Drew Drury's house, called 
Catton, having been liurglaristd by two men with the 
help of a boy named Humfrey, and this List having been 
captured, it is suggested that he might be induced to 
disclose the names of the men " by some slight kind 
of torture, such as may not touch the loss of any limb 
(as by whipping)." 

On Christmas Eve of this year, a letter from the 
Council directed the Lieutenant of the Tower, Sir 
George Gary, Mr. Attorney and Mr. Solicitor-General, 
to proceed with the examination of Harte and Bongrave 
committed to the Mai-shalsea, and Pascal, imprisoned in 
the Compter of the Poultry, with regard to various 
writings intended to pervert and seclnce Her Majesty's 
subjects. The prisouera are to be })rought to the Tower, 
confined in separate prisons, and then if they refuse to 
answer, be brought to the torture. 

In March, 1581, the Lieutenant of the Tower, Sir 
Owen Hopton, reports to Sir Francis Walsingham, that 
Thomas Myagh, who had been examined in the Tower, 
had told " nothing but an improl>able tnle." The 
Lieutenant had foi-borne to put him in " Skevington's 
Yrons " because " that manner of dealing with him 
required the presence and aid of one of the jailors all the 
time he shall be in those irons," and as the examination 
was to be " with secrecy," that would not do. As the 
man is still resolute, the Lieuteniint asks if he may use 
some "sharper tortvire. " Evidently he was told to try 



ntjain, for a week later he writes that lie iiad made two 
trials of him hy the torture oC " Skeviiigton's Yrons, and 
with so much sharpness as was in our judjjement, for the 
man and his cause, convenient." On July 30th, the 
^^■ouncil direct that the Tower authorities "'shall deale 
with him with the rack In such sort as they shall see 

An inscription on stone now in the Bejiuchamp Tower 
lecords the prisoner's feelings and probahly serves as his 
only epitaph : 

Thomaa Miagh which liethe here alone 
That fayiic wold from hcus begon. 
By torture straiinge mi troiith was tryetl, 
Yet of my liberty denied. 

15)<I, Thomae Myagh. 

In May, 1581, Alexander Bryant, a seminary priest 
or Jesuit, who had been arrested on matters of high 
treason, was ordered to be examined by the Lieutenant 
of the Tower and others. He was first punished by 
starvation for a couple of days, and remaining still 
obstinate, the Council directed that he should first be 
offered the torture in the Tower, ond if he stiil refuse to 
confess, he was to be "put unto the torture and by the 
pain and terror of the same to ring from him the 
knowledge of such tbinj^s as shall appertain." 

In July of this year occurred the case of Campion the 
Jesuit. The Council's letter directs that he shall first 
iie sworn on a St. Jerome Bible, " for avoiding of loss of 
time and idso of further cavil to' be by him made here- 
after." If he wilfully deny the ttuth, then he is to be 
dealt with by the rack. In August another letter 
includes Philby, Jacob Peter?, and Forde, who with 
Campion refuse to confess whether they have said any 
masses or no, whom tliey have confessed and where 
Parsons and other priests be. In case they refuse, they 
Nhall be put in fear of the torture ; as there aie strong 
presumptioiLs that Paine is guilty, they are to proceed tfl 
the torture with him. Again, on October 29th, is another 
letter directing the racking of Campion and Fourd. 

In the State Papers Domestic of Elizabeth CXLIX,, 
Gl, under date 1381, June, is a copy of a letter written 
hy a priest in the Tower to the Catholics in other prisons 


complaining of the cruelty and severity with which they 
were treated and noting the application of torture to 
Sherwin, Kirby and others. 

In March, of 1 582, Thomafi Norton, writing " from my 
home prison in the Guildhall," to Sir Francis Waleing- 
ham, mentions a seditious book in which he, Norton, is. 
described as the " Rack-master who vaunted to have 
pulled one Briant, a good foot longer than God made 
him." Norton justifies his proceedings in racking Campion 
and Briant in pursuance of orders in conjunction with 
others. In April of this year one Thomas Alfield, a. 
aeminaiy priest, was to he examined at the Tower and it' 
not willing " to discover many matters touching the 
practices and proceedings of Jesuits and seminary 
priests within the realm," he was to be put to the rack. 

In November, 1583, Sir Francis Walaingham sends 
two lettere to Thos. Wylkes desiring him to bring Norton 
with him to the Tower to-morrow morning early, to he 

f)resent at the racking of Francis Throckmorton. A 
etter dated December 20th, from F. V. to Charles Paget, 
mentions that Throckmorton, who was to be arraigned 
to-morrow, had been often racked but confessed nothing. 
In the State Papers Domestic of Elizabeth under date 
February 12th, 1584, are notes to be propounded to the 
Lords in Commission for the examining of such prisoners, 
as are committed to the Tower. Shelley and Pierpoint 
to be put to the rack. In March are noted the saying.^ 
of John Dover and Robert Hartley that if Sir "William 
Heydon and Mr. John Stubbes could get hold of Brian 
Lacy they would rack him till the nails should start 
from his fingers. 

In April, 158fi, the torture of the rack is directed to be 
inflicted on William Wakeman alias Davies, a notorious- 
felon and now prisoner in the Tower, to make him confess 
such misdemeanours and robberies as he is to be charged 
withal and is privy to others. 

Next month Beaumont, alias Browne, and Pynder,a?u*.« 
Pudsey are associated with Wakeman in being put to- 
torture and then seut to Newgate for trial. Beaumont, 
who had robbed Ijady Cheek, was to be tried " in some- 
reasonable manner by tortiye on the rack," to make liim 
further disclose. 


6-2 THE RACK. 

In December, 1 086, in a list of some tea persons charged 
with treasons against Her Majesty and the realm, ^ho if 
the truth miglit not " by convenient means be gotten 
of them " were to be put to the torture of the rack in such 
sort as to the discretions of Sir Owen Hopton, the Master 
of St. Katherine's, Her Mfijesty's Attorney and Solicitor, 
the clerk of the Crown, and Thomas Owen should seem 

In April, 1587, the Lieutenant of the Tower is directed 
to use to Andrews van Metter, a Dutchman, suspected of 
having been sent over to kill the Queen's Majesty, the 
accustomed torture of the rack as oftentimes a-s ihey 
should see cause. 

In January, 1587, "certaine bad persons who were to 
be charged ivith disobedience, misbehaviour, and practices 
against the state and present government," and had 
already been examined by Richard Young but without 
result, were to be carried to the Tower, " kept close 
prisoners, and put to the rack to compel them to utter 
their uttermost knowledge iu all mattere they dealt in or 
are privy unto." 

In 15^8, Mr. Younge and others were put to the rack 
and torture in Jauuaiy. 

In September, Trystram Winslade, taken out of a 
Spanish ship, was to be examined on the rack, the 
authorities using torture to him at their pleasure. 

The rack was also used in Lisbon, where in April of 
this year the master, the pilot and one of the crow of a 
ship belonging to James Tirrell, had been racked to force 
them to give information. 

In September, 1588, in the Carew MSS. is a commis- 
sion from Lord Deputy Fitzwilham to Sir Thomas Norris 
and others, authorizing them to make enquiry by all 
good mean as to wrecks and shipping which by any 
means may be recovered and to apprehend and execute 
all Spaniards of what quality soever. Torture might be 
used in prosecuting this enquiry. Tliis of course referred 
to the ships and crews of the Spanish Armada cast away 
on the Irish coast. We know there was no rack in 
Ireland, so the torture wciuld be somewhat amateurish. 

In April, 1594, we read again of this, one of the many 
instances of " injustice to Ireland," for Sir Geoffrey Fenton, 



wTiting to Burghley, says : " Many offwnders in high crimes 
pass away witiiout full examiiirttioii for want of a rack in 
Ireland." It is difficult to decide what is meant by 
"pass away": was it by ffiglit or death? There i« 
another instance of regret thut a certain bishop would 
not be put on the rack, but toiinting the prelate's feet 
before a hot tire is reconnnended as a substitute for the 
more conventional mode of inducing him to speak. 

If in the sixteenth century the absence of a rack in 
Ireland was regretted by in authority, in the next 
centurv the deticiency was currected, for in 1641, 
according to Caite's Life of the- Earl (>/' Orniondc, 
Hugh McMahon was put to the rack on March 22nd, 
and Sir John Read on tlie next day. A little later, 
Patrick Bannewell of Kilbrew, one of the most cim- 
aiderable gentlemen of the Pale, and aged sixty-six, was 
also put to the rack. Many other gentlemen at this 
period were also racked to supply information to support 
charges of hostile action against them. 

In Memoranda on the State of Affairs in Ireland 
under the date April 19th, lyOO, is "Torture and racks 
would be appointed for apprehended traitors whereby 
many matters and hidden treap(»ns would he brouglit to 
light which for want thereof are smothered." 

In June, 1589, a goldsmith accused of robbing Lord 
Willoughby, was ordered to be removed to Bridewell and 
there to have the " torture of the house." This, it seems, 
was the manacles. 

In August the Master of the Wardrobe, the Master 
of St. Katherine's, and the Recorder were <lirected to 
examine at Bridewell John H.xlgekys and other printers 
for printing a book by Martin Marprelate, and in case of 
their not confessing to put tliem to the torture and 
then remove them to the Tower. 

In April, 1590, some men concerned in a robbery at 
Wickham, Kent, were to be removed from Newgate to 
Bridewell, where, if they did not confess, tliey were to bt; 

fmt to the rack and torture of the maiiaclts. This 
ooks as if there was a rack at Bridewell. 

In July, 1591, William Hacket, a most pestiferous and 
seditious fellow at Bridewell, was, if he answered not the 
interrogations put to him by Her Majesty's learned 



Counsel, to be put to the manacles aud sucli other torture 
as maybe thought good. 

In October, Eustace Whyte, a seminary priest, and 
Brian Lassy, a disperser and distributer of letters to 
Papists, are on examination to be put to the manacles 
and such other tortures as are used in Bridewell. 

Two days later, Thomas Clynton, a prisoner in the 
Fleete, is to be moved to Bridewell and there put to the 
manacles and such tortures as is there used to make him 

In June, 1592, Owen Edmuudes, an Irishman, is to be 
removed from the Matshalsea to Bridewell, and if he 
obstinately refuse, put to the torture accustomed in such 
cases until he shall be conformable. 

In February, 159.3, Unstone and Bagsbaw, prisoners 
in the Gatehouse, Westminster, and Ashe in Newgate, 
were to be removed to Bridewell, and in case of need to 
be punished with the torture as in sucli cases is 

In April of this year, in connection with the exhibition 
of a notice calculated to cause a rising of tbe apprentices 
of London against the aliens there, and so to renew the 
troubles of Evil May-day of 1517, the Lord Mayor is 
directed to e-xamine a prisoner already apprehended, and 
if he X'efuse to name his abettors, to punish him with 
torture used iu like cases, and so compel him to reveal 
the names. 

In May, 1593, certain " lewd and mutinous libels 
having been put up in the city, and especially on the wall 
of the Dutch churchyard, the city authorities are to arrest 
such persons as may be suspected of the outrage, and if 
they refuse to confess the truth they are to be put to the 
torture in Bridewell." 

In November, 1595, one Gabriel Colford, accused of 
bringing seditious hooks from beyond sea, and Thomas 
Fonlkes, who had harboured him, were examined by the 
Lord Chief Justice but without results. They are 
therefore to be put to the torture of the manacles in 
Bridewell to force them " to utter the uttermost of their 
knowledge in those things that shall concern their dutie 
and allegiance." 

The next year, 159(5, in J.inuary, a Frenchman had been 



apprehended with letters and memorials concerning 
matters of great suspicion secretly sewn up in his doublet. 
He, refusing to disclose his business, is to be tried by the 
ordinary torture in Bridewell. 

In February, Humfrey Hodges, who had already 
disclosed some matters, but not aU, about a sum of £100 
hidden in the ground, is sent to Bridewell to be put to 
the manacles there, constraining him, etc. 

In November, 1596, some 80 Egyptians (gipsies) who 
had been arrested in Northamptonshire were committed to 
prison and their ringleaders sent to Bridewell and put to 
the manacles to make them reveal their " lewd behaviour, 
practises and ringleaders. Next month it was certain 
lewd persons in Oxfordshire, who, for an attempted 
insurrection, had been committed to various prisons in 
London, and were now to be sent to Bridewell and put 
to the manacles and torture to compel them to utter the 
whole truth of their mischievoiis devices and purposes." 

In February, 1597, Wm. Tomson, a very lewd and 
dangerous person, who had attempted to burn Her 
Majesty's ships, was directed to be put to the manacles 
or the torture of the rack in the Tower to make him 
declare the truth, etc. 

On October 24th, 1580, there was a conspiracy got up 
by the Cusacs and Wm. Nugent, brother of Lord Devlin, 
and Sir Henry Wallop, the Tieasurer at Wars, asks for a 
rack to be sent. 

In 1597 the Lieutenant of the Tower and others are 
directed to examine Gerratt, a Jesuit in the Tower, 
accused of I'eceiving letters from the Continent, and he is 
to be put to the manacles and such other torture as is 
used in that place, if he does not reveal, etc. 

In December one Travers, who had stolen a standish of 
Her Majesty, was ordered to be put to the torture of the 
manacles in Bridewell unless he confessed. 

This year, 1597, an old gentlemen, a double reader in 
Gray's Inn, having been found murdered and in the river, 
his son and the porter of the Inn being suspected of the 
crime, the Recorder of London and others were directed 
to examine the prisoners with the help of the manacles 
in Bridewell. 

In April, 1598, Valentine Thomas from Scotland was 


takea from the Marshalsea to Bridewell, there to be put 
to the manacles unless he confessed. 

In 1601, the Bishop of Carlisle wrote to Cecil that 
some prisoners named Vaux and two Holts had been 
told that they must be sent where the rack would draw 
the truth. Holt protested that he should die innocent, 
but Vaux grew faint. 

I cannot conclude this account of the Rack without 
confessing my obligation to Sir Charles Frederick, who 
politely coDdescended to direct my inquiries, while his 
nigh command rendered every part of the Tower 
accessible to my researches." 

NoTK — It is onlv fair to state that the writer did not meet with Mr. 
Jardine'fl work until after the Privy Council minutes and many other 
authorities had been searched. The rarity of Mr. Jardine's book will, 
it ia hoped, excuse the repetition of bo much of that learned author's 

ly Google 

Bj The ViBCOvai DILLON, Hon. U.A. Oion., F.S.A. 

The occurrence of European arms and armour in 
Eastern and AJrican localities has oilea surprised those 
who have not considered the many causes which might 
account for such finds. But there is not much difficulty 
in accounting for the presence at very great distances 
from their place of origin, of both arms and armour, if we 
consider the reasons of such wanderings. In Baron 
Cosson's most valuable and interesting catalogue of 
helmets and mail exhibited in the rooms of the Royal 
Archaeological Institute in 1880, he mentions a helmet, 
now in the British Museum, evidently of the fourteenth 
century, of European make, which was found in Kordofan, 
on the White Nile. The late Mr. Burges recalled the 
fact that when Jacques Coeur, the merchant prince of 
Charles VIL's time, was tried in 1452, one of the accusa- 
tions brought against him by one of his envious accusers 
was that he had sold armour to the Soldan of Babylon. The 
date of the helmet would present no difficulty to the 
conclusion that this helmet was part of the armour 
referred to in the accusation. Jacques Coeur declared 
that he had in 1447, when the armour was sent, received 
Charles' permission to send the armour desired by the 
Soldan. rhis was a complete suit of armour such as 
was made in France, and was intended as a copy for the 
Soldan's workmen. As to the arms which he was said to 
have sent, the only mention of it is in very general terms 
in the apology or amende honorable which the unfor- 
tunate silversmith was compelled to make bare-headed 
and without his girdle. The whole of the charges against 
him were, we know, reversed later on, but there may have 
been some ground for them, though no treason to the 
Christian world waa intended iu the sending of the 

Taking into consideration the dry climate of the East 
and the number of warriors and others who perished in 



the many crusades, it would be unsafe to say that arms 
or armour of the period of crusades did not still exist in 
some parts of the countries where those expeditious had 
their disastrous terminations. 

But if real European arms of great antiquity are still 
in existence in Africa, we must remember that many 
European arms of very modern date are still coming back 
to us. During the wars in Egypt and the Soudan in the 
later years of the last century many swords have been 
brought home with the interesting but misleading title 
of crusader's swords. Some of these, taken at intervals 
of fifteen or more years and described to me, as to their 
dimensions and marks, had such a family likeness that 
apart from the absurdity of the marks on them I felt 
they were exceedingly modern. On referring to a list 
of the names and marks of the Solingen sword cutlers I 
found that these blades of which 1 am now speaking 
were the outcome of the workshop of Messrs. Kull, who 
used these marks, viz., a lion rampant, a cross above a 
circle, and something which looks like a bee. Messrs. 
Kull appear in the Solingenlist under the year 1847. The 
blades are 36'75 inches longand straight. The hafting of 
course was local and African, and it is evident that the 
blades were exported in great numbers from Solingen and 
finished as regards hilting and scabbarding in Africa. 

Then as to armour, in about 1880 the late Khedive 
had some six or eight hundred shirts of chain mail and 
helmets of the so-called crusader pattern made for him in 
England. The shirts were made of steel spHt rings 
interdependent like ordinary chain mail, and the crusader 
helmets were of the style of those covers used to keep 
warm the chop or steak sent out from the restaurant to 
the city oflSce. The shirts, it is hardly necessary to 
remark, were most dangerous garments, for a bullet 
striking on one would at once lodge a number of split 
rings in the body of the unfortunate wearer. It is said 
that most of these men perished with Hicks Pasha in 
November, 1883, and consequently in the succeeding 
campaigns many of these shirts and gauntlets of the 
same make slowly dribbled back to Europe as the spoils 
of the victorious armies of the Sirdar. In some cases the 
gauntlets had been relined in a homely fashion, but they 



were the same mail garments which a few years before 
left England 

In India also are found m;iny German blades mounted, 
as one would expect them to be, with Indian hilts. Even 
in the rich collection of His Majesty at Marlborough 
House these German blades appear in weapons of great 
Indian historical interest, and it is tlie same in other less 
valuable collections. Among the blades in the Royal 
collection are some with the following European 
inscriptions :■ — 



FRANCI8C0 : EUlS : ENTOLEDO, on a rapier from 

ANDREA-FERRAEA, on a Rajput sabre. 

In 1691 we have a note on an incident that throws 
light on the existence of so many European swords 
in native use in India. It appears that in May of that 
year Sir John Chardin, agent for the Armenian nation, 
presented a petition from Bogos Aviet, Daoud and 
Zacaria Parsljan, Armenian merchants, who had contracted 
with the East India Company of England to carry upon 
their ships the trade which they formerly did through 
Italy. The petition was referred to the Attorney- 
General, as, amongst the commodities exported from 
Europe " are large swords three fingers broad, made at 
Nuremburg, which they cannot bring to England, there 
lieing an Act of Parliament against the importing of arms 
except by their Majesties' leave. As the said swords are 
only intended to be transported to the East Indies, the 
petitioners beg leave to brmg the said large swords from 
time to time mto England in order to have them carried 
into the East Indies." 

In September license was granted for the above, 
provided notice be given beforehand to the Commissioners 
of Customs as to the number of swords, name of vessel, 
etc., 80 that they may be examined to see that they are 
of the nature and kind above mentioned and to take 
bond of their exportation to the East Indies. It is also 



mentioned that the swords are of such a kind as have 
never been made in England, and if imported cannot be 

Here we have evidence of the existence of a trade, 
probably of many years standing, between Germany and 
the East Indies. The only change in it is the route by 
which the blades were to reach their market. 

1691. July 10th. Bogos Aviet, Daoud and Zacaria 
Parsijan, three Armenian merchants and others, 
had passes to go to Harwich and embark for 
1691. May 19th. On the petition of Sir John 
Chardin, agent for the Armenian nation, a 
question was referred to the Attorney-General. 
It appears that these merchants had contracted 
with the East India Company of England to 
carry upon their ships the trade which they 
formerly did through Italy, and that amongst 
the commodities which they export from Europe 
are large swords three fingers broad made at 
Nureraburg which they cannot bring to 
England, there being an Act of Parliament 
against the importing of arms except by tbeir 
Majesties' leave. As the said swords are of no 
use in England nor any other part of Europe, 
and are only intended to be transported to the 
Enst Indies, the petitioners pray leave to bring 
the said large swords from time to time into 
England in order to have them carried into the 
East Indies. 
lC9i. September 15th. License was granted for 
the above, provided notice be given beforehand 
to the Commissioners of Customs, as to the 
numlier of swords, name of vessel, etc., so that 
they be examined to see they are of the nature 
and kind above mentioned, and to take bond 
for their exportation to the East Indies, It is 
mentioned that the swords are of such a kind as 
have never been made in England, and if 
imported cannot be vended. 

In the Tower collection are six tulwars and blades 



which appear from their dimensions to belong to the class 
referred to above as made for export to the Icdies. 

No. 406 has a total length of 42 inches, the blade 
being 34 inches, and 2^ inches broad ; the back 
is ^ inch thick, to within 1 3 inches of the point, 
when it becomes two-edged. There are no 
stamps on the blade, which is curved, and the 
weapon weighs no less than 10;^ lbs., much too 
great a weight for an ordinary man to wield. 

No. 407 is 38 J inches long, the blade 32^ inches 
and 2J inches broad At llj inches from the 
point it becomes two-edged. The blade has three 
grooves on each side in which are five stamps, 
the first and last like a n. The blade is 

No. 403 has a very curved blade of 30 inches, which 
lit 1 1 inches from the point becomes two-edged, 
and here has a square stop on the back. The 
blade is 2^3 inches broad ; the hilt, which is 
ornate, has the tang prolonged as in Rajput 
swords. On the blade is a European stamp 
and also au Arabic one. 

No. 409 weighs 11 lbs. The blade, 32^ inches long 
and 4 inches broad, has an inlaid stamp of brass, 
but it is difficult to see whether intended for a 
sort of wolf mark. The blade is much curved. 

No. 234 has a blade of 32 inches, and 11 inches 
from the point there is a stop ; the blade then 
is two-edged. At the stop the blade is 7 inches 
broad and at the hilt 3f inches. The back 
springs up 3 inches from the hilt to point line. 

No. 768 has no hilt, but is 32 inches long, and 
3| inches broad. At lOj inches from the point 
it is two-edged. This curved blade bears five 
stamps, two arcs back to back with dots at each 
end, and a mark like an eel. The back is 
J inch broad. 

None of these weapons could be used by any but 
exceptionally strong men, and the hilts are much bigger 
than those usually found on Elastem swords. 

Nor are all the cannon taken in our wars in the East 



of native make, as we may see by lists of those at 
Woolwich and the Tower. 

In 1627, the local Pi-esident of Batavia, writing to the 
East India Company, suggests suitable presents to be 
given, such as " very long fowling pieces, anaphaunces of 
especial show among the Emperor's guard, also fair 
armour for the Emperor's man and horse, large Venetian 
mirrors, etc.," and he adds that "the Dutch sent in their 
last ship two great brass pieces on field carriages with 
many other species of great value." 

In 1623 we are told that the English had brought 
from the King of Persia " pictures, complete aitnour, 

In 1630 sword-blades are mentioned as exported to 
India, and in the next year Sir Henry Vane refers 
in a letter to armour and . a coat of mail that had 
been brought as a present for but refused by the Persian 
Ambassador. They were left; on Mr. Bell's hands, to 
whom they were given to adventure them to the Indiea 

In 1632 we ai-e told that as presents, sword-blades, 
mastiffs, and strong waters are not respected, but jewels 
that would do for the women woidd be useful. 

In 1633 President Hopkinson sent to Nath Wyche at 
Brodera " as token of his love a curious newly invented 
pistol that serves also for a walking staff." It had been 
sent out from England by a friend but " in that place 
(Brodera) Wyche can make better use of it." 

Burckhardt says (p. 271) that "some 3,000 Solingen 
blades are annually sold at Cairo to the traders from 
the south." 

ly Google 

Bj The TiBCOUHT DILLOIf, Hod. H.A. Oion., F,8.A. 

One point which strikes one with regard to the 
wearing and use of armour is that in the mediaeval wills, 
80 many of which have been transcribed and printed by 
individuals and societies, while we find mofit minute 
notices of garments of all sorts, furs, etc., the mention of 
armour is comparatively seldom, and yet, judging from 
effigies and brasses, so many of the well-to-do personages 
of those days chose to be represented in marble, alabaster 
or brass, covered from head to foot in complete steel. Of 
course even to our day the idea has found favour with 
some, as witness the effigy of the late Prince Consort 
at Windsor. But we are rather accustomed to look on 
the knights of the Middle Ages as all soldiers, whereas, 
even as now-a-days, there seemed to have been many very 
peaceful gentlemen enjoying ktiightly dignity v/ho from 
their professions were quite unassociated with war, yet 
when dead wished to be remembered and represented as 
warriors. Take the case of the eminent grocer Sir John 
Crosby, who lies in St. Helen's, Bishopsgate ; a fine 
specimen and authority for armour of his period. Did 
he ever put on that panoply or bare that sword, now lost ? 
and if he did not, can we accept the charming effigy of 
Lady Crosby as the authority for the costume of a city 
dame of 1466, the year in which she died ? The worthy 
alderman who died nine years later is an interesting 
instance of the combination of civil and military costume, 
as he wears his aldermanic gown over a suit of armour. 
He may have had to put on the latter during the Wars 
of the Roses, but as far as is known, beyond being sheriff 
in 1470 and receiving Edward IV. on his entry into 
London in 1471, when he had the honour of knighthood, 
and probably the collar of suns and roses which he wears, 
nothing is known of his military service. The com- 



bination of civil and military costume on a monument, 
but of a later date [1527], is seen in tbe brass of Sir 
Peter liegb in Winwick Church, Lancaehire. Tbis 
knight, on the death of bis wife, having entered the 
church, his commemorative brass shows him in armour 
but bare-beaded and wearing over bis plate armour a 
chasuble and, aa Hewitt remarks, tonsured at tbe head 
and spurred at the heel. 

Perhaps we might find on enquiry that human nature 
was the same in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries as 
now, in this respect, that many wished to appear other 
than they really were. Tbe Prince Consort, whose name 
and life were so intimately associated with the arts of 
peace, is certainly wrongly shown in warlike guise. 

And where armour is mentioned in wills, the note of 
complete suits is scarcer still, A good sword, whether 
one worn by a soldier or the civQian hasilard, was an 
important item in a man's property, and these do pretty 
frequently occur in wills ; but the armour which we see 
so profusely illustrated ui effigies, brapses, illuminated 
MSS. and other places is seldom mentioned. We have in 
1399 Sir Philip d'Arcy bequeathing unam loricam de 
Milayne, in 1430 William Stowe mating a like bequest, 
and in 1485 Richard Scrope leaves " tbe harnes I brought 
from Fraunce." But tuese are foreign armour and 
probably better worth mentioning in a will than the 
home-made article. 

Helmets and portions of armour are common enough, 
and even the pourpointed garments, tbe aketons and 
the partly metal, partly textile, jacks, brigandines are 
mentioned. Armour for the arms, legs and feet, and also 
gauntlets, are bequeathed in 1391 by the widow of Sir 
William Aldeburgh, who had probably kept them and 
her late busbantis basenett, with a ventaylle and a 
breastplate, as memorials of him. 

Leg armour certainly is not frequent, and this bears 
out the contention that what we see so often in memorials 
of individuals did not often exist. 

ly Google 

^lointiingB at iVInlfnQS of t&e ttosal ^ntaeologttal 

Febmury let, 1905. 
Sir Henry H. Howokth, PrmdeiU, in the Chair. 

Mr. Alfred Dobh^e read a paper on "Japanese Sword-blades,' 
with lantern illustrations, and exhibited some fine Bpecimens. 

The President (who also exhibited three Japanese swords), Lord 
DiLLOK, Mr. Rice and Mr. WORSFOLD took part in the disuussion. 

Mr. Dobr^'s paper is printed in the Journal. 

March Ist, 1905. 
Sir Henry H. Howorth, Presidml, in the Chair. 

The Eev, H. Bedford Pim read s paper on " The Origin and Use 
of Low-side Windows in Ancient Churcnes," illustrated by many lantern 

Tiie President, Mr. Kevser, Mr, Hope, Mr. Johnston, Rev. 
Mr. Dewick, and Kev. Mr. Livetf took part in the discussion. 

The paper and the discuseion appear in the Journal 

April 5th, 1905. 
Sir Henry H. Howorth, President, in the Chair. 

The President read a letter from Mr. Brereton stating he was 
prevented by illness from reading his jxtper on the " Somerset Church 

Five large chromograpbs were exhibited by Mr. J. Hilton, F.S.A., 
illustrating the modern re-constructions at the Saalburg, in Germany. 
These having been explained by Mr. Hilton. 

The President, Sir E. Brabrook, Mr. Stephenson, Mr, Eice, 
and the Rev. Mr. Livett took part in the diseuasion ; a vote of thanks 
being accorded to Mr. Hilton. 

The Rev. G. R. Livett, F.S.A., read a paper by Mr. G. F. 
Lawrence, on " Prehistoric London." 

The Pre-sident, Mr. Goolden, Colonel, and Mr. Stebbinq 
having taken part in the discussion, a vote of thanks was accorded to 
Mr. Lawrence and Mr. Livett. 

This paper is printed in the Journal. 



May 3rd, 1905. 
Sir Henry H. Howorth, President, in the Chair. 

A pjiper on " The Rack," was read by Viacount Dillon. 

After observationa from the President, the discuraion was 
continued by Judge Bayus, Sir E. Brabrook, Mr. Rice, Dr. Lima, 
Mr. WoRSFOLD, Mr. G. T. Fox, Mr. St. John Hope, Mr. Wilson, and 
Mr. Martineau, and a vote of thanks was accorded to the author. 

Lord Dillon next read two papers on the following subjecte : 
" Armour in Willa," and " Arms antf Armour Abroad." 

The President and Mr. Hope having taketi part in the discuaeion, 
a vote of thanks was passed to the author. 

These three papers appear in the Journal. 

ly Google 

^otfas of Stctiatolostcal ^ublitatuns. 

Bj C. B. h. Babbitt, H.A. Illnitnt«d b; th« Author. Loadon : BUiot 
Stock, won. 4io. pp. xixii, 810. 

The records of any of the City Guilds of London, where they exist, 
possess great interest, and the guild of the Apothecaries is especially 
worthy of attention, on account of the consistency with which it has 
maintained its influence in the great profession of medicine, the public 
service it has rendered by aecurmg the purity of drnga in its function 
of an important co-operative trading association, and the completeneas 
of ite records, having a continuous series of minute books from the date 
of its incorporation to the present time. 

The Worshipful Company of the Apothecaries was not, however, 
constituted into a separate guild until the year 1617, having been 
before that time merged in the Grocers' Company ; and the interest its 
records possess can hardly be said to be archaeological ; all the same, 
we have read Mr. Barrett's epitome of its minutes with pleasure, and 
they contain a great deal of that comparatively recent history which is 
archaeology in the making. 

Mr. Barrett explains that his intention was to give a cbronol<^caI 
account of the various vicissitudes through which the Society has 
passed, to note its quaint customs, some of which have survived up to 
the present day, and to record the names of the donors of the pictiu'es, 
plate, furniture, and other possessions of the Society which are still 
preserved at its hall. With regard to quotation or transcription, he 
has avoided both as much as possible, as he thinks that a book full of 
documents reprinted is apt to be very wearisome. In this respect we 
must say we dissent from his view, and hold that he has worked on a 
fallacious method. Nothing is more impressive than the exact words 
of a record ; and the paraphrase which Mr. Barrett has substituted for 
an accurate transcript of the more interesting portions of the minutes, 
and has strung together on a very loose thread of comment, is no 
sufficient substitute. To us it is rather wearisome to find the author 
several times saying " It is needless to say," and then proceeding to 
offer the trito observation which he has just asserted to be needless. 
This Mnd of thing has really considerably added to the bulk of the 
volume. If instead of mentioning each year the names of the master 
and two wardens, the succession of masters and wardens hod been 
tabulated in an appendix, much space would have been saved. On the 
last line of page 213, there is a "but" which alters the sense, and 
other misprints have escaped notice. These blemishes, however, do 
not great^ detract from the value of Mr. Barrett's labours. 



TtuB list of 12,000 or more ministera and schoolmasters of the 
Church of England who received a bounty of X20 to defray their 
expenses from the King of England, is likely to be of no little 
assietance to pedigree hunters, especially on the other aide of the 
Atlantic. The author has extracted the materials from the Money 
Books, King's Warrant Books, Treasury Papers, etc., all of which now 
lie in the liScord Office. 

A guide for buyers, etc., to the prices realized on all works of art 
etc., offered at auction in London during the year 1904. 

ly Google 

APRIL 6-12TH, 1905. 


Having been requested by the University of Durham 
to act as their delegate at this, the first meeting of the 
International Archaeological Congress, I propose to give 
a short account of its proceediogs. 

On the Sunday before the Congress usserabled, the full 
congregation in the English church, the sound of 
languages other than Greek at the street corners, the 
full hotels, and the multitude of wayfarers armed with 
Murray's or Baedeker's guides, showed that the bright, 
dazzling, dusty city, was fast filling with members of the 
'Apj^aiokoyiKoy 'S.vp€6piov. Visits to the museum and to 
the Acropolis pleasantly filled up for most of us the early 
part of the week ; and some were sufficiently daring to 
undertake an expedition to Delphi, trusting, notwith- 
standing the proverbial uncertainty of Greek steamers, 
to get back in time for the opening of the Congress. 

During these early days also, those who desired to 
attend the Congress were expected to present themselves 
at the Office (temporarily housed in the rooms of the 
Archaeological Society), to sign their names, and to pay 
the entrance fee (of 20 francs), receiving in return a 
badge, consisting of a small medal with the head of an 
archaic Athene on one side, and an owl on the other. 
This was called our Xvfi^oXov. We also received a card 
signed by the Minister of Public Instruction embellished 
by a view of the Acropolis and an engraving of the 
Olympian Hermes. This card had of course to be 
produced at all public ceremonies at which places were 
reserved for members of the Congress ; but m addition 
to this it entitled the holder to a reduction of 50 per 
cent, on all railway fares in Greece and on the passage 
money charged by some of the Greek steamers. The 
concession is a generous one, and I availed myself of it 



in part of my journey, but I doubt the wisdom of making 
it. Any pecuniary inducement of this kind tends in some 
degree to attract to the place of meeting, visitors whc 
are not keenly interested in the scientific objects of the 
Congress, and so to bring down the intellectual level of 
the audiences, while increasing their size. This was very 
conspicuously the case with the Gran Comjresxo Storico 
atK^mein 1903. The Athenian Congress suffered much 
less from this cause, but I think it did suffer, and the 

treat confluence of visitors so raised the prices at the 
otels of Athens {which are now as high chargers as smy 
in Europe), that probably we lost in our hotel bills all 
and mortf than all that we saved in our railway fares. 

There were receptions of the visitors, both official and 
non-official, on the evening of Thursday, but the formal 
opening of the Congress did not take place till Friday 
afternoon {7th April) at 2.30 p.m. at the Acropolis. For 
an hour before that time all the cars and private carriages 
in Athens had been passing between the Theatre of 
Dionysius and the Odeum of Herodes Attieus, and 
winding their way up the loug white road which, with 
many a needed zig-zag, leads up to the base of the 
Propylaea. There of necessity all passengers, even 
royalty itself, must alight ; and having presented our 
cirds of membership to the sentinels at the gate, we 
climbed up the steep steps or slippery slabs of rock which 
lead to the sacred plateau on which stands the Erech- 
theura and the Parthenon. At the west end of the great 
temple of the Virgin-Goddess the ceremony was to take 
place and there, long before the hour appointed, a 
considerable crowd had gathered, for the most part 
of course dressed in the ordinary conventional clress 
of Western Europe ; but there were one or two brilliant 
exceptions — especially one middle-aged gentleman of 
portly presence, a senator, I beUeve, and representative 
of Patras, who appeared in a glorious garh — coat heavy 
with gold lace, fustanella, and shoes with hig rosettes, and 
with many deadly weapons stuck into his belt. We 
were told that this identical dress was two or thi-ee 
centuries old, and had come down to its present 
eminently respectable owner from generations of 
" Palikar " {brigand) ancestors. 



With great punctuality the royal party were seen 
approaching the Parthenon from the Erechtheum. 
First came the King, whose plctui-e as a bright sailor 
lad one remembers so well from the early sixties, now 
A still erect and handsome man, hut with face somewhat 
wrinkled with the cares of forty-two years of reigning, 
iiiid eyes a httle tired and blinking with so many years 
of gazing on the white streets of his capital. His wife. 
Queen Olga, looked pale and sad, partly no doubt on 
account of recent family bereavements, and partly for 
the heavy losses of her countrymen and friends in the 
terrible Japanese War. 

The Cromi Prince (the Diadochos, or Successor as he 
is always called) is a tall, well-built soldierly man, like 
his father, but with a simpler, less diplomatic expression 
of countenance. He was the President of the Congress 
(to the preparations for which he had given much time 
and thought) and to him of course fell the chief share in 
the day's proceedings. By his side walked his wife, sister 
of the Emperor William, and bearing a striking resem- 
blance to the much loved and highly cultured lady her 
mother, whom we remember best, not as " the Empress 
Frederick," but as the Princess Royal of England. Prince 
Nicholas and one or two other members of the family 
followed. The Prime Minister, Delyannis, whom his 
admirers call " the Grand Old Man " of Greece, an elderly 
gentleman in plain civilian dress, appeared on the scene 
shoi-tly before the loyal party, and was greeted with 
cordial applause.' 

When all were seated at the west end of the 
Parthenon, the Diadochos in a loud clear voice read his 
address in Greek, welcoming the Congress to Athens. 
Then followed speeches from the heads of the Archaeo- 
logical Schools of France and Germany, the speaker foi- 
the latter nation being Herr Doerpfeld, who in resonant 
tones rehearsed the services which German savants had 
rendered to the cause of Greek Archaeology. I must 
confess that stationed as I was at the back of a crowd of 
some 400 or 500 persons, I saw and heard but little of 
what was going on, but I was just able to catch some 

' Since the article naf written Eurn]>u able and ])atriotic minister. 
bm been iliocked bj tin- murder bf titia 



part of the concluding speech delivered by Mr. Bosanquet 
on behalf of the English School. In these circumstances 
I am reduced to the necessity of quoting the description 
of the speeches given by an Atlienian newspaper the 
*Ao-Tu, which contains a half jocular criticism and com- 
parison that I should not have ventured to make on my 
own account. The article was headed 'H M€Tpio<f>po<ruv7], 
Modesty, and was as follows : 

"If there ia an objection which an impartial listener would be 
disposed to make to the speeches delivered yesterday in the Acropolis, 
it would certainly not be that the speakers suffered from an excess of 
modesty. One after another the representatives of the various 
nationalities magnified the services rendered by their compatriots to 
the cause of Greek Archaeology, and tried to show that each nation 
in turn had been the chief worker in that field. The only exception 
was to be found in the speech of the DirecLor of the English School, 
who instead of praising his countrymen, reminded his hearers of the 
noble deeds of those Greek patriots without whose efforts at the time 
of the War of Independence no such meeting as the present conld 
have been held on the rock of the Acropolis. 

" When we heard that speech we felt that the shy, white-winged 
goddess Modesty had not quite departed from the earth." 

The speeches ended, the royal party made their way 
slowly between the marble blocks which cover the surface 
of the Acropolis; the spectators followed and soon all 
were scramhling down the steep steps of the Propylaea 
to where the carriages were waiting by the rugged 

That evening when night fell, rockets mounting into 
the sky announced that the illumination of the Acropolis 
was about to begin. From the flat roof of our hotel we 
had a good view of the performance. Red and green 
lights played alternately upon the temple- crowned rock, 
and once a glare of red light in the Parthenon, mingled 
apparently with clouds of smoke, suggested the thought 
that another Xerxes or Alaric was wreaking his ven- 
geance on the temple of the Virgin. On the whole there 
was something rather stagey and vidgar about the 
performance, and one was not sorry when it ended and 
the ■\'enerable ruins were left to their sleep of centuries. 

The next morning we met in the large haU of the 
University of Athens, and there witnessed a sort of 
replica of the proceedings. This function, however, was 
academic, whereas its predecessor had been of a national 



character. The Diadochos presided and made a short 
and sensible speech in French, while his father, mother, 
and younger brother witnessed the proceedings from a 
raised platform at the side of the hall. Then divers 
speakers delivered addresses in varitjus languages. 
Conspicuous among them was Lamfcros, the venerahle 
Pi-esident of the University, and historian of Greece, 
who gave an uddress of welcome to the foreign delegates. 
He was followed by M. CoUignon, President of the 
Academic dcs inscriptions et Belles-lettres, who leplied 
in the name of the Academies, and by Professor 
Percy Gardner, who spoke for all the Universities, the 
seniority of the University of Oxford having with great 
courtesy been recognised by her sisters from Germany. 
In slow and measured tones well adapted to the needs 
<)f a foreign audience, this speaker dwelt on the debt all 
civilisation owes to Greece, and incidentally protested 
against the proposal to eliminate the knowledge of her 
language trom a m<jdera academical education. Various 
delegates then handed In addresses from bodies which 
they represented ; these were for the most part " taken as 
read," and with their presentation the ceremony was at 
an end. 

Ceremonial functions over, the learned assembly at 
last got to work. It was divided into seven sections, for 
most of which quarters had been provided near to the 
University, the great hall of which was the central cell 
of the whole organism. Those who have ever visited 
Athens will not need to be reminded of the position of 
this building, which with its orthodox pillars and 
pediments of dazzling white marble, faces the broad and 
handsome 'oSos llav€iTtaTr}fi.iov {Street of Universal 
Knowledge) in the north-easteru quarter of the city. In 
the large hall of this building {often darkened to allow 
of the illustration of lectures by lantern slides) was 
assembled the most important and popular of all the 
sections, that which dealt with Classical Archaeology. 

The papers read in this section were, as might have 
been expected, chiefly concerned with the plastic art of 
Greece, Rome being for the time almost forgotten. 
M. Colligiion, the well-known authority on Greek vases, 
discoursed on a Lecythos at the Louvre, which by the 

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paintings on its sides, carrying on the subject represented 
on the front, showed a curious but unsuccessful attempt 
towards perspective. Professor Waldstein manfully 
stood up for the statement of Pausanias — much doubted 
by modern art critics— according to which the sculptures 
on the eastern pediment of the Temple of Zeus at 
Olympia were executed by Paeonios and the western 
by Alcamenes. Dr. Philios, " Ephor of Antiquities" at 
Athens, discoursed on the statue of an athlete using the 
strigil, which goes by the name of the Apoxyomenos, and 
most ingeniously, by means of a cast, repre8entin<^ 
various possible positions of the missing limbs of the 
statue, argued as to the original intention of the 
sculptor with reference to the athlete's attitude. A 
paper by Dr. Schrader, of the German Institute of Athens, 
was, I believe, considered one of the most important 
contributions to the proceedings of this section, but I 
was not fortunate enough to hear it. Mr. Louis Dyer, of 
Oxford, discoursed on the so-called "Treasuries" at 
Olympia, showing cause for the belief that they were- 
not places of deposit foi' money or jewels, but more like 
the sacristy of a Christian church, places in which the 
vessels and other things needed for participation in 
religious and festal rites by the States which founded 
them, were preserved. 

On the last day, Pi-of'essor Baldwin Brown of 
Edinburgh, gave a lecture illustrated by slides, ou the 
female drapery of the Greeks as exemplified in their 
statues. This lecture, if reproduced, as I trust it will 
he, before a British audience, will doubtless awaken 
interest and lead to differences of opinion among his lady 
hearers. The second section on Prehistoric and Oriental 
Archaeology was held at the Syllogos of Parnassus, a 
lecture hall which is ordinarily devoted to the praise- 
worthy purpose of a night school for the poor lads uf 
Athens, especially the " Lustre-boys " or shoe-blacks. It 
is large and commodious, and probably the fact that it is- 
specially adapted for tiie exhibition of lantern pictures, 
was one reason for its being temporarily borrowed by the 
archaeologists. The extraordinary interest aroused by 
some of the papers read before this section makes me 
almost inclined to retract what I have said as to the 


archaeolo<(i<;al conoress at athens. 85 

predominant popularity of Section 1. The minds of all 
students of Greek Archaeology ar« naturally now 
turned with especial eagerness towards the new vistas 
into the prehistoric past opened by the discoveries of 
Scliliemann and the excavators who have followed in 
his track, especially those who have Wen exploring 
the buried palaces of Crete. Historicid students had 
just become reconciled — ^joyfully reconciled —to tlie fact 
that they must recognise the existence of a great 
"Myceneun" civilisation in continental Greece and 
the islands of the Archipelago, centuries before the date 
usually assigned to Homer : and now the discoveries of 
Jlr. Arthur Evans and his comi}eers, in the island of 
Crete, seem likely to force us to the conclusion that there 
was another, yet earlier civilisation, which for convenience 
we may call after the name of the great Cretan king and 
lawgiver Minos ; and that by studynig the remains of this 
yiinoan civilisation we mav get oack at least a thousand 
years l)efore that verv Siege of Troy which used to seem 
to us the beginning of all things in Greek Historj-. 

It was a striking proof of the interest aroused by these 
recent discoveries that a large, tightly- packed and 
miscellaneous audience— by no means consisting entirely 
of archaeological experts— wjis assembled in the darkened 
Hail of Parnassus to hear Mr. Arthur Evans deliver his 
lecture "On the cla-ssification of the successive epochs of 
Minoan Civilisation." Setting an example which other 
readers of papers might have tollowe<l with advantage, 
Mr. Evans had prepared a precis of bis address in 
French which was ai.stributed among his hearers. Of 
course this is not the place ibr attem|jtiiig even a precis 
of that precis, but 1 may briefly state that Mr. Evans 
considers that we may distinguish three i)eriods of 
Cretan prehistoric civilisation which he would call Early, 
Middle, and Late Minoan, and that even the latest of 
these periods (in which he places the building of the 
palace that he is now excavating at Knossos) may bo 
assigned to al)oiit the thirteenth century before Christ, 
and is roughly contemporary with what we call the 
" Mycenean " age. The three great periods thus named 
may be subdivided into smaller periods, distinguished 
from one another chiefly by the character of their 



potteiy and other archaic works of art discovered in 
different strata of the excavations : and — what is most 
important if Mr. Evans should Ije thoroughly able to 
establish his theory — many of these periods seem to be 
capable of being synchronised with certain Egyptian 
dynasties which will enable us, at least with approximate 
accuracy, to assign to them fixed dates. Then below 
all these remains of " Minoan " civilisation, which 
may perhaps have begun some 2,500 yeais before 
Christ, Mr. Evans finds immensely thick deposits, the 
handiwork of successive generations of neolithic men, 
which seem to carry back the first evidences of human 
inhabitants in Crete to millenniums wliicb it is impossible 
to caleidate. The Greek newspapers, in reportmg this 
lecture were raised to an unwonted j)itch of entliusiasm 
and spoke of the discoverer by the appropriate title of 
'O rioXu's 'E/Soj-s, the Manifold Evans. Such were the 
fascinating speculations developed in our hearhig in the 
hot and darkened room of Syllogos Parnassos. 

I am not going to attempt to describe the proceedings 
at any of the other sections, hardly any of which I was 
myself able to attend. 

Section 3. FJxcavations and Museums. The Pre- 
servation of Monuments held its sittings in the 
hall of the Archaeological Society, about five 
minutes' walk from the University. 

Section 4, Epigraphy and Numismatics, was located 
in the hall of the French School. 

Section 5. Geography and Topography, in that of 
the German Institute. 

Section 6. Byzantine Archaeology-, in the hoU of 
the Academy (closely adjoining the University). 

Section 7. In some respects the most important of 
all the sections, and one which might well 
claim a Congress meeting all to itself, was on 
the Teaching of Archaeology, and was held in 
the hall of tlie National Library. 

Now, in reviewing the whole proceedings of the 
Congress, what is the impression left on the mind of one 
who was certainly an interested, if necessarily only a 
superficial observer 1 



111 the first place oue feels that great pi'aise is due 
to tlie organisefs and promotera of the meeting, among 
wliom the na.mes of Cavvadias (General Director of 
Museums at Athens), Lambros (Rector of the Athenian 
Uiiivereity), Doerpfeld (Principal of the German 
Institute), and HoUeau (Director of the French School at 
Athens), deserve special mention. The arrangements had 
been carefully thought out betbrehand ; there were hut 
few cases of papers announced and not delivered, or 
tlelivered at other times than those specified ; t lie rooms 
were well adapted for the deHverj' of the addresses 
iissigned to them, and all the arningenients for the comfort 
and convenience of visitoi-s were generously and wisely 
made. And here one must esjtecially emphasise the genial 
jind business-like behaviour of the Orown Prince, whose 
Presidency of the Congress was by no means merely 
formal, and the hearty interest which the King and 
the various meniliers of the royal family showed in its 

What httle one has to say by way of criticism or 
complaint is not peculiar to this Congress, but will 
probably be found to be applicable to the conduct of all 
Congresses in which men of various nationalities take 
part. I think it must be admitted that we have not yet 
surmounted the difficulties arising from " the Confusion 
of Tongues." It is one tiling to be able to read with 
ease a paper written in a foreign language, on a subject 
with which one has already some acquaintance, and quite 
another thing to be able to take in, by the ear, information 
contained in the same language on an unfamiliar subject 
by a learned man, who is perhaps but little accustomed 
to public speaking, and who, conscious generally of 
having somewhat overstepped the time limit allotted to 
him, keeps his eyes fixed upon the paper before him, and 
rushes through his discourse like a motor-car, instead of 
giving a baud to his uninstructed hearers and gently 
leading them through the mazes of his learning. To sit 
and listen under these conditions to a series of essays, of 
■each of which one has only Just succeeded in gathering the 
import when the writer is already drawing to a conclusion, 
is (as Carlyle says of Coleridge's long monologues) : — 
■" Exhilarating to no creature " : — and the natural resnlt 

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Ill this case was that as a rule the audience \v;is in a 
continual state of flux, the Germans listening to a 
German like Doerpfeld or Furtwaengler and passing out 
of the hall when he had finished, and the English doing 
the like with Evans or Gardner. 

To a certain extent, as I have said, this is inevitahle. 
Probably nothing hut practice, at least some months oi' 
practice, would enable an Englishman who has learned 
French or German well from hooks, to take in easily by 
the eir a long discourse on a scientific subject. But much 
mjght be done to lessen the difficulty. Whenever one 
had an abstract of the lecture in one's hand and knew 
the chief points on which the speaker was going to 
dilate, one could follow even the addresses in one's own 
language with more interest and profit : and with those 
delivered in a foreign tongue, such an abstract made all 
the difference between comprehension and bewildennent. 
It was announced in the rules that " French should be 
the oflicial language of the Congress." If it were an 
imperative rule that every speaker, before reading his 
paper should forward a pretty full pri'cin of it to th"- 
secretaries, indicating the chief points which he desii-eil 
to establish, and if such a precis in French were in the 
liands of every membei' of his audience belbre he began 
to speak, I feet sure that he would be rewarded by the 
sympatliy of a much more attentive and far less bored 
audience than he has to face under present conditions, 
and that the Congress would be far more serviceable 
than it can be under its present administration. Even 
then, however, it seems to me that the organisers 
of such a Congress would do wisely to avoid filling their 
programmes quite so full as they do at present. Four 
papers, which was the usual fare provided for the 
audience at e;ich sitting of the Congress, were rather 
too much to be easily assimilated in the time. 

There was a slight feeling of hurry and of pressure, 
and partly in consequence of this, there was very little 
discussion, even when the writer of the paper had 
advanced some propositions which were very susceptible 
of argument, and when there were experts among the 
audience well fitted to raise an interesting discussion 
upoD them. In my opinion, two, or at most three papers. 



perhaps In some cases cotnoiented upon and explained 
in another lan^age for the Wnefit of those who were 
not fansiliar with the language in which they were 
written, and followed by an animated discussion, woidd 
have better sustained the interest of the nieetinys than 
those which were actually delivered, and would hnvr 
done more to awaken a genuine interest in arcliaeological 
science, a result at which an international conj^ress ought 
surely to aim. 

As I am in a criticid vein, I must add that I do not 
think the Athenian newspapers greatly distinguished 
themselves hv their reports of the proceedings of the 
Congress. All the ceremonial }Mirt, the royal procession 
up to the Acropolis, the speech of the Diiidochon, tlie 
banquets and the routes were of course fully reported. 
But the work of the authors of papers met with hut 
slight recognition. Even those which were written in 
Greek had generally less than a dozen lines allotted to 
them in the best of the Athenian pa])ers, and those 
wxitten in English, French or German h;id often only n 
line mentioning their title as it appeared upon the 
programme, if even that. Want of space could not he 
pleaded as an excuse for this unworthy treatment of the 
subject. In the newspaper to which I have already 
referred, the " Asty," and which did, I believe, give the 
fullest accounts of the Congress proceedings, one or two 
columns daily were devoted to a sketch of the career of 
the Empress Josephine : an interesting subject doubtless, 
and good padding for a jnurnal short of news, but one 
which might surely have waited even for a few days tjll 
the Congress had run its course. One could not help 
thinking how differently any of the Ix^st newspapers in 
lioidon, Paris or Berlin would have dealt with the 
situation. One thing which made the Greek newspapers 
less attractive to us foreigners was the habit, amusing 
but annoying, which the Greeks have adopted of changing 
the spelhng of f(»reign names in the vain hope of securing 
their right pronunciation. Thus, as the Greeks always 
pronounce B as V, they represent our B by the absurd 
combination Mil. J is A Z and H is X. This trans- 
literation makes the study of the ordinary news of the 
day a difficult and tantalising process. It is, for instance. 

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some time before one recognises the name of tlie Russian 
General Kaulbars under the disguise of KaovXinrappt. 
But with the names of the savants who took part in the 
Congress, the dark divinities of the Athenian Printing 
Offices had even a freer — if inky — hand, and wild work 
they made of some of them. Professor Mahaffy indeed 
was very fairly represented by Ma;^;a<^u, but Mr. Cecil 
Smith, of the British Museum, lost his second name 
altogether and appeared in the papers as K. Qt'^iX. 
Professor Percy Gardner's t«o names were run together 
into one aiidemerged from the printing office as nep-riyfcapi', 
surely " a new chapter " in Greek ononiatology. Professor 
Harry of Cincinnati appeared as x^-P"' Professor Dyer 
of Oxford as Aayep, and Professor Baldwin Brown of 
Edinburgh as XaX^Si^ MTrpouc. Sir Richard Jebb's name 
becomes in modern Greek A^e/iTr^n- (Dzempmp), a truly 
appalling combination, especially when one adds to it 
the third MP to which he is entitled as a representative 
of the University of Cambridge. In one case at least 
the change was so great as to make the name altogether 
unrecognisable. What possible justification could a 
printer have for rendering tlie name of Professor 
Jbrgensen, of Copenhagen, Ze/iepixreiJ.. The fact is that if 
you will allow writers and prhiters to transliterate 
names according to their ideas of their pronunciation, 
there is no limit to the absurdities that may follow. 
The only safe rule is to copy as exactly as possible the 
national spelling of the name and to learn the pronuncia- 
tion as well as you can. Where the receiving language 
has not got the required letter in its alphabet, as in the 
case of V oi' W with the Greeks, it may perhaps be 
allowed to manufacture an equivalent {writing Victoria 
BiKTotpia and William OuiXXta^) but it would be far 
better even in such a case to recognise the deficiency 
and to reproduce the name as spelt in the letters of 
Western Europe. 

At one of the later sittings of the Congress the 
important question of the date and place of the next 
meeting was decided in favour of Cairo for 1909. There 
is a certain obvious fitness in the choice. The well- 
known words of Napoleon may be addressed to archaeo- 
logists much more suitably than to soldiers: — "From 



yonder pyramids thirty " — say rather fifty — " centuries 
are looking down upon you." One may, however, I»e 
permitted to doubt whether it is altogether desirable to 
hold the Congress in a place where one asjiect oi' 
Archaeolog)' will be so certain to dominate the whole 
proceedings. It cannot be denied that Greek sculptui-e 
and GreeK architecture occupied the foremost place in 
the thoughts and speech of all of us at Athens, In tlie 
same way Egyptology will apparently be the one great 
theme of discussion at Cairo. Might it not be better, 
as a rule, to hold the meetings of the Congress in some 
place like Paris, London, Geneva or even Washington, 
where one special phase of Archaeology would have leas 
absolute dominion, and where fruit might be gathered 
off various branches of the tree of antiquity ? One might 
also allude to the fact that to hold forth on Archaeology 
at Athens or Cairo is like " preaching to the converted ' : 
everyone who visits either of these places is by the 
necessity of the case already more or less of an arch- 
aeological student. What one wants to do is to get hold 
of the busy money-making men of one of the great cities 
of the Present, to make them understand the spell which 
is cast over us by the study of the Past, and to persuade 
them to give that noble science its true place in the 
education of our people and to have its modest, its 
very modest, claims for help recognised by all Chancellors 
of the Exchequer. 

Having, however, just hinted these doubts as to the 
expedienc}' of holding tho Archaeological Congress in a 
place of such absorbing archaeological mterestas Athens, 
let me close by expressing the deliglit which all the 
members must have felt at finding themselves in such a 
place, and greeted with such a welcome. To wake up in 
the morning, gazing on HymettoS and Pentelicoa, to visit 
the Acropolis in the evening when the fierce heat of the 
sun was abating, and look forth upon Aeglna and 
Salamis — these were our daily possibilities. And then 
the garden parties so admirably arranged in the grounds 
of the various archaeological schools — what opportunities 
they gave for making or renewing acquaintances, in some 
cases for getting speech of illustrious men with whom we 
had corresponded for years without ever looking on their 



faces ! Much, as I have already hinted, was added to 
the success of the meeting by the heartiness with which 
the royal family of Greece threw themselves into the 
reception by Athens of her guests. Especially was this 
manifested when the King and Queen came in state to 
jissist at the opening of the new Library at the British 
School. This library, a large and handsome room, has been 
raised as a memorial to the late Mr. Penrose, first 
Director of the School. It was good to hear the terms 
■of cordial appreciation in which men of other nationalities 
than our own, spoke of the character and the work of 
this honoured Englishman. 

The event, however, upon which all Congresslsts will 
look back with most vivid remembrance, was the 
peiformance of the " Antigone " by members of the 
" Society for the representation of Ancient Dramas," on 
Monday afternoon. The play was performed at one end 
of the vast marble Hippodrome, which has been erected 
Jit enormous expense, on the site of the old Stadium, not 
far from the Temple of Jupiter Olympius, This great, 
white, horse-shoe shaped cavity in the hill to the south 
of Athens is now one of the most conspicuous features 
in the Athenian landscape, and when one walks up the 
long spina towards the broad curving apse at the end, 
one is half-dazzled by the white splendour of those acres 
of marble seating. When the Stadium is opened next 
year for the celebration of athletic contests and chariot 
races, it will hold it is said 50,000 spectators : even now 
the end partitioned off for the dramatic performance held, 
I believe, 10,000. The best places, save those occupied 
by the royal family, were reserved for the Congressists, 
who, with badge on breast, and ticket in hand, climbed 
the marble terraces to their seats. It needs not to be 
said that no roof or even awning was there to cover us. 
Had there been rain, no shelter from it would have been 
possible ; but the clear sky of Attica was not unfaithful 
to its old character. Not a cloud spotted the blue : and 
the only inconvenience that one sustained was from the 
beams of the Sun-god, even then, in early April, too 
fierce to be quite enjoyable. Soon, however, all sense of 
discomfort from the heat was swallowed up in the genuiue 
and absorbing interest of the drama. Punctually at 



2 p.m. the members of the royal family (those of them 
who had not been summoned to Corfu to meet the mucli 
travelling Kaiser Wilhelm) entered the royal Wx and 
the performance l>egan. The two sisters, Antigone and 
Tsmene talked together, bewailing the calamities that 
had befallen their house. Antigone expressed her 
indignation at Creon's decree, forbidding ull Thebiins to 
give burial to the dead body ot" her brother Polynices 
Ismene, the tender and shrinking maiden, was for bowing 
in sorrow to the decree, while the nobler Antigone declared 
her determination to disobey it. They disappeared, and 
t-he chorus of Theban senators ciime upon the scene. To 
me the choruses were the most enjoyable part of the 
performance. It was delightlul to sit with the Greek 
t«xt before one and hear the old familiar favourites, 
IToXXa TO. Seifa and Epo>^ owVare fiay^av, chanted by 
strong, manly voices, nnder the re;d Attic sky and within 
sight of the Acropolis and Lycabetto-s. 

I need not go through the various scenes of the drama. 
Creon was, of course, loud, dictatorial, self-important. If 
the Imperial visitor could liave spared time to come from 
Corfu to Athens, he would have played the part to 
admiration. One of the most effective parts was that 
of the Phylax, a rough, meanly clad sentinel who, with 
blushing and confusion of face, had to tell his master 
that through the lack of vigilance of himself and his 
mates the body of Polynlces had been buried by some 
unknown sympathiser. At this Creon is seized with a 
paroxysm of rage and he threatens death to the faithless 

The sly aside of the sentinel, " If I once get away from 
this place, see if I ever come back into your presence," 
was effectivel}' uttered and much applauded by the 

Then came the discovery that Antigone was the trans- 

fressor against the law, and the stormy scene between 
er and Creon. This part of the play was not to my 
mind very successful. Antigone (represented by a stout 
maiTied lady) was too self-pos.sessed, one might almost 
say too much of a virago, trying to outstorm the king by 
her invectives. 

I believe tliat Sophocles meant to give the clue to 

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her character by that beautiful line (the most heartily 
applauded of any in the play), 

ovTOi truccjf^cti' aWa a'Vfj.<f>i\€iv itftw.' 

Antigone is not naturally a spirit of strife or rebellion. 
She does not hate even her domineering uncle, and it 
gives her no pleasure to set herself against her country's 
laws. It is only the fulness of her love for her dead 
brother, "the pity of it" that his poor mangled corpse 
should be left to dogs and vultures to devour, that nerves 
her to her act of pious revolt and forces her into collision 
with unpitying power. 

Next in merit to the sly sentinel, if not above him, 
most of the spectators with whom I talked were inclined 
to rank the aged seer Teiresias, who came in with feebly 
sliding step and blindly groping eyes, with one liand 
resting on the shoulder of a bright Athenian boy, to 
warn Creon of the dangers impending over his house if 
he persisted in his stern resolve to punish Antigone's pious 
disobedience with death. Very finely represented was 
the old man's spiritual grapple with the king. Teiresias. 
in his utter bodily weakness, strong in bis conviction 
that he spoke tho will of the Gods : Creon, in all the 
plenitude of his kingly power, half defying the aged 
seer and half cringing before him. 

Those who sat where they could see behind the scenes 
said that it was a refreshing sight to see the agility with 
which, after this scene was ended, the blind old seer (a 
young man of three and twenty) ran and bounded over the 
stadium as soon as he believed himself to be free from 
the observation of the audience. 

Young Haemou, Antigone's lover, was represented as a 
gay and gallant spark, and it must be confessed that when, 
after his suicide, he was brought in upon the stage as if 
on an ambulance, one was a little more disposed towards 
laughter than towards tears. But on the whole the 
effect of the play (acted, it must be remembered, by 
amateurs) was good, and as the audience descended 
from their places and streamed out over the long 
white galleries, it was not a hopeless impossibility to 
persuade ourselves that we had been witnessing the 

' " I was iiot made for feltonsbip in hate, but fellowabip in Ldtc." 



representatioD of a Sophoclean drama at a genuine 
Dionysiac festival. Some difficulty however was caused 
by the modern Athenian pronunciatiou, regulated 
entirely by accent and regardless of quantity. This 
seemed to me sometimes to destroy the regular beat of 
the Tambic rhythm : one noticed the conflict less in the 
irregular chonc metres. And sometimes the grandeur of 
the Athenian words is surely lost by the sounds now 
given both to vowels and consonants. You cannot, it 
seems to me, represent all those vowels and diphthongs, 
ai, «, oi, T), V, I, by the one sound ee, without losing 
much of the original richness of the Greek vocalisation, 
and it pained me to hear Fev, Fev, such a thin and 
insignificant sound, instead of the ^ev, if)€v of our boyish 
remembrance, which seemed so perfectly to express the 
despairing cry of a bereaved one. 

On Wednesday, the 12th of April, the Congress ended 
its learned labours, and then began, for most of its 
members, the delights of the archaeological excursions, 
delights which were real and worthy of remembrance, 
notwithstanding the occasional discomforts of a too 
crowded steamer or a turbulent jEgeau. The writer of 
this notice will never forget the extraordinary interest 
of bis visit to the Museum at Candia, and . the Evans 
excavations at Knossos, nor yet the wonder of the 
entrance at sunrise into the sea-paved crater of Santorin, 
or the joy of floating, on a sea smooth as a mirror, past 
Naxos, Delos, Paros, 

" On from island unto island, at the gateways of the Day." 


B; Db. a. BDSSELL F0BBE8. 

Primitive Sepulchres on the Sacred Way. 

Fourteen feet below the pavement of the Sacra Via off 
the south comer of the front of the Temple of Antoninus 
Pius and Faustina, a primitive tomb was discovered on 
April 2nd, 1902. A large terra-cotta jar of red clay was 
found with the handles broken off, within it was a cinerary- 
vase containing calcined bones rather finely reduced : it is 
1 1 inches high ; the cover ia of a sloping form with ridges 
raised in four parallel lines from the central ridge ; this 
is also of red clay but somewhat blackened in the process 
of baking ; the handles are perfect. Two ex-votive red 
terra-cotta hand-worked vases 4^ inches high, somewhat 
like tobacco jars in form with two lines of raised ridges 
forming rectangular spaces, two smaller vases, one with 
a handle, and four small saucer bowls were also found. 
All are exactly like those found on the Esquiline 
hill, beneath the volcanic strata of Castel Gandolfo 
and at Grottaferrata preserved In the Museum of 
the Palazzo dei Conservatori on the Capitoline HUl 
(there is an example in the British Museum), so they 
are very early Italian pottery. The tomb is 4 feet out 
from the foundation of the portico of the temple, which 
extends 3 feet below the level of the tomb. It was 
covered with a small slab of granulare coppdlacdo tufa, 
like that found on the Palatine Hill, broken into six 
pieces when discovered. The surrounding soil is clay, 
granular tufa and water-worn pebbles. 

In the month of June another tomb was found adjoin- 
ing it, but for burial. It was formed with blocks of red 
tufa, the edges being worn smooth by the percolation of 
water ; it is 6 feet by 3 feet. 

At the head of the skeleton were three jars containing 
wheat and husks of beans, the offerings to the Manes on 
February 19th. 





" Scatter fruit, and a Bmall grain of salt. 
With corn soaked in wine, and loose violets, 
A jar holding these leave in the middle of the way." — 

Ovid, F. II., 538. 

A large circular bronze brooch with a long pin was 
also found. Other discoveries have been made since, 
so that the rocky bed of an area of 66 feet from west to 
east by 33 feet north to south, has been uncovered 
containing forty sepulchres. 

At the Dottom of a well-tomb a larEe hand-made terra- 
cotta jar was found containing a but-shaped (2u§iwn'um= 
Capanna) cinerary vase, similar to those found under 
the lava on the Alban Hills. Round it were nine vases 
of different forms containing ashes, fish bones (barbel), 
rib bones of lamb or pork, ashes of beans and funeral- 
cakes, porridge (j>uls), "the earliest food of the ancient 
inhabitants of Latium" (Pliny, XVIII., 8), and several 
fri^gments of bronze. 

The tomb of a child was found who had been enclosed 
in a coffin formed out of the trunk of an ilex tree (holme 
oak), with it were five bronze brooches and four vases, 
one, without handles, is in red terra-cotta ; one with 
handles and a long neck, is in ordinary clay ; a third in 
red terra-cotta has red lines painted upon it ; whilst the 
fourth, of an ele^nt form and fine work, is of black 
pottery, a Greek Skyphos. 

Remains of a child were found in two jars placed with 
their mouths together. 

Another, an older child, was found in a vase plziced 
close by the Sacra Via. 

Seven feet below the sacred way level two vases were 
found, one forming a cover to the other, within was a 
thin piece of bronze ; the upper vase was of black pottery 
{bucchero), the lower one of reddish-yellow {Italo-Greco), 
vrith swans painted on it. 

The last two tombs and vases mentioned are of the 
fifth or sixth centuries B.O. They are all at the base of 
the Velia ridge. 

Most curious of ali was the discovery of the skeleton 
of a colt ; the body was arranged in a semicirciilar 
manner round the head, the whole being covered with 



a tumulus ; three vases were also found connected with 
the funeral riteB parentalis. Ovid, F. ii,, 548. 

The Sabines looked upon Mars as the god of the 
Bpring-time, and in primitive times as a god of the 
netherworld. The horse was sacrificed to him. 

Perhaps the most interesting of all was the discovery 
of the remains of a burnt capanna (tttguriuTn) hut, 
such as the shepherds of the Campagna still use. 
Remains of the beech uprights, wood ashes, pottery and 
burnt clay were found. This reminds us that the house 
of Marcus Valerius Publicola was moved from the top of 
the Velia ridge and re-erected at the foot of it. Livy, 
IL, 7. . . 

This site was included within the second wall of Home, 
when the Palatine and Capitoline hills and the valley 
between them formed the city ; and as it was against 
the law to bury inside the walls (there were rare 
exceptions. Cicero de Leg, II., 23. Plutarch, R-Q-, 
79), these sepulchres must be older than 748 B.c. ; with 
the probable exception of the two children. This was 
doubtless the cemetery of the Arcadian settlement of 
Valentia on the Palatine hiU or of some members of it. 

It is known to students that there was once a burial- 
place about this vicinity, for in this neighbourhood 
Marcus Valerius Publicola was buried in b.c. 502, who 
died so poor that he was buried at the public expense. 
Livy, II., 16 ; Val. Max. TV., 4, 1. " The senate decreed 
that he should be buried at the expense of the public and 
appointed a place in the city, under the hill called Velia, 
near the Forum, where his body should be burned and 
buried, which was a distinction none of the illustrious 
Romans, besides himself, have to this day received." 
(That is, to be cremated within the city and at the public 
expense. The ashes of Tubertus B.c. 492, and Fabricius, 
B.C. 275, were brought into the city after cremation.) 
" This place is as it were sacred and dedicated to his 
posterity as a place of burial." Dionysius, V,, 48 ; 
Plutarch in Publicola, 23. 

In 1876 a travertine corbel was found in the Basilica 
of Constantine made out of a cippus that marked the 
tomb of Marcus Valerius Publicola. It is 5 feet high, 
2 feet deep, and 1^ feet wide; at present it is in the 





garden of the Museum of the Palazzo dei Conservatori 
on the Capitoline biU. It reads 

MN M • VALEBIVS ■ M ■ T • A 

V ■ VIK • A ■ D ■ A • I ■ INTERum 

This memoriaJ was erected by a descendant, Marcus 
"Valerius Mesalla, who was one of the quinqueviri 
appointed for some special duty connected with the 
treasury in a financial crisislas in 351 and2l6B.c.). Liv-y, 
XXrV., 18; XXVL,36. He held this appointment twice. 
He was one of the two qitastores parriddii lirbani (an 
official subordinate to the consul in criminal jurisdiction ; 
they had charge of the treasury and kept the keys of the 
Temple of Saturn). He was a military tribune and priest. 
Had been consul. (There was a consul of this name in 
226 and again ia 188.) He was three times censor. 
(There was a censor of this name in 252, but there was 
another consul in 161 who was censor in 154.) The stone 
may be his, but there is a difficulty if the numeral is cor- 
rect. The first and only record we have of a man who 
was ceiMOr twice was when C. Marcius RutUxis held the 
office in 265, and who therefore was called Censoriuus 
( Vol. Max., IV., 1, 3 ; Plutarch, Coriol, 1), and who passed 
a law that no man should hold the office twice, whilst 
this inscription is a record of a man holding it ihree times. 

Celu in thk Forum Boakium. 
Off the south-west pier of the arch called Janus 
Quadrifons in the Forum Boarium, 12^ feet below the 
present level, three chambers were discovered, each 6 feet 
4 inches by 5 feet 10 inches, the walls being in opits red- 
culatum of the first century b.c. The thresholds are in 
travertine, as are also the architraves, the entrances being 
on the left side, 2 feet 7 inches wide, and 5 feet 10 inches in 
height. On the right in entering each one is a bench con- 
structed in brick supported in the centre with a brick pier. 
The floor of the centre chamber is in opus spicatum, the 
others of lime covered with stucco and painted red. On 
the opposite side of the entry passage are traces of similar 



cells. (Fig. 1.) The passage turns to the right, and traces 
of other chambers similar in construction bave been found 


A. CeU« io Opat SelidJalum. 

B. Corridor. 

C. Bniches id brick in the cell). 

73 feet beyond ; the ancient pavement has been found 
10 feet above their level and 14 feet 8 inches below the 
modem level. These chambers are better preserved than 
the others, all are formed in a vaulted gallery, so the 
centre of the vault forms the roof of the corridor. Bones 
and the teeth of animals were found, but no human 
remains. Amongst the dirt cleared out were found 
pieces of carbone, a spoon, two bone stili, lamps, pieces 
of glass, fragments of Etruscan, Aretine, republican and 
imperial pottery. A bone token inscribed in Greek: 

It is supposed that these chambers were for human 
sacrifice, which on certain occasions took place in the 
Forum Boarium. The oldest of which we have notice 
is in B.C. 232, Dion Cassias, Vales, XII., then in 225, 
Plutarch, Marcellus 3, again in 217,Livy, XXIL, 57, the 
next in 115, Plutarch RQ. 83, Livy, Ep. LXIII, Pliny, 
XXVIIL, 3, speaks of such a sacrifice in his time a.d. 79; 
and Plutarch mentions certain rites practised in A.D. 100 



as the outcome of it. This is very doubtful as the cells 
are too numerous, and are towards the end of the first 
century B.C. in construction. Somewhat similar cells 
have since been found on the Sacra Via. 

Celi£ on the Sacra. Via. 

On the west side of the Temple of Bomulus, the son 
of Maxentius, by the north side of the Sacra Via, eight 
cells have been discovered, three on either side of a 
narrow passage, and two at its east end. They are 
similar to some previously found in the Forum Boarium 
by the Janus Quadrifons. The walls are of brick, 
covered to the height of 3 feet 10 inches with opus 
signinuTn cement, over which is white stucco ; on the 
wall of one of the chambers ip scratched the word civrr. 
The jambs and Billn are in travertine, the front walls of 
tufa ; the floors of opus spicatum ; the first cell on the 
left and the last on the right have a built up narrow 
shelf, 2 feet wide, for reclining. The passage is 18 
feet long by 3^ feet wide, leading into a cross passage at 
the end, 3j feet wide and 15 feet long, which has at its 
south end a narrow shelf. Off this passage are two 
cells. There were twelve in all. 

These cells originally extended as far as the centre of 
the door of the Temple of Romulus, where the remains 
of one has been found, with a shelf on two of its sides, 
covered over with the concrete for the podium of the 
Temple of Romulus. So some of these cells were 
destroyed when that temple was erected in A.D. 307. 
They were proljably the locK-up of the Triimiviri Cap- 
itales, wliose office was at the east end of the Forum. 
Vitruvius, V., 2, says the prison should adjoin the 
Forum : the principal entrance to the Forum was at this 
east end. 

Livy speaking of the fire of 211 B.C. says it comprised 
the Lautumiae and fish-market and the Regia, XXVI., 
27; and in 198 he speaks of "the Triumviri of the 
prison in the Lautumiae keeping a stricter guard than 
usual," XXXII., 26 ; and in 191 of 43 Aetolian prisoners 
being thrown into the Lautumiae, XXXVIL, 3, and in 184 
he speaks of Cato buying two houses in the Lautumiae 



and four shops, on which site he erected the Basilica Porcia, 
XXXIX, 44. Latuniias=latomiaa, quarries at Syracuse 
which were used as a prisou. Festus. Hence the name 
was applied to a prison in Rome, independent of the 
Mamertine, Varro, L. L. v, 32. M. A. Seneca, Contr. IX., 
4, 21, mentions that Juliizs Sabinus requested that he 
might be removed from the Career (Mamertine) to the 
Lautiuniae. M. A. Seneca died about 35 A.J>. and this 
is the hist notice we have of this prison. 

The Lautumiae was a name given to a district on the 
north side of the Forum, because there was a prison in 
this vicinity called after the one at Syracuse which was 
notorioua I do not think there were any quarries here, 
but if so it must have been at a very early date. 

The construction of these cells as they now exist is 
towards the end of the second century ; they probably 
represent the Lautumiae prison of Rome. 

The Pedestal of Domteian's Horse. 

In 1872 a pedestal, with large blocks of giallo antico 
marble, was found in the Forum, and still exists there ; it 
was said to be the pedestal of the equestrian statue of 
Domitian. Now although it was about the position of 
that statue, the level and the construction showed that it 
was not ot the time of Domitian. Thirty years having 
elapsed, the real pedestal has been uncovered, which 
Statius truly calls " nioles geminata," exactly at the west 
end of the former one, 4 feet below the Severian level ; 
it is 39 feet long from east to west and 19 feet wide 
from north to south, and 10 feet down to its foundation 
level. It is composed of concrete made with broken silex 
and travertine stones, and some of the wood forming the 
frame still remains ; it is entirely void of marble. On 
the top of the pedestal, three blocks of travertine stone 
are set in the concrete, 5 feet 4 inches by 5 feet, in 
the centre of which the stone is cut out 17 inches by 
16 inches and 6 inches deep, evidently where the sup- 
ports went in for the horse's feet. The rear near traver- 
tine stone is 4 feet in from the west end and north side ; 
1 6 feet to the front is another 7 feet in from the east end, 
midway between these two 4 feet 3 inches in from the 




south side is the third. In the centre of the concrete 
platform is a hole 4 feet 2 inches deep and 1 foot 8 inches 
square, probably for the support of the horse's belly. 
The horse looked towards the east, and from the size of 
the pedestal and the distance apart of the holes for the 
horse's feet, it is estimated that the statue of horse and 
rider must have reached a height of about 60 feet. The 
east end of the pedestal blocks up one of the under- 
ground galleries under the open space of the Forum. 


H^ r-. 1 

rta. II. pivisTiL o 
A. Iiuugunl pit or conwcnted foundation carity, containing 

TMea, etc., with corer over. 
U. Support for belly of hone. 
C.C.C. Slal» into which the lupport for horao's feet fitted. 

The horse and rider are represented on a sistertius of 
Domitian'a which was struck in his tenth consulship, that 
is A.D. 84. Suetonius teils us, " The tablet also inscribed 
upon the base of his triumphal statue was carried away 
by the violence of the storm, and fell upon a neighbour- 
ing monument." Dom. XV. This seems to have been 
just before his death, September 18th, 96, upon which 
his monuments were destroyed bv the senate. Suetonius, 
Dom. XXIII. 

The importance of this pedestal arises from the poein 
of Statins, Silv. I., 1, in which he describes its position 
relative to the surrounding buildings in the Forum. 



1. What a sigantic pedestal the coloeeoa is placed upon. 
He stands commanding the Latin Forum !> 

22 Hence, opposite, opens the threshold 

Of him,* who tired of war, by the duty of his adopted son,' 
First showed to our deified the way to heaven. 

29. Beholding, but at a pace on this side, the Basilica Julia,' 
On that side the sublime Basilica' of the war-like Paulus. 
Behind, he sees the bland visage of hia Father" and Concord.' 
Besides, surrounded with pure air, his stately head 
Shines above the temples and overlooks to see 
Whether the grandly designed new palace rises from the 

Whether the silent watcher prepares the Trojan tire,^ 
And Vesta now inspects and praises her ministers. 

66. He himself custodian of the spot to whom the gulf is 
And guards the famous lake of memorable name.^" 

Thus we leam that in front was the Curtian lake, and 
the Temple of the deified Julius Caesar, his head turned 
towards the Temple of Vesta., beyond which his palace 
wa-s being erected on the Palatine after the fire of A.D. 
80. On his right was the Basilica Julia, on his left that 
of Paulus Aemilius, behind him the Temples of Concord 
and Vespasian. 

On March, 1904, the inaugural pit or consecrated 
cavity, answering to our foundation stone, was found in 
the h&ae of the pedestal at a depth of four feet at its 
east front. It is 23^ inches square, 13^ inches deep, 
formed with travertine stone, the cover being four feet 
sc[uare. Within the cavity were five ritual vases and a 
piece of gold quartz. The small piece of quartz 
represents the handful of earth from his mother-country. 
The Flavii were Sabines. See Plutarch in Rom. Et de 
viciuo terra petita solo. Ovid F. IV., 822. 

One large bowl in beautifiil red terra-cotta with raised 
flutes, one mug-shaped in yellow clay with red bands, 
the other three in black clay (bvcchero), one of the latter 

J . ._ _ . .. 9 turned towanle the 

' AugLutuB. Temple of Vesta and Palatine, but it it 

* Jttlia tecta can onlj mean tlie impuMible to eee Domitiui's palace from 
Basilica Julia. Iierc. 

* fie^i'aPav'i is tlie Basilica Aemilia. ' Legend savs the sacred lire was 
' Alludes to the statue in Vespaaiun's brouglit trom Ttot. 

temple, " Tlie Curtian lake -was just in front. 



a jar shaped vase with handles on each side, another, a 
patera or saucer, and the third a capis for libation 
pouring. Primitive utensils were always used in these 
ceremonies. They were found lying on their sides 
evidently upset by the water from the Tiber floods 
penetrating the cavity. On the 20th of March these 
vases were removed in the presence of the King. It is a 
great pity they were not allowed to rest in their cavity, 
a sight unique in the history of foundations, instead of 
being desecrated for a museum. 

Twenty courses of the wood planks with vertical 
uprights which formed the box-casting for the concrete 
base have been uncovered on its soutli side. Five feet 
below a transverse wall of tufa blocks has been discovered. 

On the primitive level, twenty feet below the present 
surface, two skeletons were found with some broken 
pottery ; they lie with their feet towards the west ; 
the northernmost one has a hole in his skull, the southern 
one has his arms raised above his head, which signs 
indicate a violent death. 

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*^* This paper is amplified from, ituiienaXs drawn up from one read 
bej'ore the Members of the Somerset Archaeological Soeidy at their Afmuai 
Meeting held in July, 1904. All rights of reprodvetion are reserved. 


{Abttract Iff Faper.) 

. aqaare vestera tovera) 

(a) BelatiTely few of «xoeptioiiil exoeUenoe. 

{b) AU of out period, Perftendioular, uid mosilj Ute. 

(e) Strong funilj likenen in tlie group*, with indiTidual differencea. 

(d) Caoaes ; 1 : good stone abunduit in great Tsrietj. 

2 1 influenoe of ti-lastonburj and other abbeyt. 

3 : eumple ; emulation. 

(<) Whjfown-f (for peali of belle?) and not chantriee ? 


(a) Ktaburation of pampeti. 

{b) Clustered piiinaclee ; piUater-piuaavle work. 

fe) Kioliea and mcbe-worli. 
d) Diagonalum in upper part of bultreuee, in pionaclei and in piunaote-work. 
(«) We«t doorwajB and wmt windowa. 
(/) Orotesque BniBial flgurei. 
{g) Kiternal Btair-turrBtB, nrartj alirajB prominent. 
(A; Window paDelling. 
(ij Tower »rohe«. 


(a) Freeman's ; usuall; accepted, but unsatiifaotor?'. Hia three clanea 
pradicallj depend on Ibe character of the Btair-turcete and not on 
the chief feature* of the lowers themeelve*. 

(h) Proposed classificatiou according lo the treatment of the belfry ttage. 

1. Obocf a. Cheddar ValUt/ lypt. Triple window* in each face of 

belfrj stage and not in tlie singe below. 
SxampUi (Snt-mte) : Sheptun MaUet ; Cheddar (Ban well) ; Winscombe; 
Vi vntoQ Zofland ; Bruton. — Aibridge (central), and Bleadon. 

2. Obouf B. Taualon Dtan lype. Double windows in belfrf st»ge and 

not in the stage below. 
ExampUt (&tat-nxe) : M.Petherlon; Huisb ; Eingsbiirjg Bps.Ljdeard, 
Taunton St. James; He Abbots, Slaple Fitzpoine, iiOngiton. 



8. Qtovr 0. Brittol and CiJinnel dUlrial tgpe. Bingle belfry window*. 
whollj conteinml in beUrr itage. 
SxampUt : Dnndry ; Backwell ; Publow ; Portiihead ; WniaU, 
KilmeradoiL — Brwlington . 
4. Qbocf D. CoDiiitInK of three lubdiTuiotu. Connecting chmiscteriitio : 
uniformitj of treatment aboTe DftTa roof. 
{■) Wrinffton tgpt .- Onlj one— »er7 t*U— el^ije abore the bodj of the 
BxamfUt (all flrtt-nto): Wrington, BTemreeoh; St. Cuthbert'i, Welle; 
(fl) Cktmton Meadip type: double or triple windowi both in the belfry 
■tafe and in that below, 
Sxamplet (all firat-rate) : Chewtoa Mendip; St. Harj'i, Taunton; 
St. John'e, Olaetonbary ; Lfigh .on -Mendip (Uellt) ; and (oentral) 
(7) Sk^lon 
below, I 

■tage and partly in the other. 
SxampUt (none flnt-rato) : Shepton-Beauchamp ; Hinton St. Gkorgeg 
Norton-sub. Hamdon : Curry - Rivel ; and (central) Crewkerne. 

R. F. B. 


Of all the countries of the world, England is pre- 
eminent for its parish churches ; and of all the counties 
of England, SometBet is pre-eminent for its church 
towers. Other counties may claim superiority in 
respect of the greater magnificence of their churches a8 
whole buildings, or in respect of the greater excellence 
of individual features of them ; but with regard to 
towers, the claims of Somerset admit of no rivalry, and 
its supremacy is acknowledged to be beyond intelligent 

By towers mast be understood square, western towers, 
designed to he complete in themselves, and not sur- 
mounted by lanterns or spires- For though octagonal 
towers are so frequent in Somerset as to be almost a 
provincialism, and though central towers are far from 
uncommon, the examples of both are for the most part 
plain and insignificant, and they rarely exhibit those 
distinctive traits of design or ornament which are 
peculiarly characteristic of the finest western towers ; 
And the few which carry spirea are in no way specially 
remarkable ; certainly they cannot be compared with 
those of some other districts, such as North Northampton- 
shire or South Lincolnshire. 

This pre-eminence of the towers of Somerset i*ests on 
the exceptional splendour of the relatively few which 



have won for the county at large its high reputation. 
For only a small proportion is of unusual excellence ; the 
greater number, so far &om rising above the average level 
of merit, usually fall below that attained in some other 
parts of England — Norfolk, or Suffolk, for instance, or 
even East Anglia generally. 

Further, Somerset maintains its pre-eminence, despite 
the iact that its most magni6cent and notable towers 
were all without exception erected during one period, 
the Perpendicular era, and many of them towards the 
close of it. As a consequence of this fact, similarity, it 
not sameness, might be expected in them : what we find, 
however, vrith aU the strong family likenesses in the 
different groups, is an astonishing variety, due not to 
any difference of style, but solely to individuality of 
treatment. Abundant evidence is shown of the ver- 
satility and resource of the builders, aU the more striking 
as being displayed at a time when Gothic architecture 
was already on the wane, and when its decline had 
actually begun elsewhere. 

The achievement of these masterpieces was doubtless 
the result of many causes combined. Excellent material 
was ready to hand in the fine building stone which might be 
quarried almost anywhere. This is of many kinds, varying 
greatly both in texture and in colour ; a circumstance 
which largely contributes to counteract any tendency to 
monotony. For example : there is the dark toned, 
brownish oolite used at North Petherton (Plate III) ; the 
warm red sandstone of Taunton Deane ; the hard, grey 
freestone of Doulting and of Wedmore ; the meUow 
oolite of Ham Hill ; the purple conglomerate of Draycott ; 
and the blue lias of the neighbourhood of Langport and 
elsewhere ; all, except the last named, which was used for 
walling only, and only rarely for quoins or for moulded or 
carved work, of good quality, readily cut, and durable.' 
In some towers {R.g. North Petherton, Huish Episcopi 
(Plate IV), etc.) the contrast between the light blue 
walling, and the dark brown, red, or yellow worked stone 
is very striking — perhaps more striking than satisfactory. 
Somewhat similarly in Mid-Northamptonshire alternate 



Ijancfs of dark ironstone and light freestone are often 
found in the same building. 

Again, the exampleand influence, if not the patronage 
and assistance, of the powerful and wealthy Abbey of 
Glastonbury, probably in many cases acted as a stimulus 
to building on a grander scale and in a more sumptuous 
manner than would otherwise have been attempted. 
The precedent set in one church would doubtless be 
followed in others; and the less important Abbeys of 
Cleve, Hinton, Muchelney, and Woodspring would 
probably help their dependencies in the same way so far as 
they could.' 

Further, here, as elsewhere, ambition and emulation 
must have been powerful incentives towards the erection 
of many of these splendid buildings. One village would 
make a grand effort to raise a tower that should he the 
admiration and envy of all the country side ; the 
a^oining village would strain every nei"ve in a supreme 
em>rt to beat the rival over the way. Stories of clever 
apprentice and jealous master, frequent elsewhere, are 
repeated here ; as, for instance, at Huish and Kingsbury ; 
stripped of the fabulous, there is probably a substratum 
of truth in them, based upon the keen competition 
between two neighbouring places to have, at all costs, 
the flner structure. 

Some such causes, among others, were apparently at 
work to effect the contemporary building — or rebuilding 
— entirely from the ground, of so many glorious towers. 

Why totvers rather than other parts of churches were 
chosen for this extraordinary display of grandeur in 
scale and in ornamentation, is not at first sight very 
evident. For special fervour of piety and special out- 
bursts of liberality a century or so earlier would most 
likely have found vent in enlarging or beautifying the 
choirs or chancels (which are often comparatively small 
and poor in even the finest Somerset churches) or in 
erecting chantry chapels and endowing priests to sing in 
them. But the great movement which was destined 
ere long to arrest all church building in England was 
already, perhaps, foreshadowed, if it was not actually being 



felt : anrl it has been su^ested' that a prudent generosity 
rather esercised itself in rearing splendid monuments of 
taste and skill which should be allowed to remain for all 
time the pride of the county, than in founding chantries 
and endowing altars for rites which were even then 
beginning to lose their paramount importance, and which 
were doomed to an eventually certain, and probably long 
foreseen, abolition. But another, and very practical, 
motive for the erection of large towers may be found in 
the fiict that towards the close of the fifteenth and in 
the eai'ly years of the Rixteenth century peals of beUs 
were beginning commonly to come into vogue. 
Previously, most village churches had two or three 
small and light service bells, rung separately, not 
together; and for these, in many cases, beU-cots would 
have been sufficient. But with the introduction of 
" tuneable peals " of heavy beUs for musical change 
nnging or chiming, ampler accommodation would be 
needed ; and towers would naturally be erected to meet 
the want. 

Special Chabactbristics. 
I. Elaboration of Parapets. 
The parapet in Somerset is not merely a wall erected 
to protect a pathway along a roof, and tiuisbed (as usual 
elsewhere) either with a plainly moulded coping, or with 
battlements, originally designed for defence, and after- 
wards retained for aesthetic reasons; but it assumes a 
definite and important place of its own in the scheme of 
decoration, and is often the most highly ornate part of the 
whole tower. In the finest examples it is usually pierced 
with geometrical and other patterns, and exhibits an 
exquisite combination of richness and elegance. It may 
be remarked, however, that many highly elaborate 
parapets have but slight connection with the magnificent 
towers which they crown ; and, fine as they are in 
themselves, they often appear as independent or even 
incongruous superstructurea In some cases they do 

' Cf. a paper by P. Waire, " On the Someriet Archaeological Sodely for 
Perpendicular Towere of Someriet," 1862. 
printed in the Froceedingt of the 



not fit, but are obviously too large for the belfry storeys 
on which they stand ; in others, the merlons of their 
battlements are confiised with the corner or central 
pinnacles ; in others, again, the latter project at the 
extreme angles, standing upon nothing, instead of forming 
the natural termination of buttresses below them. The 
excessive height and strongly emphasised verticality of 
some parapets (such as those of tne towers of Dundry 
(Plate VI) and S. Mary's, Tauntoo)form a striking contrast 
to the equally emphasised horizontal stringcourses or 
panelled bands which divide the stages of the towers 
themselves. They form, too, a striking contrast to the 
marked horizontality of other parapets (such as those of 
the towers of Yeovil and Wedmore) unrelieved by any 
vertical outlines, and even devoid of corner pinnacles. 

II. Pinnacles. 

Pinnacles are naturally connected with parapets ; and 
apart from the ease with which they lend themselves to 
independent ornamental treatment such as panelling, 
■carving, and crocket-work in almost infinite variety, 
their chief function is to give the appearance of 
lightness, and to break up the horizontal lines which 
would otherwise be too pronounced in the parapets of 
square towers. A local (and very beautiful) peculiarity 
is their employment at the corners in clusters, usually 
four smaller pinnaclets, in some eases attached, in others 
detached, bemg grouped roimd a larger central pinnacle 
rising high above them. Less commendable are the 
pinnaclets supported on brackets thrown outward from 
the angles from some parapet cornices, and connected by 
small flying buttresses to the sides of corner pinnacles. 
They have an air of perilous insecurity, and they unduly 
extend the apparent width of the parapet. 

As well as pinnacles proper, i.e., complete, detached 
pinnacles, attached half-pmnacles (usually set diagonally) 
are much employed in many different positions. This 
pilaster- pinnacle work, as it may be called, is some- 
times found in other localities, but there it is usually 
confined to the sides of doorways and tomb-recesses. In 
Somerset it is largely employed to decorate the upper 



stages of buttresses, and to relieve plain wall surfaces ; 
and its bold projections are tlie more valuable as much of 
the panelled ornament is shallow work, and has a some- 
what flat appearance. 

III. Niche-Work 
Elaborate towers in other districts are often ornamented 
with canopied niches ; but nowhere is this mode of 
decoration so frequent and so abundant as in Somerset. 
In Somerset towers the niches oflen have miniature 
groined roofs ; and the canopies, which have pinnaclets 
at the sides, are erocketed and terminate in boldly carved 
iiuials. The bases are generally supported by projecting 
brackets with characteristic foliage cut in low relief, 
sometimes by angel figures with outspread wings, and 
the brackets are frequently borne by semi-shafts— or 
pilaster-pinnacle work — carried up from the stringcourse 
next below. These niches are to be found on all faces of 
towers and in all stages (except the belfries) ; occasionally, 
even in parapets, where they occupy the place of a 
central merlon or pinnacle. As for instance, at — 



W. Pennard, 

The statues which once filled them have generally, in 
Somerset as elsewhere, been destroyed ; but in this county 
a comparatively large number have escaped destruction 
or serious mutilation ; at He Abbots, for instance, and at 
Kingsbury Episcopi, nearly all remain intact, 

IV. External stair-turrets. 
These are almost universal in Somerset. In other fine 
architectural provinces, such as East Anglia, or South 
Lincolnshire and North Northamptonshire, tower stair- 
cases are arranged not to be visible from outside, in order 
that they may not interfere with the general symmetry 
of the tower ; they are placed in the thickness of the 
walls at one corner, the angle of which is filled with 
masonry internally to afford room for the winding 
stairs. But in Somerset they are deliberately planned 



to be plainly visible on the outside ; and they are made 
a prominent — in some districts the prominent — feature of 
the general design. They are usually placed at, or near 
a ci^mer — in most cases the north-east ; occasionally, as 
at Wellington, one is seen in the middle of one side of a 
tower. In shape most are octagonal, or semi-octagonal; 
but often the lowest or two lowest stages of them are 
rectangular. Some, e.g., are hexngonaJ — 

Shept^n Beauchamp. 
One or two are irregular polygons — 

Ilminster (Plate IX), 
The large majority are of bold projection, and rise high 
above the tower parapet. Some are finished with parapets 
of their own (usually embattled) ; others with spirelets, 
which in the richer and more important examples are 
ribbed and crocketed with handsome finials, and are 
flanked by pinnaclets rising from each angle. In a few 
instances only they are partly hidden between pairs 
of angle buttresses, and such die away into the tower and 
become internal in the upper stages ; for instance — 
Wrington (Plate VII), 
Evercreech (Plate VIII), 
In two instances of important towers there is no visible 
external turret or thickening of the wall for the 
staircase — 

while in one (happily, only one) case (at Yatton) the 
turret is thrust away at arm's length, so to speak, by 
being placed outside a diagonal corner buttress, and 
thuB emphasised with a vengeance 1 

We may observe that s^r-turrets in other parts of 
churches are often made prominent features of them in 
Somerset. Thus there are fine rood-turrets at — 

Winscombe (Plate II), 
Burrington, etc. ; 

I 2 



and similar stair-tuirets are used with equally good effect, 
to afford access to roofe, as at — 

Crewkerne, etc. 
The relative gain or loss, artistically, resulting from an 
internal and concealed, or an external and obtruded, 
tower staircase, is a matter of taste and of individual 
opinion ; but we may fairly presume that it is the 
smaller, plainer " merely picturesque towers of no great 
architectural pretensions '" that gain most from a well- 
developed and ornate turret as their prominent feature ; 
especi^y if it rise at one angle, there being single 
diagonal buttresses at the other three, as is usual in 
the less important examples. For this reason, doubtless, 
BrialingtoD has been pronounced " a very gorgeous tower" 
(Parker, Introduction), and "a rich Somersetshire 
tower" (Parker, Glossary). Its rather fine parapet 
and very fine turret spirelet form an elegant and even 
striking finish to a plain little tower of quite ordinary 
merit.''' Similarly Dundry, though in all respects a 
grander structure, depends upon its elaborate crown for 
its fame. Great skill has been shown in many of the 
finest towers by the turret being so arranged as only to 
modify, and not spoil, the designs on the side where it is 
placed. The north feces of the following towers are Ciises 
m point — 

Shepton Mallet (Plate I), 




Bishop's Lydeard, 

S. Mary's, Taunton. 
The beifty windows are in some instances narrower, in 
others fewer, than on the other faces ; but they are not 
thrown out of centre, nor is there any marked or un- 
pleasant want of symmetry. At Axbridge alone, the 
corner stair turret does not in any way affect the design 
of the belfiy windows on the sides adjacent to it. 

In octagonal towers, on the other hand, external stair- 
tuiTets seem obviously misplaced. Not only are there no 



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buttresses at the angles of such a tower large enough to 
mask or to balance the turret, but it necessarily interferes 
much more noticeably with the general outline {as for 
example, at Somerton). 

V. Diagonalism. 

In all counties the larger and more important towers 
have as a rule buttresses set in pairs at right angles near 
their corners ; and the amaller and less important ones (if 
built during or after the fourteenth century) have single 
buttresses at each angle set diagonally. But whether 
double or single, buttresses elsewhere usually keep the 
same relative inclination in all their stages, and their sides 
irom bottom to top form an angle of 90 or of 135 degrees 
respectively with the adjacent sides of the tower. They 
are sometimes finished with giiblets, but far more 
commonly with plain weather-slopes which die away 
into the walls of the tower somewhere in the belfry stage. 

But in the finer Somerset towers buttresses are not 
finished in either of these ways. At the base of the belfry 
stage, if not below it, they pass either into flat pilaster- 
strips usually ornamented with pinnacle- shafts, set 
diagonally attached to their faces, or into thin slips of 
wailiuig set diagonally at the angles, of greater or less 
projection according us the belfry stage is more or less 
set back from the stage below it, also faced with, or 
surmounted by, pinnacle shafts. The crocketed pinna- 
clets which rise from the shafts are usually free and 
terminate below the parapet cornice. 

The thin slips of walling above mentioned are an 
especial Somerset peculiurity. Their purpose is twofold : 
utilitarian, in holding the shafts secur^y in position ; 
and artistic, in preventing daylight from appearing too 
low down between the shafts and the tower walls. Tlie 
former object is sometimes attained when the latter is 
not desired by little flying arches connecting the pinnacle- 
shafts with the tower instead of by the wall slips, AJl 
this diagonal setting of pilaster -strips, pinnacle -shafts 
and pinnacles, not only above buttresses, but also generally 
on the faces of towers, is a notable and strongly marked 
local characteristic. 



The same principle of diagonalism is sometimes carried 
out still higher up with consummate skill and with 
admirable effect. The pinnacle-shafts that crown the 
corner buttresses pass through the parapet and terminate 
in free pinnaclets at the angles of the square comer 
pinnacles, which are set on diagonally. Excellent 
examples may be seen at — 



Evercreech , 

Wrington ; 
but perhaps the most instructive instance is Evercreech 
(Plate VIII), where the general design is almost a 
repetition of that of Wrington {Plate VII), but where 
the details are marvellously softened and refined by the 
diagonal treatment of them. 

In this connection we may observe that occasionally 
(as, for example, at Long Sutton) medial pinnacle-shafts 
are carried through an embattled parapet, the pinnaclets 
appearing above the merlons. The effect of this 
arrangement is confused and unsatisfactory. 

VI. Grotesque animal figures. 

These forma of ornament, common in rich Perpendicular 
■work everjrwhere, are especially common in Somerset : 
not only here and there as gargoyles, but in profusion as 
decorative breaks in tlie horizontal lines of parapet 
cornices, particularly at angles. Occasionally they are 
used to decorate stringcourses in the same way.' Many 
of the forms are lifelike, and portray animals in 
varied attitudes of sprightly playfulness, as for example 



Staple-Fitzpaine (Plate V) ; 
others are weird, hideous and repulsive monsters, of which 
perhaps the most frightful are to be seen at South 

outspread wing^ ue Bimikrly uaed : &b, 


Vn. Pandliiig inform of Windows. \^ai u 

Perhaps the chief distinguishing feature of the Somerset 
towers as contrasted with those of other districts is 
the " panelling in form of windows," as Freeman calls it, 
which is well-nigh universal. This localism is the more 
noteworthy, as panelling in the usual Perpendicular 
manner, i.e. the covering of the whole of flat svirfaces 
with panel-work (as, for example, in the towers of Glou- 
cester Cathedral and Evesham) is hardly ever to be seen 
externally^ though common enough inside churches, 
especially in the soffits of tower arches. In some examples 
these so-called windows are entirely hlind, and are fitted 
with solid stonework, but oftener, especially in the higher 
stages, they are ornamented with geometrical designs in 
pierced stonework of great elegance. The belfry windows 
are naturally, as a rule, the most open, hut even they 
are very seldom entirely so ; generally the greater part of 
them is filled with similar pierced stonework, and they 
are very rarely fitted with the louvre-boards usual 

VIII. WeM Dowways and West Windows. 

The west face of a western tower is naturally the most 
important. It is the most elaborate, and is often built of 
better stone and with better masonry than the other 
sides. In Somerset all the finer towers have western 
doorways, which as a rule are con^paratively insignificant, 
on account of the large size and low position of the west 
windows. The sills of these often join the labels over 
the doors ; and in some cases, e.g. Brislington and Mells, 
they are actually below the apex of the doorway iirch : 
for the function of the west window in most cases is not 
merely, as usual elsewhere, to light the tower, but also 
the nave. For, strangely enough, that peculiarly 
Perpendicular, feature, the clerestory, is comparatively 
uncommon in the largely Perpendicular — or Perpendi- 



cularised — churches of Somerset. Where there is no 
western tower, and in consequence the whole of the west 
gable of the nave is available for the doorway and the 
window, as at Yatton and Crewkeme, the doorway 
assumes a more prominent position and a more dignified 

IX. 2'otrer Arches. 
It has been said above that in spite of the general 
resemblance to one another of members of the same 
group, the individual towers in each group exhibit great 
variety. In one feature, however, this is not so. All 
the tower arches belong to one or other of two kinds, 
and the details of each kind are singularly uniform. 
Therefore, though they cannot strictly be called 
monotonous, since there are two quite distinct types 
equally common, they are certainly dttonoua, if one may 
coin the word, and for that reason they are comparatively 
uninteresting. All the arches are either moulded or 
panelled. The moulded arches have almost invariably 
a casement hollow between two wave-mouldin{>s. The 
panelled arches have little or no chamfer-plane, the 
angles being occupied by a roll or bowtel forming an 
attached angle-shaft (with or without a miniature cap 
and base) ; and in the soffit-plane are two rows of sunk 
panels of which there are usually two tiers in the jambs, 
and two above in the archivolt. Nearly all these 
tower arches are continuous. The entire absence of 
hoodmoulds over them, as well as other Perpendicular 
arches in Somerset, is a characteristic localism. 

X. Dote, 
As has been remarked before, the range of date in 
the finest Somerset towers is coextensive with the Per- 
pendicular era of English architecture — i.e. the whole 
of the fifteenth century and the first half of the 
sixteenth. Some few may have been begun a little 
earlier ; some doubtless were not finished till later ; but 
the large majority were built within those limits of time. 
As usual there are very few records of their building. 




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With the exception of the towers of Wells Cathedral, 
Bath Abbey, and Dunster conventual church {with none 
of which we are here immediately concerned) only two, so 
far as we know, Glastonbury S. John and Winscombe, 
have had dates assigned to them on documentary evidence. 
Glastonbury is stated to havn been built by Abbot John 
Selwood in 1485 ; and though it has a later appearance, 
there is nothing in its architectural character inconsistent 
with such a date. 

On the other hand, Winscombe is said to have been 
built by Bishop Ralph de Salopia, who died in 1362 ; but 
his building cannot be that which remains to-day, unless 
we are to reject all the ordinary criteria on which we rely 
to determine date. The writer of Murray's Handbook to 
Somerset says : (p. 475) " It must rank among the earliest 
triumphs of the new Perpendicular style "; but there is 
nothing either in the general appearance or in the details 
of this tower to differentiate it from many others of its 
type, or to warrant belief in any such precocity. We 
cannot suppose that the fully developed Perpendicular at 
Winscombe is earlier than the transitional and tentative 
forms at Edington, where Decorated influence is still 
veiy prominent; and we know that Edington church 
was begun as late as 1332, and that it was not dedicated 
till 1361.' Far more probably Winscombe church was 
completed in 1461, a date which remains on a piece of 
painted glass in the chancel (as mentioned by Hickman, 
Gth Edition, p, 412), and which might well be assigned 
to it on the evidence of its architectural style. 

In a paper "On the Perpendicular of Somerset," 
read before the Somerset Archaeological Society in 1851, 
Professor E. A. Freeman proposed a classification of the 
Church towers of the county ; *and he read a second 
paper on the same subject before the same Society in the 
following year. On the latter occasion, whUe adducing 
further mstances and supplementing his former remarks. 

■ Sw Bictman. 6tl, Ed.. 

p. 337, 

pendieiilar, but— "of tbi> I 


■where Edington is called " c 

•ne of the 

ir. that from Detiirated l 

earliest dated eumpUs" — no 

■tof Per- 




he observed that he had seen nothing fresh in the interval 
to lead him to modify materially his former views. His 
classiBcation waa received with all the respect due to an 
eminent architectural authority, and an enthusiastic 
admirer of Perpendicular Grothic in general and Somerset 
examples of it id particular. It met with general 
acceptance, and when Somerset towers are mentioned' 
they are usually referred to one or other of the 
three heads under which Freeman grouped them. As 
his papers were not separately reprinted, and as the 
Volumes of the Society's Proceedings which contain 
tliem are now scarce and not readily accessible, in 
considering and criticizing his classification, it will be 
more serviceable to quote extracts than merely to give 
references. We must at the outset state our conviction 
that it was started on a false basis ; that it is at once 
unsatisfactory, and incomplete ; and that, if followed, it 
must lead to conftision. This criticism will be regarded 
as less presumptuous if it can be vindicated on Freeman's 
own showing, as we think it can. 

He divides the more important towers into three 
main classes. 

I. The Taunton Type. 

In this " the height above the church is divided into 
numerous stages, and a staircase turret at one corner, 
most usually the north-east, is combined with double 
buttresses at all the four corners, while all the pinnacles 
are of equal height." 

II. The Bristol Type. 

Where " the turret is brought into prominence, 
crowned with a single large pinnacle rising above the 

III. The Wrington Type. 
In this " the staircase-turret, as an important aesthetic 
feature, is entirely dispensed with, being only carried up 

' e.g. by J. L. W. Po?e in TA^ Sp'rei, bj the writer of MurT»j'» 
CAarcA ToiB'ri of Somertet 1 Frost and Haudbook to Somerset, etc. 
Bead) bj C. Wickes in Toanrt uad 



a little way above the roof of the church, and then 
■finished off under the belfty stage. The whole porcion 
of the tower above the church is thrown into one vast 
stage, panelled with two enormously lofty windowa . . . 
. . . This stage is recessed between two flat square 
turrets, or large pilasters, against which the buttresses 
are finished with their pinnacles just below the parapet. 
The pilasters are carried up and crowned with spires, 
forming four magnificent pinnacles to the whole tower, 
and rising as the natural finish of the pinnacles below. 
This glorious idea, which I have no hesitation in ranking 
among the very highest achievements of architectural 
genius, I have as yet seen completely realized in two 
cases only, Wrington (Plate VII), and St. Cuthbert's at 

Now, as Freeman's last and most highly esteemed 
class consists of only two examples (though we may 
furnish him with two more, for Evercreech, which 
apparently he did not then know, should obviously be 
included ; and if the number of the belfry windows be 
considered as immaterial to the classification, Batcombe 
also), all the rest of the tiner towers muat belong to either 
his first or his second class. And of them he says, 
" these two classes naturally run very much into one 
another, the only difference being in the degree oi 
prominence given to a feature which exists in both cases. 
I should consider those only to be pure examples of the 
second {i.p. the Bristol type) in which buttresses are 
entirely absent from the corner occupied by the staircase 
turret, so as to give the latter its full importance. It is 
no wonder, then, that we meet with an intermediate class 
in which the turret stands out much more boldly than in 
the first class, hut still has not entirely dispensed with 
the buttresses at that angle." 

That is to say, the towers are only distinguishable by 
the ariangement and finish of a feature, and that a 
merely subordinate one, common to them all, namely 
their staircase turrets ! And even so, there remains the 
" intermediate class" falling under neither category ! 

Again ; in speaking of Ilmiiister (Plate IX), Freeman 
remarks: "the single angle turret breaks in upon the 



regularity of the design more than is desirable in an 
erection of such great architectural splendour ; " and in 
speaking of Portishead and Dundry, "when such a 
(staircase) turret is introduced, its predominance over the 
other pinnacles should be greater than it is in this case. 
My own view is very decidedly that this form" (i.e. the 
predominant staircase turret crowned with a lofty spirelet) 
" is only adapted to an inferior class of towers — tnose of 
the merely picturesque kind ; and that in structures of 
the real architectural magnificence of Wrington aJid 
Glastonbury their designers judged right in making all 
their pinnacles on a level." 

With all of this we may entirely agree, but in an 
attempt to classify the finer towers, why make their 
class depend on tne treatment of an adjunct which is 
neither necessary nor desirable, one by which in many 
cases — to quote Freeman once more — " the uniformity of 
the structure is destroyed without any proportionate 
gain in picturesque effect " ? 

Confusion naturally arises from a system which would 
create arbitrary distinctions between towers almost 
identical in design. The family likeness among those 
belonging to the same groups m Somerset Is so strong 
that it is often diflScult in passing from one example to 
another to remember the points of difference. For 
instance, if afler examining Cheddar we go on to 
Axbridge close by, we find a. (central) tower very similar 
in design to the (western) one we have left. No one, 
unless resolved to apply a predetermined method of 
classification, could regard them as being of different 
types. In details as well as in genend appearance the 
resemblance is sufliciently obvious ; but Cheddar has a 
staircase-turret combined with buttresses, therefore it 
belongs to the Taunton class : while Axbridge has a 
turret standing free, with no buttresses at that angle ; 
therefore it belongs to the Bristol class ! Several other 
pairs of towers might be instanced which in spite of their 
clearly similar design and features would nave to be 
separated acconling to Freeman's canon. 

Doubtless, no classification could be proposed both 
simple and perfect ; none, that is, which would at once 
enable us infallibly to assign to one or other of a few 



main types all the towers with which we have to deal. 
In any ^stem some would assert their individuality and 
independence of system, and would elude all efforts to 
arrange them. But all noble, well-planned towers huve 
a defcaite physiognomy of their own ; and in any attempt 
to group them, they can only be satisfactorily classed 
and distinguished, not by mere peculiarities in such 
accidental appendages as external stair-turrets, but by 
the most characteristic features of the towers themselves. 
Now on first sight of a fine tower, after a preliminary 
glance at the whole in order to gain a general impression 
of its scale and proportions, our eyes naturally rest on the 
most important and distinctive part of it — the belfry 
stage, for there the ornamentation is the most lavish, and 
there the windows, which give the tower its chief 
expression, are usually larger if not also more numerous 
than those in the lower storeys. The belfi*y stage is in 
fact to the rest of a church tower what the face is to 
the rest of the human body ; to it we instinctively look 
for the peculiar featureij which determine its character, 
and mark its likeness or unlikeness to other members 
of the same family. 

Accordingly, the classification which we propose to 
adopt is based upon the treatment of the belfry storey 
and particularly upon the number of its windows. The 
term windows m this connection must be understood to 
include dummy or blind windows, filled with solid stone 
panelling, as well as open windows and such as are filled 
■with pierced stonework. 

We shall divide the towers into four groups : — 

Group A.— Characterised by three windows abreast 
in the belfry stage, and not in the stage below ; 
Group B. — Characterised by two windows abreast 
in the belfry stage, and not in the stage below : 
Group C. — Characterised by single belfry windows 
in each face, wholly contained in the belfry 
stage : 
Group T>. — Characterised by uniformity of treat- 
ment above the roof of the nave. 
Further details will be given in the fuller descriptions 
■which follow of each of the separate groups. 


124 on the chaeacteristics and classification 

The a Groitp, or Cheddar Valley type. 

Unnoticed by Freeman as a separate class, this is 
perhapa the most characteristic and distinctive of alL 
It includes many first-rate, and many second-rate 
towers, differing from one another in size and richness 
rather than in character or design, and all bearing a 
strong general resemblance to the other members of the 
same group. The peculiar feature is a belfry storey with 
triple windows, the central one usually open, and the 
side ones either filled with solid stone panelling, or (more 
rarely) with pierced stonework. The storey below (in 
4-8taee towers) has one similar window, generally with 
a nicne on either side of it in the richer examples. 
The storey next above the nave roof has either a window 
or a niche for a Bgure, but not both (except at Weston 
Zoyland), The parapet is usually pierced with geo- 
metrical patterns, and (except at Bruton and Long 
Sutton) has a horizontal, not embattled top. The comer 
pinnacles are single and slender, and intermediate 
pinnacles, though occasionally occurring, are infrequent. 
The buttresses are characteristic ; they are very narrow, 
of small projection, and (with the single exception of 
Bleadon) set in pairs close to the angles, being in mt^t 
cases so attenuated as to give the impression of being 
intended as merely decorative features rather than as 
strengthening supports. 

Examples of this group are spread over a fairly wide 
area : but the home of it is the Cheddar Valley, where 
the type prevails. The prototype appeare to be the 
tower of Shepton Mallet (Plate I),' built apparently about 
the end of the fourteenth centui-y, and intended to carrv a 
spire, of which only a few feet were ever completed. In 
consequence, no doubt, of this intention, the belfry stage 
is well set back, and the buttresses are substantial and 
of considerable projection, in order to carry out the idea 
of spire-growth from the ground upward. The only 
other tower that preserves these early characteristics 
(though there are no signs visible of an intended spire) 
is the very similar but much smaller one of West 



Cranmore close by. The rest of the group, built later, 
after spires had gone out of fashion, while retaining the 
other main features of the orimnal, are hardly recessed 
at all at the beliry storey ; and their buttresses ai-e so 
attenuated and so little set off at each stage, that the 
towers appear very nearly as broad at the top as they 
do at the bottom. 

In and near the Cheddar Valley towers of this kind 
are thick on the ground. The finest are — 
Shepton Mallet, the parent of the type, 
Ban well, 
Cheddar, which (except for the position of its 

staircase turret) is almost a replica of it, 
Winscombe (Plate 11) (which only differs from the 
last two in a few unimportant details) the most 
Weston Zoyland, the most majestic of the group, 
Bruton, which baa some modifications and peculiar- 
ities — such as an embattled parapet — but is, in 
all essentials, a grand example oi the type. 

Of the same group, fine towers, though smaller and 
lees elaborate, are — 
Axbridge and 
Wedmore (both central), 
Brent Knoll, 

Long Sutton, 

These are chiefly distinguished from the first class in 
the same group by having shallower- worked belfry 
windows set in the middle of their stage, so that their 
sills do not slope down to, and rest upon, the string at 
the bottom of it; but these remarks do not apply to 
Axbridge or Weare, which are only inferior examples in 
point of size. One, Bleadon, has single corner biittresses 
set diagonally, instead of pairs set at right angles at each 
comer, like the rest. 

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The B Group, or Taunton Deane Type. 
This group is very important, as ifc includes a greater 
number of splendid towers than any other. Specimens 
are to be found in widely distant parts of the country ; 
but the home and centre of the type is the neighbour- 
hood of Taunton, where examples are at once more 
Jrequent and more magnificent than elsewhere. Such 
are the glorious towers of 

North Petherton (Plate III), 

HuiBh (Plate IV), 


Bishop's Lydeard, 

S. James, Taunton (rebuilt), 
and, smaller, but no less beautiful, the three-sta^ 
towel's of 

He Abbots (rebuilt), 


Staple Fitzpaine (Plate V). 
In this group the belfry windows are double, and the 
stages are usually -very distinctly separated by string 
courses of pronounced cnaracter, and are sometimes even 
more clearly marked by bands of decorative panelling. 

The buttresses, set on in pairs a little way from the 
angles, are generally of bold projection. 

The parapets are mostly pierced in geometrical patterns 
and embattled, and are ornamented with central as well 
as corner pinnacles, the latter being usually large and 
clustered. In the richest examples niche-work and 
pinnacle-work are abundant ; the carved and moulded 
stone-work is generally of different material and different 
colour from the walling ; and the whole scheme of decor- 
ation is elaborately carried out with consummate skill 
and with admirable effect. 

Beside the eight magnificent towers above mentioned, 
there are in Somerset thirteen other examples of the 
type, somewhat plainer or smaller structures. These 


Middlezoy and 

Chedzoy, which have much in common ; 







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Ruisliton, low but elaborate ; 

Gliistonbury, S. Benignus ; 

Muchelney, with its wide eyes and spreading tnj» ; 

Martock, massive but very plain : 

Kingsdon, still plainer ; 

Welltngton, eccentric and small-eyed ; 

Lympsham, with its fine leaning tower, with details 
partly characteristic of this group, and partly 
of some towers in group D ; 

Blagdon, a lofty, beautiful and symmetrical struc- 
ture, unique in combining characteristicH of the 
A and C group with the l>elfry window 
arrangement of this group. 

Group C, ob Bristol and Channel district tyi-e. 

This group has single belfiy windows ; and as it 
includes all the smaller and plainer towers, is of course 
far the most numerous and le;ist important as a whole 
class. There are only a few towers in it of exceptional 
excellence. The best are relatively lofty, witli sturdy 
buttresses of bold projection, and with high parapets. 
The latter, like the towers which they crown, are often 
plain and unpretentious ; but sometimes, as at — 
Chew Stoke, etc., 
they are elegantly ornamented with central niches as 
■well as handsome corner pinnacles and graceful turret 
spirelets, which give distmction to the whole tower. 
Especially is this the case with — 

Dundry {Plate VI), where the parapet and pinnacles 

are extraordinarily fine drawn and elaborate ; 
S. Mary's, Taunton, still more elaborate ; 
Backwell, in spite of mutilation and ill-treatment in 
the seventeenth century, is a tower uf great 
beauty ; 
Portishead, in many respects very similar, is hardly 

less so ; 
Chew Magna, 




S, Decuman 's, 


are all fine towers of some merit, but none of them quite 
attain first class rank. 

Towers of this group are of course to be found every- 
where ; but the finest examples may be seen in the north 
and north-west of the county, in the neighbourhood of 
Bristol and of the Channel. They are built of one kind 
of stone throughout ; and consequently uniformity ot 
colouring is as characteristic of this group as variety is of 
the last. 

As nine-tenths of the whole number of towers belong 
to this group, it is impossible to draw any hard and fast 
line between the first-rate and second-rate examples of 
it, or between these and the rest. The large nuijority 
are small and plain, and are no more important than 
small and plain towers in other counties. But 
naturally there are many that rise above the average and 
are worthy of attention : such are 

Batheaston, a fine tower having much in common 
with Dundry, Backwell, and Portisbead ; 

Queen Camel and 

Cannington, very plain, but fine tall towers ; 


Easton in Gordano ; 

Montacute, omamented with bands of quatrefoil 
panelling dividing the stages ; 
and several others which for one reason or another 
deserve notice. 

Group D. 

Though not a large one, this class has three sub- 
divisions, in the first two of which are comprised all the 
rest of the principal or first-rate towers. The connecting 
characteristic is the similarity of treatment in alt that 
part of the tower which is above the nave roof. 

Subdivision {«) or Wringtok type : in which the 
whole height above the body of the church consists of one 
very tall stage having double or triple very lofty windows. 
The examples are : 






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Wrington {Plate VII), 

Evercreech (Plate VIII), 

S. Cuthbert'fl, Wells (with double wiiKl(»w»). 

Batcoml)e (with triple windows). 
Subdivision {$) or Chbwton Mendip type : in 
which there are two (in one inRtance three) stages above 
the body of the church with double or triple windows of 
the same, or very similar, design in fach stage. The 
examples are— 

Chewton Mendip, 

St. John's, Glastonbury, 


Leigh-on-Mendip (with double windows in two 

Ilminster (Plate IX) (a central tower with triple 
windows in two stages), 

Taunton S. Mary Magdalene, with double windows 
in three stages. 
Subdivision (y) or Shepton Beauchamp type: 
in which the height above the body of the churcli is 
partially divided into two stages by a string course which 
is interrupted in each face by tall single windows partly 
above and partly below the string. 'I ne examples are — 

Shepton Beauchamp, 

Hinton S. George, 

Norton -sub- Hamdon, 

Curry Rivel (rebuilt), 

Crewkerne (central tower). 
All these examples are in the same neighlwurhood ; 
and the peculiarity of the design — which cannot be 
regarded as a happy or satisfactory one — points to the 
hand or the influence of some one local architect. None 
of these towers is entitled to rank among the first class. 

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Table of Dimensions of 60 Eepresentative Somersetshire Towers. 


Width above 

10 top of 



Turret (if 


ft. in. ft. in. 

ft. in. 

ft. in. ft. in. 

ft. ID. 


SO 0' 

78 tf 

7 0' 

7 0" 


21 3 



IS 6' 


24 4 


11 9' 

16 0' 

25 7 -.34. 4. 



19 7 

84 11 



Bishop's L;dcard . 

24 10 ! 23 10 

94 6 

12 6 






19 81 

79 e 


13 0' 



08 * 

9 6 



23 6 : 22 2 


10 e 


22 6 : Si 5 

W 8 

8 4 

16 O' 

Chew Magna 

23 11 

88 7 


Chew Stoke 

17 9 


Chewton Mendip 

24 7 

106 7 

19 G 


17 4 



18 2 

61 10 

6 6 


20 2 




19 9 

82 10 

9 9 

llintoD St. George 

19 10 

78 3 

5 Oto7 


Huish Episoopi 

23 4 

90 6 

9 6 


21 8 

72 10 



74 3 


3 in. abov 


18 10: 17 (i 



Kingsbiii'J Kpiaucipi 

Z2 6 

HI r. 

7 fl' 

Kingattn .„. 

aa 3.21 '.1 

71 8 

9 6 

11 O 


19 6 ; 18 G 

72 8 

7 e 

Leigh -on -Mendtp ,. 

17 0: ? 

S3 fi 


Long Sutton ... 

21 7 

89 10 

6 8 

20 2 


8 6' 


10 3 


21 8 


25 8 : 24 10 



11 6 


24 9 

87 9 

16 6 

19 6' 

. - .- - 






<ltlj abovr 

lu tu[l lit 






Middtour . 



Xortli 1'etlit-Ko.i . 
NorloD Bub-Uuindoii 
XortuD St. PliiJip 



9t, Bpnnlict 

St. Cutltbert, WrllB 

St. James, Xuuntoii 

3t. Julin, 0-la»tonburv 

St. Jlurr Uitgilitlviii', Taunton 

Stiepton BcBucliamp 

Sheptuii Mallet 

Sunth Brent 

Staple Fitzpaiue . . 


17 S^;l!) 

17 8 : 18 2' 

Wdlington .. 
West PciiJuird 
WcitoD Zojlauil 
Wiiiscoiiibe ,... 
Wringtoii . . 

21 Oxltl 8 C7 1 

fisgmeiitarT U9S.) lias uot hwl the bcuulil uf liit rovisi 

> Aiiproiiuuto oul;. 
- Wiiboat thickcniD)!. 
' Ko porupct or plunaclci«. 

' 122 ft. 8 iu. to lK)tt«.u of [lierffJ 
of imnviH't. 
' 20 ft. 1 iu, uitlioul tliickciiin).'. 
■■ 20 tl. 2 ill. without ,->.rucr tliiok.'i.i 

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^locniiings at itteetings of tfti Iftoyal glrdbaiologtcal 

.Tunc 7th, 1905. 
Sir K BRABltOOK, C.U., F.S.A., Vieii-IVcsideiit, in the Chtiir. 
MisM JosEi'iiiNii Kxow'i.ES remi a luiper on " Syuiljoliijiu hi Xonium 

yciilpture at Queniiigtoii, Gloucfstorshire," illustrated by lantern 

Mr. Keysek, F.S.A., exhibited slides of somewhat si mi Iju- sculpture. 

After some obaervationa by Mr. KeymeIs, a vote of thanks was 
accordetl'to the author of the paper. 

Mr. Kevsei: Htilisoqueiitly e.\hibited slides showing scul])tures of 
St. Michael, with explanatory [■oniurks thereon. 

July 5th, 1905. 

Mr. W. H. St. John Hoj'e, M.A., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Mr. Charles Lynam, F.S.A., rejid a paper on Chepstow Parish 
Church, illustrated liy plans, sketches, and photographs. 

Lord Tredeoaie, F.S. A,, and the Chairman took part in the discussion 
that followed, and a vote of thanks was accorded to the author of the 

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^ticts of Sli:1iaeolo3ttal yublitations. 

The following have hoen received by the Institute : — 

Prowfdinga of the Sodelij of AnlupuD-u-s of London. Second Series, 

Vol. XX. No. 1. 
ProcMdrngs of the Society of Biblical Archaeology. Vol. XXVII. 

Part V. 
TransatiufM of the Bri^l and QloueetlerAiTe Arfharologifal Society 

for 1904. 
Arehaeologia CambrenMi. The Journal of the Cambrian Archaeo- 
logical Association. Sixth Series, Vol. V. Part III. 
Transactiotis of the Essex Arckaaologiral Society. Now Series. Vol. 

IX, PartV. 
The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiipiaries of Irelaivl. Vol. 

XXXV. Part il. 
Journal of the Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural Hi'itcn/ Society. " 

Vol. XXVII. 1905. 
The TransaclionJi of the Shropxhire Archacologiad aiid Natural Hvttixry 

Society. Third Sories. Vol. V. Part II. 
The TravMidimt of the. Thoroton Society, 1904. Vol, VIII. 
J'A« lyiltihire Arriuirologiad awl Ntilural Hixlorij Magnzini-. June, 

1905. No. 103. Vol. XXXIV. 
The Publications of the Thorenby Society, 1903. Vol. VI. Part III. 

The Cnbvrley Charters. 
This number brings to a conclusion the work of reprinting 
the Calverloy Charters, presented to the British Museum by Sir 
Walter Calverley Trevclyan. The value of the work of repro- 
duction has Iteen greatly enhanced by a copious index, and an 
interesting introduction, for which the joint editors, William 
Paley BaiTdon, Esq., F.S.A., and Samuel Margerison, Esq., arc 
to be heartily congratulated. 

PMiaUions of Ikf. Thorcsby Society. Vol. VIII. Part III, No. 
31. 1904. The Coucher Book of Kirkstall Abbey. 

This numtier concludes the reproduction of the text of the 
Coucber Book, now preserved in the Record OtRce. The 
editors, W. T. Lancaster, Esq., and W. Paley Bftildon, F.S.A., 
have written an interesting introduction, and iti the course of 
the work have been fortunate in tracing several leaves of the 
Book which have hitherto been wanting. The Book itself is a 
compilation of the Abbey Charters; fines or final concords; 
copies of records connected with legal proceedings; and 



tnisceltaneouB entries relating to the Abbey business. The 
volume before us, together with its predecessors, will, we cordially 
agree with the editors, form an invaluable aid to the future 
historiaTi of Kirkstall Abbey. 
Puiliaitums of the TImesby Society. Vol. XI. Part III. No. 32. 
1904. " Miscellanea." 

This number includes, inter alia, the reproduction of a map 
of Leeds, showing the town in 1815, with an introduction by 
Edmund Wilson, Esq. ; an account of the life of the Rev. 
Richard Rtretton, M.A. ; anotabte Protestant Dissenter of the 
Restoration period ; and a aiirvey of the Manor of Leeds 
made in 1740, now reproduced for the first time by H. T. 
Kelaey, Esq. 

The following foreign Publications have also been rsceived :— 
Bulletin el AUmoim de la, Son^t^ Archhlogiipie et Hislorique de la 

Charenie, Anji^ 1903-1904. Septifeme S^rie. Tome IV. 
Bulletin Trimedritl de la Sod^U de Borda Jktx {Lavdes). Vtngi- 

Neuviime Ait/iUe (1904), quatiifeme Trimestre. 
Bulletin Trimestriel de, la Sod^tH de Borda Dax (Lafules). Treniihiie 

Ann^e (1905), premier Trimeatre, 
Bolelin del Museo Naciimal De M^ico, Seainda tlpoca, Tomo 1, Num 

8 and Num 10-13. 

SHREWSBURY. An liieloriral and lopograpliical iicraimt of the Iowd. By 

TiiOMAB AcDBN. lUuBtraled b; Eatufbihb M. Roberts. Fubliebed by 

Mewn. McUiurn and Co. 

The author and publishers of the vohime Ijefore ua are to be 

heartily congratulated upon the production of what we are sure will 

prove a useful, and what we have found a very readable, book : useful 

in- that it compresses in the space of some three hundred pages an 

account of one of the most interesting towns in the three kingdoms, 

a history which is so full of Btriking incident and stirring story that 

it forms, as it were, an epitome of the history of England hereelf. And 

had the author contented himself with a bare narrative of the stirring 

scenes that Shrewsbury, in and outside her walls, from the days of the 

burning of her neighbour Uriconium, to the golden age of English 

{irose, when her praises were echoed by the brilliant coterie of 
itterateurs and wits of the seventeenth century, he would have had 
plenty of material out of which to form a story of engrossing interest. 
Mr. Auden, however, is no mere chronicler of facts ; he gives us much 
curious and suggestive information relative to the customs of the 
town and the manners of its citizens, obtained from seldom-sought-out 
soiu'oes, which perhap more trul^ than the facts throw Ught on our 
pretieeeasors' mode of life ; and his book teems with that local colour 
which invariably adds charm not only to the native, hut to the 
stranger also. 

The important part played by Shrewsbury in English history was due, 
as Mr, Auden is careful to point out, to its geographical position ; from 



its earliMt infancy, when, under the British name of Pengwem, it was 
the centre of the conflict between the Celt nnd the Saxon in the west 
until the conquest of Wales, Shrewsbury occupied a military position of 
the first importance, being, in fact, the chief fortress guarding the most 
exposed frontier of mediaeval England. 

Mr. Auden relates the part played by Shrewsbury in our history 
throughout the dark Middle Ages with clearness and conciseness ; 
he thinks the celebrated assembly of 1283 gathered itself together in 
the Chapter House of the Abbey, and not, as has been thought, in the 
Castle. An excellent chapter is devoted to the parishes and churches 
of the town, and, with the author, the present age has to regret the acts 
of vandalism which in the eighteenth century deprived poatority 
of the best local examples of the work of the Norman and Gothic 

Although we cannot wholly follow the author in his estimate of the 
results of the Kefomiation, it is clear that Shrewsbury was no great loser 
by that event, for out of the ruins of moriasticism there arose here, as 
in other places, a great school, founded for the purpose of the advance- 
ment of the new learning Shrewsbury School was started by the 
patriotism of the burgesses, and, with the exception of a few years at 
the close of the eighteenth century, has maintained its character under 
a succession of able head-masters, of whom possibly, Samuel Butler 
stands highest in repute ; nor did the removal of the school in l8t*2 
affect its vitality. Space prevents ua from following the history of 
Shrewsbury further, and the reader will find that the last two centuries 
have not passed without adding many famous names to the long list 
of Salopian alamni. A very useful appendix takes the form of an 
itinerary, by which the visitor is guidea round the town ; and reference 
is made to previous pages in the book when any point of interest is 
reached. This plan strikes us as novel, and worthy of imitation in other 
similar books. Finally, we wish to record our gratiScation at the 
clear type and excellent woodcuts which adorn the pages ; and 
while leaving to others the uncongenial task of pointing out 
minor errala (of which we have noticed very few), we again most 
cordially congratulate those responsible for the work on its appear- 
ance, and advise the intending visitor to Shrewsbury to ado this 
book to his equipment, for he will not find a more handy and 
reliable guide. 

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V.,; ^i-y 








Kingswinford, or more correctly King's Swinford, is a 
large and important parish in the soutn-west corner of 
the county of Stafford, on the borders of WorcesteiBhire, 
ahout three miles from Stourbridge. The church stands 
just off the high road from that town to Wolverhampton. 
It is dedicated to St. Mary, and consists of a west tower, 
etc., but has been so thoroughly reconstructed and 
renovated that it possesses little now of antiquarian 
interest. The Court House Inn, and a fine old black 
and white house with date 1596, both near the Church, 
remain as relics of the importance of the parish in old 
times, and the base of the churchyard cross is still in sitit 
on the south side of the sacred edifice. 

Within the Church, the only noticeable features besides 
the special subject of this article, are the font with some 
ornamental carving on the stem and alternate faces of 
the bowl, and a date 1662 inscribed on it, a very fine old 
timber chest, with the initials FR, two heads and a 
spread eagle within the panels, and male and female 
figures on the divisions, probably of the Jacobean period, 
and a mural tablet to George and Thomas Corben with 
date 1637. 

The sculptured tympanum now occupies the space over 
an interior doorway at the west end of the south aisle, 
facing the staircase to the gallery. It is stated to have 
been here in 1808 and originally to have occupied the 
space over the south doorway, as the following paragraph 
in Shaw's Ilistori/ and Antiquities of Staffordshire no 
doubt refers to it ; " Over the principal south door 
through the porch is some curious rude sculpture," 
VoL II, p. 231. It has unfortunately been liberally 
embellished with whitewash, but otherwise is in 
excellent preservation. It is semi-circular, and of large 
dimensions, being five feet eight inches in length at 




the bottom by two feet ten inches in height at the 
broadest part. A small portion of the lower side seems 
to have been shaved off. The sculpture presents us with 
the familiar subject of the contest between St, Michael 
and Satan, in the usual representation of an archangel 
contending with a large winged dragon. It differs 
slightly from all other examples of this subject, as will 
shortly be pointed out. It is at the same time one of 
the most interesting and vigorous carvings illustrating 
this great traditional event, and it is unfortunate that it 
only came under the notice of the writer last spring, and 
just too late to be included in his work on the sculptured 
Norman tympana and lintels,' which had then just been 
published, and which is otherwise a fairly complete treatise 
on this special brancli of architectural lore. 

As we face the tympanum, the figure of St. Michael 
occupies the space on the left side of the stone. He is 
stooping forward sideways, but with the head turned 
round so as to show the full face. He is bareheaded as 
in all the other early representations of this subject, has 
curly hair and very large outspread wings, the right 
behind his back so as to fill up the space on this side, the 
left extended in front of hun, reaching nearly to the 
other extremity, and almost touching the twisted tail of 
the dragon writhing beneath. He is very richly vested, 
and has a sleeve down to the wrist of the right arm, 
which alone is shown. His left side is concealed by a 
large umbrella-shaped shield with a boss surrounded by 
a beaded circle at the centre, and an outer border of flat 
circular beads or pellets. This is held above the head of 
the dragon. St. Michael holds in his right hand a sword, 
which he is pressing into the open jaws of the dragon, 
about half the blade having been driven home. This is 
the only instance where the subject is thus portrayed. 
In all the other examples where St. Michael holds a 
sword, he is in the act of striking, but has not, as here, 
actually delivered the stroke. The dragon is very large 
and fills up the whole of the space beneath the wing and 
to the right of the saint. It nas a large head with oval 

' A lUl of 2forma» Tt/mpana and in the ChureMi of Oreat Britain, b» 
LinlrU ipilk Fiavre. or Svmbolical Charlaa E. Kejwr, M.A., F5.A. 
■sculpiare, still, or till recently, exieting 



eye and small pierced hole to delineate the pupil, loug 
neck, scaly body, feathered wing similar to that of St. 
Michael, long leg and claw pressed against the back of 
its neck, and long beaded tail carried in several coils 
above its back. The head is raised straight up towards 
the saint, and is receiving the thrust of the sword in the 
centre of its open jaws, displaying a terrible double row of 
fangs. The whole composition is spirited, and a good 
specimen of early sculpture. It is difficult to assign an 
exact date to this particular example. As is pointed out 
in the work on sculptured Norman tympana, etc., already 
referred to, some of the tympana are oi' the pre-Norman 
period, but the great majority belong to the twelfth cen- 
tury, many of them being quite late in the Norman period. 
The subject of Sc. Michael seems to have been a popular 
one in early times, and two examples, viz., at St. Bees and 
Ipswich, are apparently of pre-Norman date, and as the 
Kingswinford sculpture in some respects corresponds with 
that at Ipswich, it may also belong to an early period. 

The subject of St. Michael is treated in various ways in 
sculpture and painting up to the end of the twelfth 
■century. We find him represented : 

(1) as an angel or archangel, 

(2) bearing a soul to heaven, 

(3) weighing souls, 

(4) contending with the devil. 

(l) Under the first heading we note on the tympanum 
above the north doorway at Halford Church, Warwick- 
shire,' a three-quarter length figure of an angel seated 
bareheaded, with small outspread wings and bands raised 
and holding a scroll, on which an inscription was in all 
probability formerly painted. It would not be safe to 
assume that this was intended for St. Michael, were it 
not for the fact that a somewhat similar example exists 
at Pennington, in Lancashire." This tympanum, no doubt, 

' A. lilt of yorman Tympana, etc., Seliquary and Illvtlrattd Archaeo. 

pp. liii and 17, Fig. 13«. hffitl. Vol. Vllt, p. 200. 

I A litt of Gorman Tgmpaaa, eta.. In this tost ai:eauaC a difTprciil. 

pp. liix and 86, Fig. 137. trarmlation of the inscnplioQ is gJTen, 

Curattrland and Wettmorelattd Aniiq. but gtill it call conSdcatlj tw atBerteit 

a»d Archaeol. Soc. Traat. New Series, that the figure of the Arcbangel is 

III, 873. intended' for St. Michael. 

L 2 



originaLy belonged to the Parish Church, but is now 
inserted over the entrance to a fannhouse at Loppergarth 
in this parish. It exhibits a half-length figure with large 
outspread wings and both hands raised in attitude of 
benediction. The Saint has a cruciform nimbus, a mark 
of distinction very rarely applied to any one except the 
second Person of the Blessed Trinity. An inscription in 
Runic characters round the semicircular portion is said to 
record the fact of the foundation of the Church by one 
Gamel in the middle of the twelfth century, and its 
dedication to St. Michael the archangel. It is a fair 
presumption that liere we have the Patron Saint, distin- 
guished by the cruciform nimbus, instead of a cross on 
the forehead as In later times, and bestowing his blessing on 
the Church which had been dedicated in his honour. At 
Hawksworth Church, Nottinghamshire, on a tympanum 
now let into the south wall of the tower,' in a medallion 
above the cross, which forms the central figure, is an 
archangel with outspread wings and hands, which may 
also be intended for this saint. 

(2) The representations of St. Michael as the bearer 
of souls are much rarer in England during the Norman 
period. Among the series of early sculptures on the 
west front of Lincoln Cathedral ia one which shows two 
angels ministering to a prostrate form on the upper part, 
while on the lower are the lost soula being hurled into 
the jaws of hell.* On a beautifully carved sepulchral 
monument at Ely Cathedral,* is a representation of an 
angel richly vested holding in a napkin a small nude 
figure. An invocation above to St. Michael shows that 
this is intended to portray the archangel carrying up a 
soul to heaven. On the tympana at Hallaton and 
Moreton Valence which will shortly be described, St. 
Michael appears to be specially protecting some human 
soids, while engaged in the contest with the evil one. 

(3) The subject of St. Michael weighing souls does not 
appear in Great Britain before the late Norman period, 
nor then, as far as the writer knows, in sculpture. It 

' A lUt of yornan Tympana, etc., Anoaiattd AmhUtct, Son. Seporff, 

pp. liii >nd 19. Fig. 94. VIII, p. 287, Fig. 10. 

Belignary and lllnrtrattd Arc\aio- ' J. Romillj Allen, SoWy Chri»<iau 

logist. Vol. IX, p. 61. Sgmbolitm, p. 272, Fig. 96, 

1 Arck. Job™, XSV, p. 12, Fig, 10. 



seems to have been often introduced in subjects ot the 
Doom abroad, as, for instance, on the western fayade of 
St. Trophime at Aries, but did not become a popular 
subject in England till a later period. There is an 
example in painting witiiin the splay of a window on 
the north side of the nave of Kempley Church, 
Gloucestershire.' Here the Virgin interceding on the 
soul's behalf is also introduced, a very early instance of 
what afterwards became a fairly common representation. 
In the subject of the Doom painted over the chancel 
arch at Patcham Church, Sussex,^ are several angels 
receiving the souls of the saved. One on the right may 
be St. Michael weighing the souls, though the halaoces 
and this part of the picture have been destroyed. This 
subject is depicted in the well-known mural painting 
of the Doom on the west wall of Chaldon Church, 
Sun-ey," which belongs to quite the end of the twelfth 

(4) St. Michael contending with the devil. This is 
by far the commonest form in which St, Michael is 
represented in early art, and we find him armed for the 
contest : 

(a) As at Kingswinford, with a sword. 
(6) With a spear or dart, 
(c) With a cross. 

The instances where he is armed with a sword seem to 
be the earliest representations of this subject, and, 
besides the one at Kingswinford, which may, as haa been 
stated, be very early, two at least are probably of 

E re-Norman date. At St. Bees in Cumbeiland is the 
ntel of a former dooi-way,* in the centre of which is a 
large dragon with scaly neck, long twisted tail, and head 

' Lilt of Svildiitgi kafing Mural Rev. W. S. Calverlej, Earlg 

Decoration*, etc. (South Keniington Sculptarid Crottet, etc., i>t the IHocete 

Muwum, 1883) pp. ili aod 1*7. of Carlisle, p. 2&«. 

' Lift of Buildiitgi, etc., p. 76. J. Romillj Allen, Early CArittian 

' Li»to/Btiildingt,eU!.,pp.iliaad60. Syrnic'inH, p. S74. 

N.B, A large Dumber of references Jteligtary and lUtutraled ArchaeO' 

to other uuthoriHes are gireu in the logitt, Vl. 130. 

List. Brilith ArcAtuol. Atioc. Journ^ TI, 

' A lift of Xormaa Tympana, etc., New Seriea, p. 267- 

j^. 1« and 40, Fig. 138. Victorian Eiafory of the County of 

Cunberland and Wettmoreland Antiq. Cumberland, I, 2T6. 
aad Arekaeol. Soe. Tram., 11,27. 



with open jaws turned back towards a small figure in the 
background, with uplifted sword and shield held against 
the mouth of the dragon. One end of the atone is 
ornamented with knotted work of early character. 
Another early example is that on a stone now let into 
the interior north wall of St. Nicholas' Church, Ipswich.' 
Here we see St. Michael on the left side, vested as at 
Kingswinford, with small wings spread out above him, 
sword held behind his back in the right hand ready for 
the thrust, and kite-shaped shield in the left hand 
between his body and the dragon, a terrible monster 
with large head, triple forked tongue and long claws 
pressed against the shield. It has small wings and is 
reared up on its tail, which has many coils, in the act of 
hurling itself upon its saintly opponent. The whole 
subject is full of animation and an excellent specimen of 
early sculpture. On the space on the lower part of the 
stone, below the body of tiie dragon, is an explanatory 
inscription in capital letters : 




(Here St. Michael fighteth the dragon.) 

A somewhat more elaborate example, but very similar 
in the treatment of the principal figures, is that on the 
tympanum over the north doorway of Hoveringliam 
Church, Nottinghamshire.* Here again on the leit (east J 
side is St. Michael with outspread wings, richly vested 
and with nimbus, holding a heater-shaped shield in his 
left hand, whilst with the right he brandishes the sword 
behind his back in the act of delivering the stroke or 
thrust against the dragon, which is advancing against 
him. This fearful looking creature has a large head 
with triple forked and bartwd tongue, and claws similar 
to the monster at Ipswich pressed against the shield, 

' A lUt of Norman Tympana, etc., Aiixiaied Architect. Soc. Bfporti, 

pp. UTiii, Ui and 22, Pig, isa X, 24. 

BritithArehaeol. Alloc. Joum.,'l,\46. J. Bontillj AUen, Earlg Chritiian 

3. Somillj Allen, Early Chritiian Symbelim, p. 163, Fig. 43. 

Syaholitm, p. 273, Fig. 96. Kelly'i Pottal Directory for Nattmg^ 

' Lilt of Norman Tympana, etc., Aamihire. 
pp. III. and 21, and Pig. 139. 



whikt its winged body terminates in a long tail with 
many coila filling up the western portion. A smaller 
dragon intertwined with the larger one appears above 
with its head just above the shield of tbe archangel. 
Behind him is introduced the Agnus Dei with cross 
supported on the right fore-foot, and at the apex of the 
tympanum, just above the wing of the saint, the hand 
of God issuing from a cloud, no doubt intended to typify 
the divine aid given to the heavenly champion in Lis 
contest with the powers of darkness. As adjuncts to 
the main subject two intertwined serpents and a female 
dragon or sphinx are introduced on the lintel, and at the 
lower termination of the outer unrecessed portion of the 
tympanum, on the east a bishop holding a pastoral staff 
and giving the benediction, on the west St. Peter holding 
a large key in the right, and a pastoral staff in the left 
hand. The carving and treatment is vigorous and of 
considerable merit. 

Within the south transept of Southwell Minster, 
Nottinghamshire, an irregular shaped tympanum with 
similar carving has been presei-ved.' Here we find St. 
Michael nimbed and vested as in the previous examples, 
with outsjjread wings, sword grasped m the right hand 
behind his back, and small circular shield of the 
Kingswiuftird type held against the open jaws of the 
dragon, which, with long and slender winged body and 
many coiled tail, is advancing against him. Beliind him 
Is David killing the lion, in the act of wrenching its jawa 
apart, a lamb being introduced above. The object of 
placing these two subjects together no doubt was to 
demonstrate the strength accorded to those who put 
their trust in the almighty power of God. 

On the lintel, or oblong tympanum, over the south 
doorway at Harnhill Church, Gloucestershire, is another 
somewhat similar sculpture.' Here St. Michael is, as 
usual, on the left with short tunic coming just below 
tbe knees, and long close-fitting sleeves, sword raised 

* A lift of !forma» Tympana, etc., J. Bomilly Allen, Early Chrutia* 

pp. lui uid 44, Vig. 14S. SgmhoUim, p. 273. 

Carter, Aacint Scvlplvre and G. M. Liveit, A Ouidi to SoulAtceil 

faiati»g, II, 88. Xiiuitr, p. U8. 

Anoviaied ArcMled. Soc. Srpor/f, - A liat of Sonnan Tgmpaim, etc., 

X, 44. Fig. 1391. 



behind his back in the act of striking, and small oval- 
shaped shield. The dragon is facing him in a recumbent 
position, with large heud and extended tongue against 
the shield, one claw raised, one mng shown on the back, 
and long twisted tail. A cable band is carved below, 
perhaps to signify the perpetual warfare which is ever 
being waged between the forces of good and evil. The 
sculpture is remarkably deep and well preserved, though 
a plentiful coating of whitewash, green with damp, some- 
what mars its effect 

At Long Marton Church, Westmoreland, on the 
tympanum over the south doorway,' is a very singular 
exemplification of this same subject. On tlie right hand 
side 18 a large drngon with protruding tongue and 
twisted tail. Above it is a kite-shaped shield with a 
cross on it, and a pair of wings and sword above, and 
on the side a quatreibil, perhaps intended for a double 
" M " as the inirial of Michael. To the left is represented 
a large animal with the body of a lamb, and long winged 
neck and head of a bird, which as in the instance at 
Ault Hucknall, Derbyshire, may be presumed to be 
meant for the Agnus Dei. There can be little doubt 
that tlie contest between St. Michael and Satan is here 

( B) St. Michael armed with a spear instead of a 
sword is twice represented on the Norman tympana. 
At Hallatou Church, Leicestershire, the tympanum is 
preserved in the side wall of the north porch.* Here in 
the centre is a vigorous figure of St. Michael with out- 
spread wings trampling on the prostrate serpent, while 
with his right hand he grasps a long spear, which he 
has pressed into its throat. With his left hand he holds 
a large circular shield similar to that at Kingswinford, 
and in a fold in his sleeve he holds three small hunutn 

' A lilt of Norman Tiimpami, etc., ' A Uil of Sorman Tgmpaita, etc., 

]>p. liiii uid 28, Fig. 143. p|>. liii >nd 18, and Fig. 141. 

Cumberlattd and Wettmoreland Nicholie' Bi'tforg o/' Leiceriartkire, 

Aniiq. and Archaeol. Sac. Tran::, T, Vol. II, PI. CIII, p. 603. 

174. J. U. Hill, Bittory of Laagton, 

Eev. W. Calvprley, Early Sculp- etc., illiutraiion to face p. 273. 

iKred Cronei, etc., in Ihe Dioeete of J. Romilly Allen, Surly ChntHa» 

CdrlitU, p. 229. SymbofUm, p. 273. 

J. Eomillj Allen, Early Chriilian M. H. Bloiani, Principle* of Qothie 

SymbolUm, p. 369. Eccletiattical Arehiierlure. Elerenth 
Edition, i, 132. 



figures, while three more are rising up beliind the 
tlragon, probably intended I'or souls rescued from the 
regions of hell. 

The other example is at Moi'etoii Valence Church, 
Gloucestershire, over the uorth doorway, and is in 
excellent preservation.' Here St. Michael has the 
nirabus, and outspread wings, flowing robe carried 
down to his feet, long speur m his right baud pressed 
into the open jaws of tlie dragon, and a large circular 
shield in his leil hand. The ih-agon seems to be 
endeavouring to escape to a wood, represented by 
foliage on the right, but has its head turned back 
towards the archangel, beliind whum are several 
figures, probably intended for rescued souls. 
. In a medallion on the very fine Norman south doorway 
at Riccall Church, Yorkshire," we find tins subject 
-similarly treated. Here St, Michael has pinned down 
his opponent witli his spear, while he holds a book in his 
left; hand, above which is a tau cross. The dragon has a 
l>eaded body. On a sculptured stone dug up in the 
churchyard at Seaford, Sussex, and now preserved 
within the church, is another eaily representation of 
this subject, described as a " rude but spirited carving."^ 
In this example St. Michael is thrusting a dart into the 
open jaws of the dragon, whose head and neck only are 

(C) St. Michael armed with the Cross, which in each 
case he is pressing into the mouth of the dragon, is 
carved within a medallion on the arch of the north 
porch at Bartou-le-Street Church, Yorkshire, and on a 
.sculpture let in over the west doorway of Garton on the 
Wolds Church in the same county. Within the splay 

' A lift of yormaa Tympana, etc,, 
I>li. Iiii and 30, Fig. 140. 

Lyeom' Anliquitiet of Otoaettler- 

Mhira, PI. xxxvr. 

J. Eomilly Allen, Earl^ Ckrittian 
St/mbolum, pp. 269, 273. 

Kellj'9 Direeloty for afoucriU'ahirt. 

' Btliquirr. New Series, II, iOI. 

Torkikirt Archaeol. Journ. XII. 2uD. 

' Samr Archaeol. CoU., VII. 116. 

A lift of Norman Tympana, etc., 
pp. liiii knd 12, Fig. 40. 

Lyion's Magna Britanaia, Buclcing- 
AamiMre, p. 484i. 

Arfharologia, X, 167. 

Berki, B«rk,. and Oj-0« 


Journ.. \l. 77. 

Eecurdt of BvekUghanuh 

ire. Till, 

Li].s<^mb, JJi't. of lU 

Counts of 

p. 117. 

J. RomiUy Allen, Sarl-i 


SgrnUlUm, pp. 273, aSo. 

BHIitk Arfharol.' AttiK 

: Jo«r„., 

New Scries, VI, 2M. 



of the east window of Copford Church, Essex, was 
discovered a portion of a painting of this subject 
similarly treated, forming part of the very early and 
interesting series brought to light some few years ago. 

On the lintel of the well-known south doorway at 
Dinton Church, Buckinghamshire,' is portrayed a fearful 
looking dragon with large protruding tongue and terrible 
fangs advancing from the left (west) side towards a 
small winged figure on the east, who is holding in both 
hands a small cross, the head towards the open jaws of 
the dragon — no doubt another exemplification of this 

Although it will not be safe to assert that the examples 
cited are probably all that remain in England during the 
Norman and earlier period, still it is hoped that the list 
IS a fairly comprehensive one, and demonstrates the 
variety of the treatment wliich the artists of these 
early times applied to the representation of the great 
archangel, the prince of the heavenly liost. 

In the work by M i'. J. Romilly Allen on Earlif 
Christian Symbolism, the opinion is expressed on 
page 274, that some of the examples, where a figure 
on foot, but not winged, is fighting with the dragon — 
tor instance that on the lintel of Ault Hucknall Chui-cli, 
Derbyshire — are mtended to represent St. Michael,' and 
not St. George ; but although it is not possible to speak 
positively upon this, yet it seems the most reasonable 
supposition that a clear distinction should be observed 
between these two subjects, both of which were popular 
in the twelfth and succeeding centuries, and that that 
distinction should be emphasised, not by the one being 
on foot and the other on horseback, but by St. Michael 
being always portrayed, as one would naturally expect, 
with wings, as a necessary appendage to the mighty 
leader of the host of angels, whose special fiinction it 
is to carry out the commands of their Divine Master 
with the utmost zeal and celerity. 

^ A lilt lif Koi-BiaM Ti/mpana, etc., J. Boinillr Alleo, Early Cintlia» 

pp. IziTii uid 21, Fig. I't5. Si/mbolitm. Fig. ]37, pp. 274, 366. 

Alloc. Archilecl. Sof. Beporli, XII, 6e»tUmaii'i Hagaiiae, 1793, Fart I, 

162. p. 449. 

J. C. Cox, ChKrchts of Drrbgthire, Bniiih ArcAaeoC. Aiioc. Jouri., 

1, 242. Now Seriw, VI, 260, 2G7. 

ArcAatohffia, XLVII, 167. 




In a remote corner of Gloucestershire, tucked away on 
an outlying spur of the Cotswold Hills, lies the fittle 
Norman church of Quenington, and probably on account 
of this very remoteness it has escaped the notice of the 
chronicler and historian. 

This church is worth more than a passinjr notice, for 
it possesses an unique specimen of symbolical Gothic 
carving, namely, the First Person of the Trinity 
represented as a small sun with distinct face and rays. 
This representation of a sun is the only one extant in 
^England, the most diligent search having failed to reveal 

This pecidiar symbolical carving presents one of the 
most interesting features of mediaeval church architecture, 
not only for its extreme rarity, but for tlie more or less 
mystery in which it is shrouded. 

With the churcli of Quenington itself we have nothing 
to do, the limited space of this article preventing all 
but the briefest outline of its history. 

Samuel Lysons writes in 1790 : 

"This builditig bears evident marks of antiquity, although it 
appears to have undergone considerable alterations within the last two 
centuries. The original round-headed windows may still be traced, 
although they are now either walled up, or changed into sharp 
pointed or square ones. The south doorway is 5 feet 11 inches in 
height, and feet 11 inches wide. The arch of it is semi-circular and 
ornamented with a variety of mouldings, wherein plainly appears h 
corr^tion of the Roman style. 

"The interior part of the arch is ornamented with a zi^-Kag 
moulding, so constantly to be seen in works of this kind. Within 
this and over the door are several figures rudely carved in bas-relief, 
amongst which is the Virgin Mary, who holds a dove, and the Angel, 
Eagle, winged Bull and Lion, the four evangelists, who are accompanied 
by scrolls. On one side is the figure of a cnurch in which it may be 
remarked that the arches are circular and that the spire is covered 
with shingle. From the style of the ornaments of these doorways 

' Eead before the Inelitute, Jul 



one may conclude that this building was erected soon after the 
conqueet, when the Normans introduced a more sumptuous style of 

" The tympanum of the north doorway has a great variety of 
ornaments, amongst which the zig-zag and lozenge moulding are most 
conspicuous.' Over the door is the figure of the Saviour trampling 
on the Devil bound hand and foot, while he thrusts the cross into hia 
mouth (this cross has no banner attached to it). There are also three 
saints in praying attitude, one of which seems to be escaping from a 
serpent's mouth. Over them is a sun with rays representing God the 
Father, and aboi'e the doorway is a ram's head much mutilated." 

Then he goes ou to say : 

" The Manor of Quenington was granted by William the Conqueror 
to Walter de Laci, one of his Norman followers, and descended to his 
son Roger, who is said to have been in so great favour with the 
Conqueror that he bestowed on bini one hundred and sixteen manors, 
of which twenty were in Gloucestershire." 

He finishes by saying ; 

"It is not improbable that this Church was erected at the expense 
of father or son." 

This de Lacey family is mentioned in the Doomesday 
Book of 1084. The Knights Hospitallei-s of St. John of 
Jerusalem in Englaud held Qiienington by gift of Aynes 
de Lacey and her daughter, which was confirmed by King 
John, and a ftirther extract from Doomesday Book states 
that " Quenintoiie hi Brietwoldsberg Hundred contained 
8 Hides." 

But uevertheless, I feel inclined to ascribe the date of 
Quenington church to 1 100 and not 1000, as all the rich 
detail m architectural carvings belong to the time of 
Stephen and Henry II. It must have struck everyone 
who has studied twelfth century buildings, what a 
profusion of detail their builders crammed into every 
remote corner and inaccessible buttress. The two door- 
ways of Queninjrton Church are very rich in carvings, and 
the reason the body of the church is not equally so, is 
because it has been restored at a later date, 'fhe 
doorways however being so fine, were mercifully left 

' Anothrr cmiis artl ideological (act TriDit;. This lozenge ityle auiroiiDdt 

ie tliuC the lozenge or triangulnr ' this tympanum in » veiy marked and 

Oftrting win a!wav« reaprved for riecura- beautiful waj. 
lioDB uround tin- first Pcisoii of the 



Thia is enough to show the origin of the church. I will 
now deal with the stone Ciirvings of tlie tympanum over 
the north doorway, the sul'ject of which is the " Harrow- 
ing of Hell." This is defined in Wedgwood's Dictionanj 
of Etymologn as heing " the triumphant expedition of 
Christ after the Crucifixion when He Iirought awav t\w 
souls of the righteous who had died and t)een held in 
Hell since the beginning of the world." 

"Harrow" nieaoa to rob or spoil. In a Saxon MS. of 
the eleventh century there ia this inscription, "Christ 
Harrows Hell ! " 

Thia subject forms one of a regular series and is found 
in mediaeval art from the eleventh century onwards. It 
also occurs in Byzantine mosaics. 

The Harrowing of Hell was the subject of mediaeval 
mystery plays. " * This,' its editor observes, ' ia believed 
to be the most ancient productioo in a dramatic form in 
our language. The manuscript from which it is now 
printed is on vellum, and is certainly as old as the reign 
of Edward III. if not older. It probably formed one of 
a series of perfonnances of the same kind founded upon 
Scripture history.' It consists of a prologue, epilogue, 
and intermediate dialogue of nine persons, Dominus, 
Sathan, Adam, Eve, etc. Independently of the alleged 
age of the manuscript itself, the language will hardly be 
thought later than 1350." Hallam, Literature of 
Europe, 4th Edition, Vol. I, page 21:1. 

Now although this subject of the Harrowing of Hell 
forms one of a series in mediaeval art, it is by no means 
as common as many of the other su^ects ; m fact, the 
oaly other authentic instances of the Harrowing of Hell 
occur in a tympanum in Lincoln Cathedral, a twelfth 
century painting at Chaldon in Surrey, in a tympanum 
at Beckford, and in a three-coloured and illuminated 
MS. in the British Museum. However, the remarkable 
part of the Quenington carving is this : that with 
the exception of one MS. this Gloucestershire Church 
contains the only representation of the sun symbolizing 
God the Father. The most diligent search has failed to 
reveal any other authentic instances of this subject 
in England. On the Continent it occurs morefrequenfly, 
as I shall show later. 



The British Museum MS. which contaius this sun can 
with certainty be dated between 1121 and 1173; it 
represents Christ with a bannered cross^ which He thrusts 
into the mouth of a huge green monster {these dragons 
representing Hell were always painted dark green), the 
mouth being filled with people whom He is rescuing. 
An angel accompanies Him, while in the upper right- 
hand corner is a small sun with rays and a very distinct 
face. In the foreground is Satan lying bound hand and 
foot with the same rings (to which I shall refer later) as 
the rings on the devil in Queningtun Church. 

It is assumed that this MS. was painted at Winchester, 
and that it is perhaps copied from pictures brought from 

In another eleventh century MS. the figure of Christ 
is this time without a cross, but the devil in the fore- 
ground is bound again with the same peculiar double 
rings. Tiiere is no sun in this one nor in the other MS., 
painted on a long scroll, and of twelfth century date. 
In this the dragon is as usual dark green, and neither 
in the Surrey painting nor the Beckford tympatium nor 
the Lincoln tympanum does the sun occui-. Thus we 
see that with tiie exception of the MS. in the British 
Museum, the little Gloucestershire Church contains what 
is really a unique specimen of mediaeval symbolism. 

To trace the origin and history of symbolical represen- 
tations of God the Father would be a work of great scope 
if it were intended to include all foreign specimens of 
this order. But all attempts at explaining mediaeval 
symbolism from a twentieth century point of view is 
certain to end in failure. Before the Reformation, 
science did not exist in the modem sense of the word, 
and all learning was turned into a religious channel. The 
cathedrals and churches of the Middle Ages were not 
only places of worship and the abodes of monks, but 
they were also the outward form of expression of the 
popular mind, which instead of being thrown out into 
liymns and sermons as in our time, found expression in 
the magnificent Gothic architecture of that period. 

' Tins IB nil t1ie more ci'.rions at the copj of ItMian picturas, besra out thf 

iTOSB which Christ earned was never fact tlut »rt in Italj was iu adraDce of 

bimnered until the thirteenth centurj. tliut in England. 
However, tills US. being undoubtedly a. 



<Joethe calls this a petrified religion. Mr. RomiUy Allen 
says, in Christian Si/mbolism in Great Britain and 

" That all attempts to aymboliae the Creator except in the moat 
abstract manner waa considered unBcriptuntl. The early Christiana 
during the first four centuries adhered to this view of the case, and 
the First Person of the Trinity was always symbolised by a hand. 
But from the ninth century onwards the difficulty of approaching this 
sacred subject was avoided by merging the identity of God the I'ather 
in that of God the Sun, and very often except for the surroundings 
there is no way of telling which is intended." 

But the rank assigned to Gfod the Father in early 
Christian monuments is frequently not very honourable, 
the Son taking precedence over Him. The precedence 
granted to one Person over another has a peculiar 
signification thus : 

" The left hand is inferior to the rieht. Likewise the left side of a 
picture is inferior in position to the right. The centi-e is more 
honourable than the circumference. The Bible baa always been placed 
on the left and the Gospel on the right. While in carvings and 
pictures the figiures of saints militant are below, and these same saints 
when seen after death are pictured above triumphant and admitted 
into Paradise. The centre again is more honorable than the 
circumference. In a rose window of stained glass the centre is always 
assigned to the Creator or Virgin -Mary, then follow the different 
orders commencing with the Seraphims, and closing with the angels 
and saintly orders at the extreme edge. . . . 

" As to the reason why the First Person of the Trinity was often 
represented in small and trivial fashion we may attribute it to the 
following causes : one was probably a hatred felt by the Gnostics for 
God the Father and a dread lest they should appear to recall the idea 
of Jupiter or to ofTer a pagan idol to the ignorant Christians ; another 
cause might be an absence of any visible manifestations of Jehovah, 
and lastly the difficulty all artists must have felt in executing so 
sublime an image." 

Even as late as the twelfth century no complete por- 
traits of God the Father are to be seen. Very often 
they depicted Him by a hand issuing from the clouds, 
sometimes darting rays from each finger, as though a 
living sun. This design of hand with sun's rays is very 
old. A Greek miniature of the tenth century shows the 
hand in the clouds in a blessing attitude. 

Didron in his Christian Iconograph afiirms that the 
■Greek benediction difiers in certain points from the Latin, 



consequently the Greek form of benediction if observed 
on a I^tia figure or vke versd would be of great historical 
interest, and also as regards the Last Judgement, the 
Greek Church represents the dead as emerging from the 
mouths of beasts, and as this so often occurs in Norman 
sculpture it is most interesting to trace it from the Greek. 

In French Church history we find that previous to the 
eleventh century the presence of the Father was always 
intimated by a hand extending from the clouds, and in 
the twelfth century the face of God is first introduced. 

An illu^itratioti in the Italian . Speculum kumanae 
salvationis, wliich is held to belong to Giotto, gives a 
representation of the Creator partially seen through the 
clouds driving Lucifer downwards with a motion of His 
hand. This only shows a head with nimbus and one 

Hands thus decorated with the nimbus formed the 
earliest symbolic representations of the Father, An 
example of the ninth century has the two first fingers 
outstretched surmounted by an auriole containing sun's 
rays, and also the branches of a cross. This is interesting 
oil account of the peculiar direction of these branches, 
the rays seem attached in groups of four to the line of 

There is in Chartres Cathedral a painting on glass 
representing the History of Charlemagne and the deatli 
of Roland. Here th*! hand of God is seen extended and 
without a nimbus. It is appearing to Roland, who is 
cleaving the rock with his good sword DurandaJ. This 
painting belongs to the thirteenth century. Also Maya 
the Hindoo goddess is represented in a large nimbus, which 
is striated with luminous rays corresponding exactly with 
the cross lines in the Divine nimbus of Christian 

In the Roman Catholic countries of Europe the Creator 
is often represented as a Pope wearing a tiara. "But," 
says M. Didron, " in England where the Pope has long 
been held in low ' esteem ' it was impossible to represent 
Him with the insignia of papacy." 

It is curious to observe now profoundly and yet lucidJLy 
works of art reflect the ideas of the epoch in which they 
v/ere executed. 



A moat brilliant example of the name Jehovah in 
Hebrew characters inscribed in a triangle surrounded by 
suns rays occurs in some beautiful tapestry of the 
sixteenth century in the Cathedral of Sena, The 
Cathedrals of Paris, Rheims, and Cliartres have many 
representations of God the Father, in fact, all over 
France and catholic Europe these representations are 

In an Italian miniature of the thirteenth century an 
angel ia representing as assisting the Creator in moulding 
the clay out of which the first man was made ; it is not 
a solitary instance of this subject, tor in the north porch 
of the Cathedral of Chartres the Creator is assisting an 
angel with whom He appears to be in consultation. Up 
to the fifth or sixth century the Church was resolved to 
restrain the zeal of Christian artists and to prevent them 
from i-epresenting the Deity in sculpture and painting. 

We may quote here the case of St. John Damascenus, 
who positively declares that the Divine nature ought 
not to be represented. The great theologian says : 

JM, tpii eslincwpureux innailiiiis a materia renuilissimus fyura^ ex/K-r« 
firriptus et incomprfhendbUU, imago nulla fieri potest. jVirm 
illtul quod in a.iprelum flon aulil imago rej^resfnlaril. 

Tims even Damascenus, so liold in defending the 
images of Christ, is restrictive with regard to those of the 

Such circumstances as these would acc&unt for the 
rarity of these portraits, as the artists furthermore did 
not know how to represent the Creator and knew not 
what form to attribute to Him. 

In short, Gnosticism on the one hand and theological 
■dogmas on the other, were tlie potent causes for the 
extreme rarity of the portraits of God the Father. 

In an old French MS, of uncertain date and author- 
ship occurs the subject of the Harrowing of Hell. It is 
very similar to that of Quenington but more elaborate. 
It shows Christ with a bannered cross saving the souls 
out of the mouth of the conventional dragon. An 
interesting feature of these scenes is the cross which 
may be either that of the Resurrection or of the Passion, 
The former occurs in the Harrowing of Hell, and after 



the thirteenth century this cross had a 'oanner attached 
to it. 

Of the three figures that are issuing out of the 
dragon's mouth in the Qnenington tympanum ihe first Is 
considered by some to be Adam. I cannot see what 
authority there is for assuming this ; I am much more 
incHned to think that they are all three nameless saints. 

According to Mr. Romilly Allen the most interestuig 
peculiarity m the Quenlngton sculpture is the way in 
which the Devil's hands and feet are bound. 

This is done by a ring interlaced through the limbs, 
and Mr. Allen considers that it affoi-ds a connecting link 
between the symbolism of the pre-Norman crosses and 
that of the sculpture of the twelfth century. It is 
certainly to be seen most distinctly in the illuminated 
MS. to which T have already referred. 

It is certainly remarkable that a symbolical carving 
of such rarity should have so completely escaped the 
trail of the journalist, when we consider that there are so 
few spots uurecorded and unvisited by him. 

However, this little Gloucestershire comer is one of 
these rare spots, nor will the bringing of these carvings 
into prominence disturb the uninterrupted peace of this 

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The two Norman doorways at Quenington Church 
may justly claim to rank with the finest specimens of 
the sculptor's art of the twelfth century remaining 
in this country. The numerous and varied ornamental 
moiddings with which the arches are enriched, and the 
curious and elaborate sculpture on the tympana render 
them worthy of the most careful observation, and we 
find that as far back as 1790, Mr. Samuel Lysons 
read a short paper about them before the Society of 
Antiquaries, which with excellent illustrations is pub- 
lished in Archaeotogiu, Vol. X, p. 128, and Plates VII 
and VIII, and they are further figured in Mr. J. Romilly 
Alien's work on Earh/ Christian Si/mbolisin, Figs. 93 
and 99, in the recently published work by the writer 
of this article, on the sculptured Norman tympana and 
lintels, etc., Figa. 97 and 130, and elsewhere. 

The subject on the tympanum over the south doorway- 
is perhaps the earliest representation in sculpture in this 
country of a tradition which afterwards became an 
exceedingly popular one, namely, the Coronation of the 
Virgin, in this instance the emblems of the four 
Evangelists being also introduced, and many of the 
details are very remarkable. There is another example 
at the apex of the Norman south doorway of Healaugh 
Church, Yorkshire. 

The subject on the tympanum over the north doorway, 
viz., the Descent into Hell or Limbus, or the Harrowing 
of Hell, as it is variously designated, is more common 
at this early period. As in the instances at Beckford 
in Gloucestershire, and probably at Shobdon in Here- 
fordshire, this subject and others of a like terrifying 
character were placed on the north side of the church. 
The example at Quenington furnishes us with the most 
elaborate treatment of the great event mentioned in the 
first Epistle of St. Peter iii, 19, and very fully described 

M 2 



tn the spurious Gospel of Nicodemus, The mtroduction 
of the sun exactly accords with the account therein 
contained, for in Chapter X[II, verse 3, we read of the 
light of the sun suddenly illuminating the depths of 
hell, the precursor oi the advent of Christ, whose arrival 
shortly afterwards. His binding the Prince of Hell, and 
delivering the souls of Adam and the early saints from 
the terrible prison in which they had been for so long 
incarcerated, is so minutely described. The manner in 
which the Prince of Hell is bound corresponds with an 
early sculptured representation on a Cross at Kirkby 
Stephen in Westmoreland,' and on a carved slab 
portraying this subject on the west front of Lincoln 
Cathedral,* on the late twelfth century wall painting 
on the west wall of Chaldon Church, Surrey, and in 
two MSS. in the British Musenm, viz., Tiberius 
of the eleventh century, and Nero Civ. of the twelfth 
centurv. As we find the subject thus portrayed both 
in early work, and as late as the end of the twelfth 
century, we may fairly assign a middle date to tliis 
example at Quenmgton, and may claim it as the work 
of the reign of King Stephen, with which period the 
other architectural details well accord. 

During the Norman period we also find examples of 
this subject with slight variations in the treatment on 
the tympana at Shobdon and Beckford already referred 
to," on a large stone coffin lid preserved in the Chapter 
House at Bristol Catliednd, on another coffin lid let into 
a niche over the south doorway of South Cerney 
Church, Gloucestershire, and on a stone inserted above 
the north doorway of Jevington Church, Sussex. 

' J. Roiuillj Alien. i'rtWy CAi-ittian > A LM of Gorman Tympana aid 

SiimbolUm,p.m\,Ti%.i.>X>. LintiU aitk FigMre or Syntbolical 

'^ ArchaeoL Jo*m., XXV, p. IG, Fig. tinlpiure, HiU. or till recent/I/, rxuliHff 

13. in the Cntinltei of Oreat Britain, bv 

Aniacialed Archile<l. Sac. Sipurli, Charles E. Kejwr, M.A., F.S.A., 

VIII, p. Sij», Fig. 18. p. It, Figa. 9G acd 96. 

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r.lTY I 


D,j,,„d, Google 



Shorthampton is a ehapelry attached to the parish of 
Charlbury, Oxfordshire, from which town it is distant 
between two and three miles. The tie is one of early- 
date, for we have work of the twelfth century remaining 
in the mother church and the chapel.* 

The Manor of Charlbury* belonged to the Mercian 
Kings, and was granted at some time during the tenth 
century to the Bishop of Lincoln, and in 1109, Bishop 
Robert Bloet handed it over to the Abbey of Eynsham, 
" entire and untouched in woods and fields and meadows 
and waters," including, no doubt, the hamlets known as 
Chadlington and Shorthampton. Whether there were 
then in existence chapels at either or both of these 
places it is now impossible to say, but it is certain that 
those now standing were built by the wealthy Benedic- 
tine abbey to serve the needs of its tenants. 

The Cartulary of Eynsham preserves the earliest 
i-eference to Shorthampton chapel, under date 1296 ; 
" And because in the aforesaid Church of Charlbury 
there are wont to be two chaplains at least, and this 
because of the chapel at Shorthampton, in which three 
times every week Divine Service is celebrated and two 
Clei^y ministering. And in the Chapel at Chadlington 
one parochial Chaplain continually staying there with a 
clerk.. Therefore we, turning our eyes to the impoi-tance 
of the said Church of Charlbury, and the heavy duties 
of the ministers of the same, ordain from now that there 
shall be a Vicarage in the said Church of Charlbury and 
land revenues (hereinafter described) for the sustenance 
of the Vicar for the time being and of one Cliaplain tf» 
stay with him, as long as the said Vicar ahall be 

' The subslaDr^ of this paper wai 
read before the Institute, and tmcinge 
■it the paintinga were exhibited, 
Judo lit, 1904. 

' ShortbamptoQ Chapel is dedicated 
10 All Saints— a dedication vhlcb baa a 

speiiial aignifici 

in<-o in riew of the 

on its walU. 

11 of Krc-e-nicii " (Ce 


The local 






personall}' able to miuister : and of two chaplains if he 
be incapacitated : and of one at Chadlington,"' 

It will be seen from this that the good monks of 
Eynsham exercised a very laudable care for the spiritual 
welfare of the people on their estates, and all tbe 
evidence goes to show that this beneficent influence; 
continued until the Retbrmation destroyed the old order. 

Happily, with all the changes that then took place, 
the chapels at Shorthampton and Chadliiigton escaped 
the fate of so many hamlet chapels. They were not 
pulled down nor suffered to iall into decay, but have 
continued to fulfil their original purpose as chapels-of- 
ease to the mother church. 

After the dissolution of the monasteries, Henry VIH., 
in 1544, granted the Manor of Charlbury, with all its 
dependencies, to Sir Edward North, who afterwards sold 
it to Sir Thomas White. By him it was conveyed, in 
1555, to St. John's College, Oxford, of which he was the 
founder, and that body has presented the living down to 
the present day. 

In 1903 the reparation of the little chapel of Short- 
hampton was taken in hand by Vernon J. Watney, Esq., of 
Combury Park, and carried out under the superintend- 
ence nf Mr. John Belcher, P.R.I.B.A., A.R.A., at whose 
invitation the writer made a search for the wall-paintings 
with which this paper is principally concerned. 

The plan {Plate I) is somewhat pecuHar, The chapel 
was evidently built in the last twenty years of the twelfth 
century, and then consisted of a nave 32 feet 14 inches 
long by 12 feet wide, and chancel, probably square-ended 
and of the same dimensions as the present one, viz,, 
15 feet by 11 feet 6 inches. But by the end of the 
fourteenth century, or early in the fifteenth, the popula- 
tion must have increased sufficiently to necessitate 
enlargement, and this was effected, not in the usual way, 
by throwing out an aisle with an arcade between it and 
the nave, but by simply widening the nave on its 
southern side.' An aisle was, in effect, created, but with- 
out any structural division from the nave, and the chancel 

' For this oitract tlie writer is • It is 

indebted to tlio kintlnpsB o! tlie Rer. juat a tl 

Julius D. Payne, the incumbent of tlie width, 
three rhurchea, 





Plate 3. 

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arcli in this way ceased to occupy a central position. 
Tlie builders realised this, and to remedy the defect they 
pierced the east wall of the nave to the south of the 
arch, and made an enormous squint, almost rivalling the 
chancel ai-ch in height and width. 

The original building had comparatively low walls and 
a high-pitched, open-timbered roof, covered with stone 
slates. The later builders raised the side walls to nearly 
double their first height and replaced the early roof by 
one almost flat and covered with lead (Plate 11), I am 
assuming that nave and chancel were similarly treated ; 
but the evidence in the case of the chancel is imperfect 
owing to a later reconstruction. 

To the iirst period belongs the simple chancel arch 
(Plate 1) — a good example of early pointed work. It is 
only 4 feet 7 inches wide, and consists of two chamfered 
orders, with a double-chamfered hood, and the arch and 
jambs are continuous, without impost or capital, the 
chamfers terminating in elegant stops just above the 
floor level. Of the same date are : a small round-headed 
window, having a hood-moulding on the outside 
(Plate II) ; a round-headed doorway, also with a hood 
and moulded imposts — now built in the west wall, high 
up, as an entrance to a former gallery, but originally in 
the north wall of the nave, where the internal opening 
remains as a sort of recess. Externally it is covered by a 
buttress of eighteenth century date. Finally, the font 
(Plate II), a plain, tubehaped example, the rudeness of 
which might even suggest an earlier date, were we 
justified in assuming an older foundation for the little 

Next in order comes the interesting low-side window 
in the south-west corner of the chancel (Plate III), which 
would appear to have been preserved when the chancel 
itself was rebuilt. It is of early fourteenth century 
character (c. 1340), and consists of two ogee headed lights 
, under a s(iuare head. The low^er half of the hghts is 
separated by a transom from the upper end formed into 
twin openings, rebated for shutters. Externally, this 
window has been cased within a square stone frame, and 
an outer sill has been added when the chancel was rebuilt 
in the eighteenth century. The internal arch has also 



been renewed, but the tracery and tbe walling below have 
apparently not been disturbed. 

To the chief rebuilding {c. 1400) belong the 
handsome two-light windows and the plain doorway in 
the south wall of the nave, the piscina, also in its south 
wall, and the roof, as before mentioned {Plate III). The 
windows, with their ogee heads, have a lingering trace of 
the Decorated period, with which also the cinque-foiled 
head of the piscina agrees. The former have the tracery 
set in the middle of the wall, witli a suite of hollow mould- 
ings in place of a splay, inside and out. The piscina has 
a deep bowl and a stone shelf for the credence. The 
plain south doorway, retaining its original oak door, also 
belongs to this period. 

The tie beams of the roof are partly suppoi-ted by 
posts resting upon stone corbels, which were evidently 
bedded upon the top of the first wall when it was raised. 
These corbels (Plate IV) are rudely carved into faces that 
may be meant either for general types of the clergy and 
laity of the day, or else for portraits of actual persons — 
benefactors to the chapel. Thus, on the south side are, 
(l) a layman with moustache and bifurcated chin-beard — 
perhaps the clerk of the works ; (2) a cowled Benedictine, 
with grimly powerful face and shaven crown, representing 
the Abbey of Eynsham ; and (3) a chubby-faced secular 
priest, probably meant for the priest who served the 
chapel. On the north are, (1) a lady in tbe square 
" tower " head-dress .fashionable in the early years of the 
fifteenth century ; and (2) a gentleman of tbe same 
period, who may have been the lord of the manor—an 
important- looking person with formally-cut hair and the 
bifurcated beard then worn. From the third corbel 
on this side being without a head, the assumption that 
these are actual portraits of persons associated with the 
enlargement of the chapel is rendered more probable. 
The roofs, which are of very flat pitch, are of lead, that 
of the nave being surrounded by a moulded stone coping, 
parapet and string-course, in the latter of which are 
grotesque heads and gargoyles. 

The squint is probably later than the general enlarge- 
ment, and may be dated about 1460. It has a flatly 
arched head of the four-centred type, and is of unusual 


Plate 4. 


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height and width ; its sill is very low down, and 
the total effect is almost that of a twin chaucel 

Later still (c. 1500) is the plain west window of two 
lights with four-centred heads under a stjuare label ; it 
no doubt takes the place of a small Norman window ;' 
another, even plainer, in the north wall of the nave is a 
seventeenth century insertion. The chancel seems to 
have been entirely rebuilt on the old foundations about 
the middle of the eighteenth century. The low-side 
window in its south wall is the only mediaeval feature 
apparent. The bell-gable over the east wall of the nave 
(1H21) and the south porch (1824) date from the early 
days of the Gothic revival, and are quite good of their 
kind. Some quaint Georgian deal pewing, and a pulpit 
and clerk's desk of the same era, have been wisely 
retained at the recent restoration. There are no ancient 

So much for the fabric, in which, as will be seen, there 
are a surprising number of "styles" for so small a 
building. Let us turn now to the remains of wall- 
paintings, belonging to almost as many dates. 

!.■ Date c. 1200-1220. It was evident from numerous, 
traces found on the north wall of the nave, and on the 
chancel arch wall (both sides), that the little chapel was 
first decorated, over the coat of Norman limewhite, with 
the common masonry pattern^ — oblong blocks enclosing 
roses — in a deep red upon a pale straw-colour ground." 
There were traces of more elaborate ornamentation 
round the chancel arch, including flowers of a dark green 
colour, and on the arch itself some characteristic scroll- 
patterns in black and red. But the little Norman 
window contained the most perfect painting of this early 
period. Its splays were lined out in the masonry 

' It is an ioti-Fesling !']>ceulnlii>[i ' These uuiiilwrs liuve rtfereiiL'B tu 

whether this wiodow may not have beiti the position tin tlje pluii of the Tarious 

ioierted. eithra at the cIikh.' uf Mar,v's paintingB, Trhii'h are nut strictly 

irigD, or in the early yearsof Hliiabeth, ilestribiil in ortler of ciul«. 

alter the chapel bad passed into ihu ^ Even in so simple a scheme, tliprp 

hand3ofSt.John'aCo)lfgc,Oiford. Iho uas varjut}'. The lined of the blorks 

Hindow is of ihat plain late tv|>e vliieh were in a brtglitcr red than the 

became almost traditional in the archi- roses. 
t4.-cture of the Colleges from C lie fifteenth 
tu the sevcDteenth century. 



blocks with roses, and on the western splay was 
found a nimhed figure in the black Benedictine habit, 
holding a crosier. Above his head are the remains of a 
scroll rearing his name — unfortunately almost obliterated. 
All that can l)e certainly made out are the letters 

SCS4»-0-S. I have carefully searched through several 
lists of saints, and have come to the conclusion that 
St. Leonard is the one represented, and that the 
inscription when perfect read— sCS*I.EO-S— the tongue 
between the o and the S being intended for a mai-k of 

Now the parish church of Eynsliam, under the 
patronage of the Abbey, was dedicated to this saint, 
who probably was claimed by the Benedictines as ot 
their order. He was, as is well known, of Frankish 
biith, born of noble parents at the Court of Clovis, at 
about the end of the fifth century, and his death is 
placed in about 559. His influence with the King led to 
his obtaining the release of prisoners, of whom in due 
course he came to be regarded as the special patron. 
He founded more than one monastic settlement in the 
neighbourhood of Limoges, hut, although abbot or 
superior, did not advance beyond the order of deacon. 
He is therefore commonly represented vested as a 
deacon, but holding a crozier, and usually also with 
broken fetters or a chain in the other hand in allnsioQ to 
his good ofiices on behalf of the prisoners. What I have 
taken for the Benedictine habit in the painting might 
equally be a deacon's long-sleeved dalmatic, but the 
remains of the figure are so slight that it is difficult to 
say which is represented, as also whether the left hand 
held the usual fetters — this part having scaled off the 
plaster. There was no corresponding figure upon the 
eastern splay of the window, which is occupied only by 
masonry blocks and roses. The head of the crozier, 
which is tairly well preserved, is elaborately curled or 

I feel some confidence in ascribing this fiigure to St. 
Leonard, as it compares very closely with another 
thirteenth centuiy painting of this saint — also on a 
Norman window-splay — at Frindsbury Chm'ch, Kent, 



M'hich I visited and made a drawing of immediately after 
its discovery in 1883.' 

No doubt there was a coriespouding Norman -window^ 
eastward of this, in ilie place now occupied by a 
seventeenth century wider opening, and we may assume 
that this and the other original windows of the little 
chapel — eight, perhaps, all together — had saints painted 
<iii the splays. We may suppose that St. Giles, a 
Benedictine saint of great repute locally, was painted on 
one of the destroyed windows, and that the nave 
generally was appropriated to Benedictine saints ; while 
the early chancel was occupied with Scriptural personages 
and scenes. 

2. On the wall adjoining this window, to the west, the 
remains of another figure were ibund. It appeared to 
be that of a priest in a girded albe and crossed stole, 
without either cope or chasuble, the stole ends (almost 
tlie only part it was possible to preserve) being in a 
bright red and having long red and yellow fringes, and a 
little shamrock leaf with curly stem (^) in place of the 
usual ♦. As this figure faces the font, which is 
probably in its original position, it seems likely that this 
figure had some reference to the Sacrament of Baptism." 
This fragment appears to be of early fourteenth century 

3. Ktistward of the Norman window, on the north 
wall of the nave, I came across a jjainting partly 
ubscured by another of later date (early sixteentli 
century ?) : the original painting appears to be of the 
fifteenth century (c. 1460). It represents St. Frideswide 
teaching the youth of Oxford to read.' On the left of 
the saint is an ox, in allusion to her connection with the 
city, and before her kneels a boy, with upraised hands 

' RepnxiufedinArcAaeoli/ffiaCaMtiaiia, viiiiluws urigiaiill}' in the cliuiicel atone. 

Yul. XVi, p. 2i6. In (liis tlie saint there were jirobablj some eighteen 

appesra tu b« vested in ibe Beaedictine eainta painted thereon. 

tiabit, but wjih an am'uv. He hotds tlie ' UuHvr the old ritual the priest 

fetters in his rifibt hind and the cmzier usiiutl;' baptized vested in a girded albe 

in tho left, and here also the hctid u and oroescJ stulo onlj, but, eapeciully 

slinwn at tonsured and vithuut uny in llio fifteenth rent ury and later, the 

toiering. TJie Frindsbury paintings can surpltop and pendent stole eceiu also t>i 

be dated with Bome ccrlaint; to circa have been iiwd. 

1256-66. There were the remains of > II ia a pleasure to ueknonledge my 

five figures in all on tlie spla;: of four indcbtednese to liie Bee. E. S. Deiriuk 

windows, and as there had been nine for the elucidation of this subject. 



conjoined, whom she is instructing out of a massively- 
bound book. There is a deep red background with a 
leticulated pattern, smeared with a half- dry brush, 
thereon ; and the whole is enclosed in a wide border of 
orange. The saint's heiid and other parts of the painting 
are covered by the later decoration. As comparatively 
few representations of this once popular Oxfordshire- 
saint remain, the addition to the list of even a faint and 
injured painting such as this is of considerable value. 

4. On the north wall of the nave, close to the fore- 
going, and belonging to the same date, is the upper part 
of a figure of an archbishop (Plate VII). There is no 
name or distinguishing emblem, in the absence of which 
it is impossible to speak certainly ; but the presumption 
is that we have here St. Thomas of Canterbl'EY. That 
Kaint is perhaps most commonly represented as in the 
martyrdom scene — at any rate, in the few examples 
Hpared to us by the too zealous minions of Henry VIII.; 
but he occurs many times simply as a sainted archbishop 
—more as a devotional picture than as part of a scene- 
Hauxtou <^'hurch, Carahs., presents us with an example 
cf this devotional treatment. Here the saint is painted 
on the back of a niche, fully vested in mitre, amice, 
chasuble and pall, holding the cross staff in his left hand 
and lifting the right (with the two first fingers raised) 
in benediction. This is an early thirteenth century 
example. The figure at Shorthampton is of the fifteenth 
century — circa 1460^and agrees closely with that at 
Hauxton, allowing for the two-and-a-half centuries 
between their respective dates. In the later example 
the saint is depicted in three-quarter face, he is clean- 
shaven instead of bearded, and the pall hangs in one 
straight line from the neck, whereas in the Hauxton 
painting it is Y-shaped. The mitre is low, and the 
collar of the amice stands up stiffly round the neck. 
The collar and the apparels of the albe, the chasuble- 
lining, the nimbus and the sjiint's lips, are painted in a 
cherry red. The peculiarity of the red lips, together \vith 
other mannerisms of late date, such as the stilt, bushy cut 
of the hair, the white face and the painting of the eye- 
brows in separate tine lines, connects this particular 
subject with the group of paintings on the south and 






■east walls of the nave. Tlie chasuble is deftly painted 
to imitate tlie sheen of silk or satin, in pale grey-blue 
and yellow tints, and the pall hears the usual t^-shaped 
jHns, alternated with flowered ornaments, probably 
meant for jewels. Above the head is a background of 
black (also much used in the group of paintings of this 
date), while behind the figure is a rich crimson ground, 
with the reticulated pattern lightly sketched on it, as in 
the painting of St. Frideswide ; and to the right Is the 
angle of an orange border belonging to another subject, 
now destroyed. A peculiar purse-like object in the 
cornei" of this border has yet to be explained. It should 
lie mentioned that an older painting, below this, uppeai-s 
in parts, but, happily, not so as to disturb the main 

5. When the south wall of the nave was pushed out 
(c, 1400) a chapel was formed in the eastern end, and 
this was probably dedicated to either St. Cross or Tlie 
Holy Blood. The piscina was painted a deep red, and 
the space over the altar had a painting ot'THK Agony in 
Gethskmane, with a background seme with drops of 
blood,' In this subject I found part of the kneeling 
figure of Our Lord suiTounded by the trees of the garden, 
«.nd above Him a demi-angel holding a scroll with 
i-emains of lettering thereon. The painting was rude 
and in a poor style of art, and this may have led to its 
partial destruction, for in about 1460 the whole was 
covered with a thin coat of distemper, unfortunately far 
less durable than the original, which was painted on the 
fresh phister at the time of the extension of the nave. 
The later painting seems to have related to the Blessed 
Virgin, as one little head of her — the only fragment it 
was possible to save— still remains over the earlier 
painting. This is evidently painted by the same hand as 
the archbishop before described. It has the same white 
face, red lips, and tawny hair, outlined in black against 

' Aiiswpring, no doubt inlontionnllr, plinitarlj placed to tliii, and the painting 

fo tlip pHBsage in St. Luke's Qospfl.— was of sbout (lie aanifi date. Tho 

" His snnit w»> as it were great drops of dedication to tlio Hi ilj Blood "aa not 

Hood falling down to the grouud." In uncommon ; n well -known instance is 

mtoriuE Ford Church, Suasri, 1 found tlie chapel of the S:iiat Sang at Bruges, 

tills subject of the Agony pninted on A Belgium, 
wiiidotr ^[>hiv of a Utile niiTC cliiipcl 



a blue-black background. It seems probable that the 
new painting marks a change in the dedication of the 
chantry, and that it became a Lady Chapel, 

6. The Miracle of the Clay Birds (Plate V), 
painted upon the southern splay of the squint. (Date 
c. 1 4 60. ) So far as I am aware, this interesting 
painting is unique as to its subject in either painting or 
sculpture of mediaeval date in England. The legend of 
which it is an illustration occurs in one of the apocryphal 
gospels— -the gospel of Nicodemus — and is to the eifect 
that Our Lord, making birds out of clay for the amuse- 
ment of His hoy companions, gave them life and caused 
them to fly. In the picture we hiwe the Blessed Virgin, 
crowned and nimbed, stnnding against a black background. 
Her hiiir is loose and falling down her back, and she has 
quite a beautiful face (for a mediiieval artist), with the 
same red lips noticed in the other pnlntinga of this series. 
She wears a tunic of ermine, a robe of pink, and a mantle 
of pale blue gathered over the shoulders and arms. She 
carries on her right arm the infant Christ, nimbed to 
distinguish Him from His boy companions, one of whom 
is seated on her other arm, while another, clad in an 
orange-brown tunic, kneels before her. The two com- 
panions are in attitudes expressive of wonderment and 
delight at the act of the Divme Child, who is causing one 
of the clay birds to fly. The little bird is appropriately 
painted clay colour, while the Child Jesus has a tunic of 
cinnamon brown with an embroidered collar, and the 
child on the Virgin's other arm is clad in emerald green, 
a colour that occurs elsewhere in this series of paintings. 
All the outlines are In black, and the hair of the figures 
is in brown, A pale French grey is used for the margin 
or frame of the picture, and this and other delicate shades 
impress one with the variety of colours at the disposal of 
the artist. Another impression is a certain minuteness 
and delicacy about the drawing, which, coupled with the 
brilliant colouring, suggests strongly the work of the 
illuminator, by whom, indeed, the pamtings of this series 
{c. 1460) may well have been executed — the work, in 
fact, of some monk of Ejnsham skilled in the use of the 
brush. Painting of any sort upon the sides of a squint 
is extremely rare; I cannot call to mind another instance, 



ST.SYTHA. D,;i,,z.d=,C0p^le^ 



7. On the large flat hollow of the suite of mouldings 
to the window in the eastern part of the soutli wall of 
the nave — the eastern jamb- — I found, on removing the 
tliick coating of colourwash which covered the whole of the 
stonework, a most pertect little figure, tlie only one on 
either of these two big Perpendicular windows (Plate VI). 
It represents St. Sitha, Citha, or Zita, a pious Italian 
servant maid, born in V118, and noted for her zeal 
in attendance at church, and for her c<ire of the poor.' 
The saint stands against a deep red background bordered 
with amber ; beneath her feet the hollow was plainly 
coloured in black. She has a large ringed and rayed 
nimbus of orange and red ; on her he;id is a white kerchief 
or hood with scarlet threads round the hem, and this 
appears to be pinned to a stiff gorget or wimple pleated 
under the chin. Here, again, the lips are touched with 
scarlet. She is habited in a plain white gown with loose 
hanging sleeves, like a surplice, and weare over this an 
emerald green mantle, fastened by a bronze brooch of rose 
shape. On her feet are little black shoes, and she bears 
in her right hand two large metal purKe-frames, a bag — 
perhaps supposed to contain broken meat for the poor — 
and a nunch of four keys. The coloure are e.xti-aordinarily 
fresh, and the whole painting looked, when uncovered, as 
though it had only lately been executed — thanks to the 
blessed whitewash of the Reformers ! Tiie date of the 
painting is c. 14G0.- 

8, 9, and 10. To the same date as the foregoing belong 
the scanty remains of a large DoOM which covered the 
whole of the upper part of the east wall of the nave and 

' This laint i« often contoundiHl with diBtiiictiTel}! belonging to ui abbess or 

St. Qgjth ("St. Sjthe"), Virgin ami nun about the figure. St. Osjth, aa 

Marljr, who lived about tlio end of tlie a Mereian Saint, would have fittnd xer)' 

aeicnth centurj. My friend Mr. liejBer, veil in this neighbourhood but for the 

who visited the church on nij report of peculiar ottribules of keja, etc. St, 

the finding of these palntiniis, siiggeated Sitha is eoinmeinoraled on April 2Tth. 

that this figure represented St. i<itba ; Her figure is cumnionl; met with on 

and there ran, I think, be Do queiition screena in Eu)>t Anilia, and in stained 

that it is the serving woman, because glass. TJie onlj other mural painting 

of the curious collection of arliclea known to me i« of late fourteenth century 

in her right band. At first sight, date, on a Korman pier at St. Alhan'a, 

the hood, wimple and mantle, fastened and this one ia somewhat doubtfully 

by a brooch, suggested a Religious of a«>'i^ed to The Saint, 

some sort, but these miaht I e given - Figured in the Buildinff A'eir*, 
February 261h, 1891). 



was continued over the eastern parts of the north and 
south walls. This subject was treated on the usual lines, 
and was evidently very similar to the Dooms at the 
churches of North and South Leigh, in this county. On 
the north wall of the nave has been Death ox the Pale 
Horse, of which hardly anything is left. On the east 
wall, left and centre, is the Resurrection, with figures 
rising out of stone coflSns {one very elaborately moulded) ; 
among these a woman in a white shroud is distinguishable. 
The background is red, with tufts of grass and flowers in 
green and black. Heaven, with the saved, the Divine 
Judge, Our Lady, St. Peter, and Michael, the weigher of 
souls, are not now to be seen, although all or some of 
these must have been features in the scheme when perfect. 
But a good part of the Mouth of Hell — shown as the 
open jaws of a whale — remains, and two particularly fear- 
some blue demons are standing therein {one a sort of pig- 
demon), hauling with a spiked chain a band of condemned 
souls into the open jaws. Some heads of small figures 
remain above, perhaps a batch of the cnndeiuned, being 
pitchforked by Satan to the demons below.' On the 
south wall, close under the wall-plate, is a very remark- 
able adjunct to this subject, fortunately in a more perfect 
state. It represents Hell Cauldron.^ Against a black 
background a great metal pot with two handles, standing 
on legs, is depicted — -just such a vessel as must have been 
a familiar feature in the farm-feasts and church-ale diink- 
ings of the fifteenth century.^ Indeed, the whole appear- 
ance of the pot is so like that of a great pewter drmking 
measure that I cannot help thinking we have here a 
direct warning against the sin of drunkenness, with 
particular reference, perhaps, to the licence that so oflen 
disfigured the Whitsun ales, and other parochial " drink- 
ings." It will be seen on referring to the illustration 

' This feature occur* in n Doom which "Mother LudUm'a Cauldron," of 

I found at Ford Churcli, Susmi. mediaertil dat« (c. 1300), i« still kept as 

^ This subject ie not at all commoal; a curiosttj in Frensham Church, SurroT. 

found now ■□ wall paintings, although It is of beal«n copper, with ringa 

doubtless it formed a part of many a'toched to the rim. for auspendiog OTei 

Dooms in their pre-B«forniation oon- a liro, and four short legs strutting out. 

ditioti. It occurs among the torments Doubtless it has been used in manj a 

of Hell in the remarkable earlj painting pariah merrj- making. It ia of a Jow 

of the Ladder of SalTatiun at Chaldon sqnat shape, without auj waiit, like the 

Church, Surrej. pot in the punting. 

^ Such ■ parish vessel, known a* 



',-.'• H( 





^Plate VIE), that ten miserable little figures are crammed 
into the mouth of the pot, two of whom, with beards, are 
unmistakably men, while the rest, with characteristically 
monkish bias against the fair sex, appear to be intended 
to represent women.' Below the pot is the nozzle of «. 
pair of bellows, meant, no doubt, to be blowing up the 
flames ; and on the right is a peculiarly hideous little goat- 
horned demon, with goggling eyes aud great white teeth, 
tootling upon a horn — perhaps in refereni^e to the music 
that accompanied the parish ale-drinkings. This monster, 
who has monkey-like hands and tufts of hair over its 
body, has been left without legs, as though the artist had 
not quite completed the picture. Above the cauldron a 
devil's-see-saw is Hterally in full swing ; a blue demon, 
partly destroyed, sits astride, weighing down one end of 
the plank, which is balanced on a post ; while a naked 
figure, seemingly of a woman, clutching with her hands 
to the tilted end (the demon has apparently shaken her 
off her seat on the plank in this gnm giime), is about to 
be dropped into the mouth of the cauldron. Her clothes, 
which liave been shaken off in the violence of the " play," 
are falling off behind ; and here, perhaps, the rough sports 
that accompanied parish festivities are satirised. Tlie 
humour of the whole scene is irresistible, if somewhat 
coarse and out of place to modern ideas. One must, 
however, remember that the Oxfordshire peasant in the 
fifteenth century required blunt speech, and would perhaps 
not have heeded a more delicate warning,* 

11, On the west wall of the nave has been a large 
subject — St. George and the Dragon. A portion of tlie 
wing of the latter and some trees are discernible, but the 
insertion of a sixteenth century window hiis destroyed 
the greater part of the painting. The date is probably 
the same as that of the " Agony " on the east wall— 
£. 1400. 

' Like the foregoing group of jHunt- distinguished. A toad is perched on tlie 

inge, Ibo little (if^es in tliis liare scarlrc riin of tlie pot opposite the n'oniun, 

lip<. perhaps to indicate her funiiliitritj nith 

' One of the fmgmeats of the dc- the hlack nrt ; iind a pune is susj>i'iidpd 

Blrojed stone screen of the choir of beneath tlie f^pping haudj of (he 

Bourgea Cathedral, France (thirteenth prelale, no doubt witli roEercnDe to liii 

ci'nturv), represents " Ilell Cauldron " greed oF gain. Thrust into the tuggots 

here of simple pot shape, eonlaining a that feed (he ftre beloH' nre tito pnirs of 

roup of figures, among nhicli a woman, WlloV:-. Ildr ilhistmiiun in Thr 

a, mouk, a, laj'ni 



12. The latest of these curiously-assorted paintings 
ia in some ways the most interesting. It covers the 
large wall-space hetween the door and the eastern of the 
TWO windows in the south wall of the nave, and its date 
cannot be earlier than about ISOO, and nmy be twenty 
years or so later (Plate VII). It is executed in very slight 
grey and black outlines, with a sparing use of pale tints 
and without any coloured background to show up the 
figures, as In the foregoing. The subject is the legend 
of St. Eugius, or Eloy, the patron of blacksmiths and 
farriers ; and it is, so fiir as I can learn, unique as a 
wall-painting.' The saint, who in earlier life had 
pursued the calling of a smith and metal-worker, kept 
up his craft after he had been made Bishop of Noyon. 
He flourished in the seventh century, dymg in 6.')9 ; 
and among other legends connected with his name is 
the story that as he was one day shoeing a horse, the 
animal, perhaps moved by some evil spirit, became 
restive and plunged violently. The saint then quietly 
took off its leg, nailed on the shoe and put the leg on 
again. In illustration of this quaint incident we have 
here the smith's forge, the arched chimmey being hung 
round with horse-shoes, St. Eligius, as a bishop, vested 
in a red-brown cope and holding in his tongs the horse's, 
hind leg, which has been taken off at the first joint, 
while the shoe lies on the anvil. The horse before him 
appears to be standing in a sort of crate or wooden frame, 
perhaps meant to give him support while he is minus 
a leg ; and behind stands the owner, represented by a 
typical well-to-do citizen of Henry Vllth's reign. He 
wears the peculiar square hat with flaps, common about 
the end of the fifteenth and the commencement of the 

' There is a fine bas-relief of thii handeomely iienei. The detaib of' 

incident, which seeme to baTe been a the force and figures in both axe qusiot 

popular ono with the artiiU, in the and full of interesC. St. EUgiuB is alto 

church ot Or San Michele, Florence. represented on a Suffolk bu-relief and 

In England we hare a boerelief at on two or three trreeni of Eaat An^lia 

Durweaton, Dorset, now placed otpt the and Devon. A baa-re)ief of this aubjeot 

south doorwaT, of which my friend strikiDgl; similar to that at Durwmton 

Hr. Q. C. Druce has sent me an eiiit* at WincantAn Church, fiomertat 

excellent pbotogmph. In this, and {vide illnstratiun in CasseH's Social 

the previouBlj mentioned eiample, England, Vol. Ill, p. £?). Here abo 

which Hr.DrucebasalsopholographFd, it appears to be a fine lady that has 

the person briniing the hone to be brought the horse t« be shod at th» 

shod is a ladj, gay.looking, and Saint's forge. 



sixteenth centuries. He htis a clean-shaven face, hair 
falling over his shoulders, and a linen shirt gathered 
round the neck beneath a red jerkin. The hoise and his 
master are fairly perfect, and the former has a Bcalioped 
bridle, but unfortunately the bishop, who is shown as a 



It seems 6tting that some note should be takeo, id the 
Journal of the Royal Archaeotogicat Institute, of an 
event so interesting to archaeologists as the tercen- 
tenary of the birth of Sir William Dugdale. 

His grandfather w«s James Dugdale of Clitheroe in 
Lancashire, whose only child, John, was of Shuetoke 
near Coleshill in the county of Warwick. He married 
Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Arthur Swinfen of 
Duuchurch, descended from the Swinfena of Swinfen in 
the county of Stafford. Their only son William was 
born 12tn September, 1605, at which time (Anthony 
Wood says) was a swai-m of bees in his father's garden. 
This Lilly the "figure flinger " afterwards interpreted 
as foretelling that the infant should in time prove a 
prodigy of industry, but this statement of Lilly was, 
however, a prophecy after the event. 

From seven to ten years of age William had his first 
education in grammar learning under Mr, Thomas Sibley, 
curate at Nether Whitacre ; from ten to fifteen he was 
at the Free Grammar School of Coventry, under Mr. 
James Crauford. He then returned home and read law 
with his father. His natural inclination tended chiefly 
to the study of antiquities, and he made collections 
relating to the antiquities of his native county, which 
he submitted to Sir Henry Spelman, who recommended 
him to Thomas, Earl of Arundel, Earl Marshal, for admis- 
.sion to the College of Arms. Accordingly, he was made 
Blaunch Lyon Pursuivant of Arms Extraordinary on 
the 24th September, 163S. He was steadily promoted 
in the ranks of that College, becoming Rouge Croix 
Pursuivant in Ordinary on l8th March, 1639, Chester 
Herald 16th April, 1644, Norroy King of Anns 18th 
June, 1660, and finally Garter Principal King of Arms on 
■26th April, 1677. This may be taken as evidence that 
his knowledge of heraldry was unrivalled among his 
contemporaries ; and although that study has been said 



to be one which only loads the memory without im- 
proving the understanding, it was an essential equip- 
ment for his work. He received the honour of knight- 
hood, "much against his will, by reason of his small 
estate," on the 25th of May following, and was decorated 
by the king with the chain and badge of the Order of 
the Garter, appropriate to the office of Garter King of 

His own family arms were : argent a cross moline, and 
in the first quarter a torteau gules ; crest, a griffin's 
head and wmgs addorsed or. The motto " pestis 
patriae pigrities ' is a particularly appropriate one for so 
industrious a worker. 

In 162fi, he had fixed his country home at Blythe 
Hall, in the paiish of Shustoke, but his appointment 
as Rouge Croix gave him a lodging in the Heralds' Office, 
and he thenceforth spent the greatest part of his time in 
London, where he augmented his collections out of 
the records in the Towtr and elsewhere. In 1641, he 
devoted himself to making exact draughts of the 
monuments in cathedral and other churches, copying the 
epitaphs uccording to the very letter, as also all arras in 
the windows or cut in stone. In June, 1642, Rouge Croix 
was commanded to attend King Charles I, and continued 
in attendance upon His Majesty, and performing the 
functions of his office until the delivery of Oxford to the 
Parliamentary Army in June, 1646, when he had for 
sometime been Chester Herald. On 1st November, 
1642, he was admitted Master of Arts at Oxford. 
During his leisure there he searched the antiquities 
in the Bodleian and other libraries, and made collec- 
tions for the several great works which he had in 

In 1635 or thereabouts, he had Ibrmed the acquaintance 
of Mr. Roger Dodsworth, a Yorkshire antiquary, who 
had made large collections of the transcripts of the 
foundation charters of monasterits, and they agreed to 
"work together for the same purpose. The result of their 
joint labours was the Monaslicon Anglicanum, but as Mr. 
Dodsworth' died in August, 1654, the responsibility of 
seeing it through the press rested on Dugdale alooe. 
The first volume was finished in 1655. This great under- 



taking, however, did not exhaust his capacity for work, 
for he also finished and published in 1656 his Antiquities 
of Warwickshire. He studied a collection of manuscripts 
relating to St. Paul's Cathedral, made by Mr. Reading 
and amounting to ten porters' burdens, resulting in the 
Historij of St. Paul's, published in 1658. The second 
volume of the 3foHasiifon was published in 1661. The 
History of EmhanMng and Draining of Rivers, Fens, 
and Marshes both iti foreign parts and in this Kingdom 
appeared in 1662. The Origines Juridiciales, which is 
to this day a fountain of information as to the high 
judicial offices, the courts of justice, the Serjeants, the 
Inns of Court and of Chancer}', was published in 1666. 
Dugdale completed and edited Spelman's Concilia and 
Glossary in the same year. In 1673 he published a 
third volume of the Monasticon ; in 1675 and 1676 the 
Baronage of England in two volumes. In 1681 he 
published a History of the Rebellion; in 1682 a brief 
discourse on the ancient use of bearing of arms, and a 
second edition of tlie Monasticon appeared; in 1685 a 
collection of the summonses of the nobility to Parliament. 
He also made many MS. collections, some of which he 
presented to Heralds' College, and indexed and 
calendered a great number of other collections of 
documents. Besides these employments, he composed 
epitaphs on many illustrious persons. 

This record of a busy life constitutes a monument of 
industry and research which may well be characterised as 
marvellous. It is not necessary here to attempt any 
appreciation of these great works. They have been too 
long in daily use by antiquaries to call for further 
description. Errors have been found in them — it would 
have been wonderiul had it been othei-wise — but their 
solid value is not affected by that discovery. In the apt 
words of the anonymous writer of the introduction to 
Archaeologia, we owe especially to the labours ol 
Dugdale, in whom extensive knowledge was united with 
indefatigable application, the preservation of that 
treasure of records contained in our monastic repositories, 
the enlargement of our topographical acquaintance with 
our own country, the memorials of our nobility, and the 
history of some of our ancient cathedrals. He was 



happy in the time at which he laboured, and was able to 
preserve evidences of many things that were destroyed 
during the civil wara 

This industrious life was prolonged until 10th 
Febniary, 1685, and was then terminated by a bad cold, 
caught at Blythe Hall. He had married in 1 622 
Margery, second daughter of John Huntbach (or 
Hunbach), of Seawell, Staffordshire, and she died in 1681, 
after fifty-nine years of married life, leaving him three sons 
and ten daughters. The eldest son became Sir John 
Dugdale, Norroy King of Arms, and died in 1699. The 
second daughter, Elizabeth, married Elias Ashmole, 
Windsor herald. An augmentation of arms was 
granted to Sir John by St. George, Garter, in 1698. 
Sir William, his wife, and his son Sir John, are all buried 
in Shustoke Church. The portrait by Borsseler, 
engraved as a frontispiece to Hamper's life (our principal 
authority for the facts here stated) shows a grave and 
reverend countenance, a long nose, bushy eyebrows, and 
abundant curling hair. 

E. Brabeook. 

ly Google 

IBroctetifngs at ,(Vltetinas of ibe ISogal Srrliatologicnl 


The Excursions were under the conduct of Mr. Henby Wilson. 

July 25th. — Inaugiu-al meeting at the Pump Room. Reception by th& 

Mayor of Tunbridge Wells, Bayham Abbey, a house of Prae- 

monstratensian or White Canons, described by Mr. W. H. St. 

John Hope. Reception in the evening by the Mayor, at the 

Town Hall. 
July 26th. — Bodiam Castle, described by Mr. Harold Sands, F,S.A. 

HawkhuFBt Church. Etchingham Church, described by Mr. 

MiCKLETHWAiTE. Evening Meeting at the Pump Room. Mr, 

W. H. St. John Hope, on English Domestic Architecture down 

to Tudor Times. 
July 27th. — Knole House, the mansion of Lord Sackville. Wrotham 

Church. Yaldham Manor. 
July 28th.— Allington Castle, described by Mr. W. H. St. John Hope. 

Aylesford Church. The Friars, described by Mr. Hope. Kits 

Coty House. Evening Meeting at the Pump Room. Mr, Harold 

Sands, r.S.A„ on Castles. 
July 29th.— Maidstone Parish Church of All Saints. The College. The 

Palace or Manor Houbo. The Museum. West Mailing. The Abbey, 

described by Mr. Hope. The Norman House, behind a shop in 

the High Street. The Church. The Early Norman tower of the 

destroyed church of St. Leonard. 
July 31st.— Pen shurst Place, Penshnrst Church. Leigh Church. 

Tonbridge Castle, described by Mr. Haroij) Saxds, F.S.A. 

Concluding Meeting at the Pump Room. 
August Ist.^Old Soar Manor House, described by Mr, Hope, Ightham 

Church, described by Mr. St. J. Hope. Ightham Mote,' described 

by Mr. Henry Taylor, F.S.A. 

The Annual Meetino. 
The Institute chose Tunbridge Wells for its Annual Meeting this 
vear, not so much on account of the historical associations of the place, 
nut because it formed a convenient centre with sufficient accommodation 
for a large party. The meeting opened on Tuesday, July 25th, when 
the Mayor of Tunbridge Weils (Alderman H. Thorpe) accorded to 

I indebted to Mr. TdjIof for the accompanying plans bj 



the members a hearty welcome to the town. The chair was taken by 
the President, Sir Henry Howorth, and there were about eighty-foiir 
members of the Institute present. 

The Mayor, in openine the proceedings, said he felt more nervous 
than usual in speaking publicly in the presence of so learned a tjociety. 
TunbridKe Wells gave the members a very hearty welcome, and was 
delight«d that they had chosen the town as a centre for their Annual 
Meeting. Next year Tunbridge Wells was going to celebrate its 300th 
birthday. Three hundred years ago, LordNorthdiscoveredthesprings, 
before which time there were no buildings whatever. Except for tlie 
Pantiles, which were created in the seventeenth or eighteenth century, 
he was afraid there was nothing very attractive to the members. 
They were principally concerned now in designing buildings which 
would give the Archaeological Society 300 years hence something to 
talk about. He hoped as many members as possible of the local Natural 
History Society would accompany the Society during its excursions. 
There were a great many people in Tunbridge Wells who had never 
been to the places where the Society contemplated going, and this would 
afford an excellent opporiunity for visiting such places as Knole and 
Hever. Sir Henry Howorth was well-known in Tunliridge Wells, and 
personally they welcomed him there that day. If the Press wanted a 
quotation to describe the President, they couki not do better than 
say, as Goldsmith did : 

The President said it was a great pleasure on behalf of this Society,, 
which was now seventy years old, to thank the Ma^or for the cordial 
words of welcome he had extended to them. Especially did he do so 
for the kind phrases which he had applied to himself. The fact was, 
all the charlatans that ever lived from the begining of time had Iweu 
more or less famous, not for the depth, but the extreme tciiuitv of their 
knowledge. A cynic might perhaps apply this conclusion to himself. 

The President, after congratulating Sir Edward Brabrook, C.B., 
upon the distinction conferretl upon him by the King, observed that 
their business on that occasion was to illustrate history by the study 
of arehaeologv, which in itself was merely one means of many towaids 
the great eiid they had in. view — to discover something Jtl>oul the 
characteristics and peculiarities of the people who lived in former days. 
The Institute had come to Kent, which was, of all the counties, an 
epitome of England. It had l>een rightly named the Garden of 

The Komans introduced the cherry into Kent, an<l he believed the 
Flemings introduced hops. The hop came into England with the 
lieformation, and it used to be stated that heresy and hops came in 
together. Ale was the old English drink, and was supplanted by beer 
in the time of Henry VIII,, its chief characteristic being theuseof hops 
in its manufacture, and it was found that hops were much better than 
any other astringent for preserving it. A\lien they turned from the 
landscape to history, what a wonderful history Kent had ! In the 
middle of the county were still to be seen some of these extremoly 
interesting cromlechs which had disappeared uiuler the harrow anil 
plough in other parts of central and eastern England. At Kits Coty 



HoUEe they would see a very fine specimen indeed. Coming to Roman 
times, plenty of eWdence of the Romans was Ut !« found in Kent, not 
«o mucn of camps as of their villas, for they foimd out, as we did, that 
it waa a most desiralile residence. Although he was not born in Kent, 
the first Emperor of these realms, Carausiiis, struck coins in Kent and 
in London, and he was the great high admiral of the Cinque Ports ou 
the South Coast. On some of these coins were specimens of the earliest 
known English ship. 

Then they found the English race, the Anglo-Saxons, making their 
first settlement in Kent. These settlements had never been properly 
worked out, and they turned from the legends preserved in the English 
Chronicle, which were so fahulous, to the documents in the ground, 
where they found a collection of things quite unmatched in any other 
part of England. From the evidence which hati come to light, it was 
clear that they must have settled here, not as pirates but as peaceful 
colonists, because they found their graves in the graveyards alternated 
with the Romans. First, there was a Roman and then a Saxon, and 
then a Roman and a Saxon again, which plainly showed that they were 
living close together in the Pagan times. Three or four years ago he 
was led to make an enquiry, the results of which had l>een accepted, 
and which altered very considerably the idea of the descent of the 
English kings, who were really descended from the old race of 
Kentish kings, and not from the West Saxons at all. 

In Kent, Augustine landed when he began his great pilgrimage of 
evangelising this comitry, and in Kent he laid the beginning of one of 
the greatest ecclesiastical monuments in the world — Canterbury 
Cathedral. It was rather a curious thing that Kent had two Cathedrals 
and two Sees, sharing this distinction among the Counties of England 
only with Yorkshire, whose great size originally, no doubt, justified the 

Coming to Norman times, the President alluded to the local tenures 
of land and feudal customs, the murder of Thomas-a-Bcckett and the 
pilgrimages to his shrine at Canterbury, which were so picturesquely 
described by Chaucer, that most delightful of early poets ; and the 
revolts against feudal ways, headed by Jack Cade, Wat Tyler luid 
Wyatt, were all probably Kentish. 

Sir Henry next commented upon some of the places it was proposed 
to visit. The Institute would see the places where the Sidneys and the 
•Jack^illes lived, Ightham Moat, and many other historical places in 
Kent. At Wrotham, in the seventeenth century, artistic pottery used 
to be made, of which many excellent specimens existed in the British 
Museum. It was made of red clay and ornamented with slip decorations 
and applied ornaments. 

With regard to Tunbridge Wells, although it did not possess any- 
thing that was supremely attractive in the way of architecture, it was 
a very delightful place for their pilgrimage this year. The greatest 
and most interesting people at one time used to come here to recoup 
their health after the racketting of London. The spring at the other 
end of the Pantiles was chalybeate, and it was strange that the Romans, 
who discovered most of the medicinal waters, did not find this one. The 
names of the streets siiggested the Puritans, who used largely to visit it, 
and there was Mount Ephraim, Mount Sion, Calverley Mount, etc. A 






ToSmt pogl ITB. 


IV Google 


very mixed company used to assemble at Tunbridge Wells, and it was 
necessary to hare a good Master of the Ceremonies, and so it came 
-about that Beau Nash took up that position. Having alluded to the 
visits of Dr. Johnson, whom he descril>ed as the English Socrates, 
Sir Henry Howorth read Maeaulay's description of Tunbridgo Wells, 
And said he ba<l eiery coiilidence that their stay in Tiiiibridge WelU 
would be an enjoyable one. 

Sir Edward Bkadrook proposed a vote of thanks to the President 
for his address, and Dr. Ablmtt seconded, incidentally remarking that 
he thought the Pantiles was called by that name not because the walk 
was paved with them, but because the bouses were roofed with pan 
tiles. This view, however, was afterwards contested, and it seems that 
the name pantiles is still used locally for floor tiles of a definite shape 
and size. 

In the afternoon a party, amounting to about seventy members, drove 
to Bayham Abbey, and here Mr, W. H. St. JuiiNHoPEgave an account 
of the Praemonatratensian or White Canons to whom the Abbey 
belonged (see plan of the niinB). The Abbey was founded 
about 1200 A.D., and its remains consist chiefly of the Church, 
the Chapterhouse, the cloister and f rater subvaults, and 
part of the western range, and also of the front of the gate-house. 
The church is of peculiar interest on account of the way in which 
it was enlarged early in -the fourteenth century, when a new crossing 
and steeple, with north and south transepts and an apsidal presbytery, 
were biult on to the east of the then existing Cruciform church. 
At a later date, I>efore the close of the century, the nave was 
remodelled and fiiniiahed with a ribbed vault with singular vaulting 
shafts. The house was suppressed by Wolscy. 

Mr. MiCKLETinvAiTK added a few words on the difference between 
Black and White Canons, the former generally planting their houses in 
towns and undertaking parochial work, and the latter living, like the 
Cistercians, in isolateii and retired places and with ascetic surroundings, 
which were reflected in the simplicity of their churches. 

After a vote of thanks to the Marquess Camden for giving permission 
to inspect the ruins, the party returned to Tunbridge Wells. In the 
«vening the Mayor and Mayoress held a reception in the Town Hall in 
honour of the Institute, where the members of the Natural History 
Society had also gathered together a number of local antiquities and 
other interesting exhibits. 

Wednesday, the :36th, was devoted first to a journey to Bodiam 
Castle (see plan), which was reached by train about II a.m. Here 
Mr. Harold fiA.\DK read a paper, in which he pointed out that the 
castle of Bodiam was probably the best known English example of 
the new type of moated, castellated houses which was introduced 
towards the close of the fourteenth century. Bodiam Castle was 
built by Sir Edward Dalyngruge, who, in 1386, obtained hcence 
from Kichard 11. authorising him to " strengthen and embattle, 
construct, and make into a castle his manor of Bodiham, near the sea, 
in the county of Sussex, for the defence of the adjacent country and 
the resistance of our enemies." This site possessed considerable strategic 
Advant^;oB over the site of the earlier mansion, which was situated on 
the other side of the hill, about half a mile to the north. The castle 



might be said to form the connecting link between the castles of th» 
Plantagenet Period and the fortified manor houses of the Tudor Period. 
The great north gate had no fewer than three portcullises, a portion of 
the outer one still remaining in situ. The lesser gatehouse was in the 
south central tower. In ^ont of the south gate, two walls, abqtit 
3 feet thick, projected into the moat. Between them was a bridge pit 
(now filled up), which received the rear end of a lifting bridge. Tne 
outer end of this fell upon a permanent wooden pier, on trestles, extending 
across the moat (hereahoutllOfeet wide) toa small tower or barbican, 
now destroyed. The speaker had always thought that there was a line 
of exterior defence running round the outer edge of the bank which 
retained the water of the moat With regard to the relations of the 
castle to the Kother, Mr. Sands pointed out that at one time the 
river was considerably wider and deeper than at present, and quite 
capable of floating a ship of the period, lieturning to the castle, he 
said the towers had fireplaces and garderobes, showing they wore 
intended for habitation, probably by the soldiers of the garrison. The 
gatehouse opened into an interior quadrangular court, around which 
ran a range of buildings. In the south-west angle was the great kitchen 
of the lord, with three huge open fireplaces and an oven. The great hall 
was 48 feet long by 2B feet wide, with a high-pitched timber roof and 
a two- light window at the eastern end. At the south-east corner of the 
court was the site of the main staircase, leading from the basement at 
the east side to the private apartments of the lord and his family, which 
extended along the cast si<ie as far as the chapel. It was noticeable 
with all the exterior walla that large windows were found only on the 
south and east fronts, as being least exposed to attack. Next to these 
chambers was the chapel, 29 feet by 19 feet. With some exceptions, 
the roofs of the buildirjM round the courtyard were flat, and covered 
with sheet lead, providing a line of uninterrupted communication on 
the wall-level. ^Ir. Sands afterwards called attention to the evidences 
that the present road was not the original means of approach to the 
castle, and gave other interesting details of the Iiuildmg. As to its 
history, he showed that it was founded by Sir Edward Dalyngnige, 
who became possessed of the manor tbrouf^h his wife, Elizabeth 
\\'ardedieuse, a descendant of the ancient family of De Bodiam. It 
ilescended through various families to the Cubitts, and now remained 
in the possession of Lord Ashcombc, the present hea<t of that family. 
In 1643, after the I'arli amen tar}- forces had taken Arundel, Sir William 
Waller despatched a body of troops to Bodiam, to whom it was 
surrendered without a siege. The materials were taken away and sold, 
and the place was left witn only the bare walls standing, very much in 
its present condition. 

The President, in warmly thanking Jlr. San<ls for his paper, and 
Lord Ashcomlxs for allowing the Institute free access to the building, 
emphasised the fact that he had saved the castle from collapse an(l 
destruction, and deserved their gratitude for the continual care he had 
taken of it, took occasion to refer to the interesting fact that the 
County of Sussex was marked by special territorial divisions not found 
elsewhere in Britain, namely, rapes, each one artificially formed br 
frontier lines, mnning at right angles to the Downs and the sea, each 
one with its own fciiaal castle, Bodiam being one. 



These rapes, he explained as in all probability pointing to a 
s^ettlement of Norwegians or Danes here in the troubled ninth and tenth 
centuries, the most reasonable explanation of the name bein§ that it 
was a corruption of rep; the term by which the Icelanders still called 
their territorial divisions. 

After luncheon, the journey was resumed in carriages to Hawkhurst 
Church, a large and handsome stnicture, consisting of a chancel with side 
chapels, and oave chiefly of the fourteenth century, with widened aisles, 
north and south porches, and western tower of the fifteenth century. 
Mr. Hope pointed out the principal features of the building, including 
the evidence of a former central tower and the hitherto overlooked 
-existence of a charnel or bone-hole under the eastern part of the 
-chancel north aisle. Ho also called attention to the singular external 
chamber at the east end of the chancel, now used as a vestry, but 
which until 1859 had never had any direct communication with the 
church. The purpose of this chamber gave rise to considerable 
discussion, but no agreement about it was arrived at. 

The drive was next continued to Etchingham Church. This was 
■described by Mr. J. T, Micklethwaite, who pointed out that it was a 
small bnt beautiful structure, built all at one time towards the close of 
the fourteenth century, and affording an interesting example of what 
the builders of the day could do when untrammelled by existing old 
work. He also called attention to the remains of the admirable 
■original glazing in the windows, to the old fittings in the chancel, and 
to the existence on a former visit by him of a wooden figure of Our 
Lady, which had probably belonged to the rood. Attention was also 
drawn to the splendid series of brasses which the church contains, 
including among them the headless figure of William of Etchingham, 
its founder. The party then returned by train to Tunbridge Wells. 

In the evening a meeting was held in the Pump Room, when 
Mr. W, H. St. Joh.n Hoi'B read a paper on " English Domestic 
Architecture down to Tudor Times," illustrated by a large number of 
lantern shdes of ground plans and views. 

On Thursdaj', July 27th, the members of the meeting went first by 
train to Sevenoaks, and drove thence to Knole House, the splendid 
mansion of Lord Sackville. Begun by Archbishop Bouchier soon after 
1456 on the site of an earlier bmlding, it was enlarged by Archbishop 
Warham and later owners, and finally brought to its present form early 
in the seventeenth century. The house is so famous for the magnificent 
und unrivalled pictorial and other treasures which it contains that its 
architectural features arc rather apt to be overlooked, an<l as the rules 
under irhich it is inspected allow of the admission of only small nnmljera 
at a time, the party had to divide, so making detailed description 
difficult. Nearly two hours were profitably spent in viewing the 
numerous interesting works of art before the hour of luncheon arrived. 

After luncheon carriages were again in readiness to convey the party 
to Wrotham, where the Church of St. Gleorge was inspected under the 
guidance of Mr. Hope. The building consists of a chancel of the 
fourteenth century, a nave with north and south aisles and a south 
porch, mostly of the thirteenth aud fourteenth centuries, and a western 
tower. This last is also of the fourteenth century, and, owing to its 
being built close up to the western limit of the churchyard, has a 


182 phoceedisgs at meetings of the ixstitute. 

vaulted passage through the lowest storey to enable proeeasiona to go 
round the outside of the church. There is another curious passage 
within the church in the thickness of the wall above the chancel arch, 
with two small lights frora the nave and another from the chancel. It 
is reached by an upward continuation of the rood staircase, and was 
explained as & convenient mode of access to the roofs, which can all l>e 
reached from it. The fifteenth century rood-screen and a square 
Purbeck marble font are all that remain of the old furniture of the 
church, and every one of the windows has been " restored." 

Leaving Wrotham, the drive was resumed to Yaldham Manor, where 
the party was hospitably entertained to tea by Major-General and Mrs. 
GOLDSWORTHY. Mrs. Goldaworthy also read a short paper on the 
descent of the ^fanor House from the time of Richard the First. The 
name of this Manor denotes its antiquity, \'iz., Ealdham, or the " old 
dwelling." It was also called Eldenham, or Aldham. The three 
Manors— 1, East or Great Yaldham (now called Yaldham Manor): 
2, West, or Little Yaldham, both in Wrotham parish ; and 3, Yaldham 
St. Clere, now called St. Clere only— in Ightham parish, were formerly 
owned by Sir Thomas de Aldham, who was with Richard I. at the siege 
of Acre, 1191. Eichardl. is said to have rested at Yaldham ou his way to 
Dover. In 1220 Robert de Eldenham granted to the Priory of Cumbwell 
an annual rent of 2.4. at his house of Eldenham, and this grant was 
confirme<l in 1245. In 1293 mention of the bucks in the Park of 
Aldham, then in possession of Baldwin de Eldham, is made in the 
Assize Roll of Kent. 21 Edward I. The Feckham family possessed 
Yaldham from Sir Thomas de Aldam for about four hundred years— 
from 1327 to 1713 — and about twenty years after that date it was 
bought by Mr. Wm. Evelyn Granville, who re-united it to St. Clere. 
About 1512, St. Clere was granted by King Henry VIII. to Sir 
Thomas Boleyn, father of Anne Boleyn, who is said to have danced in 
the hall at Yaldham. The tithes of Yaldham and 140 acres of land 
were given by Gasfried de Eos to the monks of St. Andrew's in 
Rochester, and continued in the possession of the priory of Rochester 
until it« dissolution in the thirty-first year of Henry VIII. They were 
afterwards given to the Dean and Chapter, who let the tithe for 
twenty-one years for 6^. 8cl. and two fat capons. The larger part of 
the house was burnt down in the fourteenth century. The hall was 
said to have served as a resting-place for pilgrims who passed along 
the adjoining pilgrims' way to Canterbury. 

A vote of thanks was tendered to the host and hostess for their 
kind hospitality, and especially to the hostess for her admirable 

The journey back to Sevenoaks was made under most discomforting 
circumstances, during a violent thimderstorm, and hardly one of the 
party escaped being soaked to the skin by the tremendous downpour 
of rain. 

Friday, the 281 h, was devoted to visits to Allington Castle, Aylesford, 
and Kits Coty House. Leaving by special train at 9.35, the party 
reached Maidstone at 10.20, and drove first to Allingtou Castle. Here 
Mr. and Mrs. Dudley Falke received the travellers, and the building 
was described by Mr. Hope. The manor of Allington, he pointed out, 
belonged at the time of Domesday Survey to Bishop Odo of Bayeux, but. 



on his disgrace, wae granted to William of Wareniie, who probably raised 
here a mount and bailey caetle to control the passage and fords of the 
.Modway and the road connecting ilaidstone with Sochester. The 
castle waa slighted in 21 Henry IT., when 6C.''. were spent "inpro- 
eternendo Castelh' de Alintone, ' an entry which Mr. Hope thought 
referred to the overthrowing of William de Warenne's great mount on 
the south of the present eastle. The place eventually flescended to 
Sir Stephen de Pencestre, Constable of Dover Castle and Warden of 
the Cinque Ports, who obtained licence on May, 2oth, 1281, for himself 
and Margaret his wife to crenellate their house of Allington, in the 
county of Kent. Of the work then built there still remain theenceinto 
wall of a square enclosure, with drum towers at intervals, the gatehouse 
and part of its covering barbican, with a range of lodgings adjacent, 
and some fragments of the great hall, with the doorways from the 
screens. The building subsequently passed into the possession of Sir 
Thomas Wyatt, the statesman and poet, who died in 1542. To him 
are probably due the porch of the hall and a number of inserted 
windows in various parts in lieu of the earlier and smaller openings. 
The buildings underwent further alterations towards the close of the 
sixteenth century. One of the most noteworthy points about the 
thirteenth-century buildings is the original brickwork forming the heads 
of many of the windows and doorways. These bricks are light in 
colour, and measure 9 inches by 4 J inches by 2 inches, and in places have 
been purposely made to fit the jambs. Before leaving the castle ait 
inspection was made of the remains of the overthrown mount. 

From Allington the Journey was resumed to Aylesford, at the entry 
into which the fine foiu'teenth century bridge was crossed. This 
interesting bridge has for some time been threat«ned with destruction, 
but repairs in progress lead us to hope that the danger is for the 
present averted. Before luncheon Aylesford Church was visited. 
This was described by Mr. Hope as consisting practically of two 
collateral naves and chancels. The southern nave, which was the older. 
was Norman in substance, with a massive tower of the same date, and 
originally an apsidal chancel, which had afterwards been replaced 
by a square-ended one. The northern half of the church is of the 
fourteenth century, but the arcade has been subsequently rebuilt. The 
church contains an interesting series of late monuments, crowded away 
in the north chapel, and a section of old screenwork, now used as a 
reredos to a side altar. This screen contains several curious sliding 
panels, through which a view of the altar could be obtained. 

After luncheon a visit was paid to the Friars. This is the site of a 
monastery of Carmelite or White Friars, founded hy Richard I/ord Grey, 
of Codnor, in 1240. It is approached by a picturesque Elizabethan 
gatehouse, but little is left of the monastic buildings beyond two sides, 
each of five bays, of a two-storied cloister, area 1450, the shell of the 
frater and kitchen on the south and of the western block. On the west 
of the clauatral buildings is the out«r court, enclosed by the stables and 
other offices of the Elizabethan grantee, John Sedley. These, however, 
occupy the sites of older structures. The principal features of interest 
were pointed out by Mr. Hope. The drive was next resumed to Kits 
Coty House, a megalithic structure of some note, whose archaeological 
importance and interest were pointed out hy the President, consisting of 



three great upright stoiiea sustaining a huge capstone, and probably 
once covered up by a mound of earth. The remains of another 
megalithic structure hard by, called the Countless Stones, were also 
inspected. These — Kits Coty House, and two other seriea of stones 
At Coldrum and Addington respectively, on the other side of the 
Jledway — form a remarkable isolated group of such structures in this 
part of England. The explanation of their isolation ia doubtless merely 
that they have escaped the active energy of the English farmer, who has 
-destroyed them in many V^^b of England in order to build his fences 
and make his gate posts. They seem to have once existed wherever 
available stones were to be found, and notably where grey wethers 
occur, and are especially found in the maritime diatrict« of Western 
Eiirope. In the present instance they seem to prove the great antiquity 
-of the track along which they are grouped, and dating from the Stone 
Age, to which this class of monuments belongs. Kits Coty has been 
reasonably explained by a Celtic etymology. Cat being Welsh for 
battle, and Coed for wood, and so named doubtless as havingbeen 
supposed to commemorate some battle on the Weald. The Anglo- 
Haxqub assigned it as the burial place of one of their heroes, Horsa, 
but in both cases these primitive tombs — for such they unquestionably 
are — are much older than the presence of either Welsh or English on 
these islands. 

At some length the President discussed the question of the origin and 
purpose of these groups of stones. He pointed out that they usually 
existed within reasonable distance of the sea coast, that they were very 
ancient, and that many were in close proximity to where a battle had been 
fought, and were regarded by some as memorials to certain chieftains. 
He spoke of the forms of primaeval burial, and commented on the 
remarkable fact that although the cromlech was usually on the crest of 
the hill where people Iivo<C in the case of Kits Coty House it was on 
the way down to the valley. 

The Eev. C. H. Fielding stated that there were five groups of 
similar stones in the district, besides solitary ones. At Trosley several 
of the stones were broken down for the purpose of making a road at 
the beginning of the last century. Trosley Church ivas erected just 
below, and in one of the walls was a huge stone, but he could not say 
if it was of the character they were discussing. In regard to Kita 
Coty House, it was stated that below the hill the Britons and Saxons 
hail a conflict. Catigern was killed, and his burying-place was said to 
l>e beneath the stones, although it was quite possible others had been 
interred there before him. After further discussion the journey was 
lesumed to Maidstone, and thence by rail back to Tunbridge Wells. 

At the evening meeting in the Pump Room, Mr. Harold Sands 
rejtd a paper on " The Various Types of Castles and their Development," 
illustrated by a large and interesting series of lantern slides. 

On Saturday, the 29lh July, the party again went by special train to 
ilaidstone, and devoted the morning to an inspection of the chief 
iincient buildings in that town. The first item on the programme was 
the fine parish church of All Sainl«'. The history of its architecture 
was narrated by Mr. Hope, who stated there was really little known 
about the original siracture except that it was mentioned in 
Doonisday Book. Outside the building at the west end was some 



Haxoii or Early Norman walling, which might have formed part of the 
chiirch. Ditring a reatoration, the pavement of an earlier structure 
was fountl beneath the floor and pieces of an old arcade- not quite in 
line with the present one. In 1395 Archbishop Courtenay obtained 
leave to make All Saints' a collegiate church, and he proceeded t« pull 
down the old building and erect the present one. But aa that prelate 
diet! in the following year, the present edifice must have Iieen largely 
the work of his executors, to whom he bequeathed the residue of his 
estate to be expended " t'irra fottxlrueeimifm fcrksie coUrgiatif de Mai/- 
dfsha." "Whether Courtenay was buried at Maidstone or Canterbury 
was a disputed point which had given rise to violent controversy. Mr. 
Hope was very emphatic in his opinion that All Saints' posseaaed 
merely a cenotaph, an<l that the bo<ly was taken to Canterbury by 
order of Kichanl II. The whole of the existing church is of one 
design, and consists of a chancel with clerestory and aisles of three 
bays, with a southern vestry, a nave with clerestory, and aisles of six 
bays, and a south porch, which is also carried up as far as the tower. 
The south aisle of the chancel and the porch were both intended to be 
vaulted in stone. The eastern part, at any rate, of the church was 
finished in 1417, for it contains the tomb, setup in his life-time, of 
John Wotton, the first Master of the College, who died in that year. 
None of the ancient fittings remain, except the stalls of the canons of 
the collegiate foundation m the chancel and a length of screen work 
north of the altar. Part of the pavement of an older church, and the 
plinths of its piers were found during a restoration. At the request 
of the President, the Vicar added a few remarks, and quoted the 
opinion of the late Rev. J. Cave Brown, that one of the windows in the 
north aisle of the chancel had belonged to an earlier church. Mr. Hope 
pointed out that the window in question was of later date, this opinion 
i>eing shared by others present. Mr. MJcklethwaite said that the 
chancel looked of a later date than Courtenay's time, but if his 
executors carrie<l on the work, it might have dragged on for a long 

A ^-isit was next paid, through the kindness of Airs. MARTIN, to the 
remains of the college on the north of the church ; but of this little 
remains bevond a fine entrance gateway of the same period as the church. 

In .Mr. floPE's oranion Courtenay's College of Secular Canons was 
never completed. There was really nothing to show how the building 
was arranged ; but he called special attention to the gatehouse, with 
its vaulted roof. 

The Kev. G. .M. Livett directed notice to the earliest bit of masonry 
in the neighbourhood, which he discovered iu a wall near the Palace. 
He claimed it to be Early Norman, probably 1 100. It deserves a more 
careful study. 

Prom the College the party went to the ancient stables of the 
archbishop's palace, a two-storied structure, probably temp. Archbishop 
Morton, with an extremely picturesque external staircase to the upper 
floor. The palace or manor house itself is externally for the most part 
of the seventeenth century, but probably incorporates the great hall 
begun by Archbishop Ufford in 1348. At the south end are some 
interesting traces of alterations by Archbishop Morton and his 
immediate predecessors. 



Before luncheon a short viait was paid to the Museum, which is 
noteworthy, not only for its fine collection of Kentish antiquities, but 
for the ancient Jacobean mansion in which they are housed. Mr. J. H. 
Allchin received the visitors, and described the building and the 
excellent and varied collections it contained. 

After luncheon carriages were in readiness to convey the party to 
West Mailing. 

Here a halt was made first at the Abbey, which Mr. Hope explained 
was founded at the close of the eleventh century, for Benedictine 
nuns, by Bishop Gundulf, who was also lord of the manor. The 
church has for the most part perished, but the south transept remains, 
as well as the south wall ana west front of the aisleless nave. The 
front exhibits some interesting later Norman changes, the work of 
the same builders as the front of Rochester, and now forms the west 
side of a large tower, square below and octagonal above, which was 
built in the fourteenth century. Mr. Hope called special attention to 
the remaining south alley of the cloister, which originally consisted of 
a series of trefoiled arches carried by slender triple shafte, and richly 
decorated within. The date is probably about 1230-40. In the 
fifteenth century an upper storey was added, when various structural 
altorationti were made to enable the arcades to carry the increased 
weight. Of the other buildings, a half-timbered guest-house of the 
fifteenth century and the gate-house block of the same date, with a 
fourteenth century chapel attached, are all that are left. The Abbey 
has in recent years again become the home of an Anglican convent of 
Benedictine nuns. 

Some interesting comparative remarks were added by the Kev. G. M. 
LiVElT on the peculiar features of Bishop Gtmdulfs work in the 
Mailing and Eochester districts, particularly in his use of local tufa for 
quoins and facings. 

The President pointed out that the same use of tufaischaract«ristic 
of churches of this date in Herefordshire, and notably in that in Moccas 
Park. The supply of tufa seems in the latter case to have been 
exhausted by the Norman builders. 

On the way up to the parish church a number of the party 
examined a small house, apparently of the twelfth century, in rear 
of a shop in the High Street. It is a two-stoned building, with a 
thirteenth century doorway on the ground floor, and in the upper 
chamber two side windows built of Norman masonry, with zig-eag 
mouldings round the heads. 

The parish church of St. Mary was described by the vicar, the Rev. 
A, W, Lawson, who called attention to the Early Nonnan chancel and 
its thirteenth centuiy extension, and to the tower, which was also 
Early Norraan. The old nave partly fell down in 1778, and was 
replaced by a plain bam-like room, which has lately given way to a new 
nave and aisles, the work of Mr. J. T. Micklethwaite. The cost of 
the fittings had been largely defrayed through the sale of the now 
famous Elizabethan silver-moimted jug at Christie's on February 19th, 
1903, for the huge sum of 1,450 guinBAs. The jug had been preserved 
in the Parsonage apparently as an heirloom for several generations, and 
was certainly a secular object. This fact has been commemorated at 
Mailing by the setting up of a representation of the jug in the church 





f I 

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s , f ; B 1 I I . f ? 1 I J I I II I 

I I i s I S I I I I I 1 I I I J !e SE 

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porch, with the inscription : — " Thanhs be to Ood, 1903. This Porch 
and the Pews of this Church were Modehy the Sale of a Jug having 
Silver Mountings with the London Hall-Mark for 1081." 

Mr. Micklethwaite, when appealed to W the President, disclaimed the 
reaponsibiUty for what had been done. He had only been called in to 
advise the Vicar and Churchwardens how to make the church larae 
enough for their requirements. The only way to do that was to rebuild 
it. The present nave di<l not pretend to he a restoration ; it was 
a purely modem affair, and whatever resemblance it had to anything 
that stood there before waa purely accidental. Before sitting down he 
called attention to the arms of James II., hanging in front of the west 
gallery, symbolising that monarch as first Lord of the Admiralty. He 
also expressed the hope that aa long as the trees remained as a setting 
for the church, nobody would attempt to obstruct the light of the 
windows with coloured glass. The Rev. G. M. Livett also i&ded some 
remarks on the Early Norman work. 

A move was next made to St. Leonard's Tower. This has been 
<leacribed by Mr. H. J. Parker as the oldest Norman keep in England ; 
but despite its castellated appearance, Mr. Livett showed that it was 
the tower of a destroyed church of St. Leonard given to Mailing 
Abbey by Bishop Gundulf, whose peculiar stylo of building it weU 
exemplified. Some remains of the ruined church were also pointed out. 

Monday, Julv 31, waa devoted to visits to Penshurst and Tonhridge. 
The party left Tunbridge Wells in carriages shortly after ten, and drove 
direct to Penshurst, where the church was first inspected. The church- 
yard is entered by the old quadrangular archway, formed by fourteenth 
century houses; the party were attracted by the inscription painted on 
the beam, " My flesh also shall rest in hope." Of the church itself the 
beautiful Sidney Chapel is the oldest portion, the date being approxi- 
nutely fixed at 1200. Other parts of the structure contain thirteenth 
and fourteenth century work, but extensive alterations were carried out 
in 1857. Mr. MiCKLETHWAiTB directed special notice to the tombs and 
shields with enamelled heraldn', which were very unusual. Other 
objects of special interest were the carved oak reredos and screen, and 
the pulpit with Mosaic panels. 

A visit was next made to Penshurst Place, where the members of the 
Institute were received by Lord and Ladv db L'lstE and Dudley, 
who themselves conducted them over the armoury and private 
apartments. After an inspection of the other portions of the building 
and of the beautiful gardens, the party reassembled in the great half, 
where Mr. Hope gave a brief description of the architectural history of 
this famous mansion. An older house on the site was, he explained, 
rebuilt by Sir John Poulteney, who obtained licence to crenellate or 
fortify it in 1341, but died in 1349. His splendid hall, with the solar 
or great chamber (and probably the chapel) over a vaulted basement at 
one end, and the buttery and pantry (also with lodgings over), with the 
way to the now destroyed semi-detached kitchen at the other end, form 
the nucleus of the present house. A later owner, Sir John Devereux, 
also had a licence to crenellate in 1393, but he died the fallowing year, 
and all that remains of his work seems to be the so-called Buckingham 
building, which exhibits the singular feature of having all the windows 
built inside out. The mansion waa brought to ite present form by Sir 



Henry Sidney during the yeare that preceded his death in 1686, the 
gate-house being part of his work. 

In returning Uianks to their host and hostess for their hospitality, the 
President reminded the meeting, iiUin- alia, that the broad arrow or 
pheon of the Sidneys became the special mark of the Ordnance OflBce 
because it was largely attached to the articles under the charge of the 
Sidney who was Master of the Ordnance in Henry the Eighth's time. 
The special Interest of Knole and Penahurst, apart from their 
architectural value, is their containing an luirivalled collection of the 
furniture, tapestries, embroideries and other objects of the period of 
Elizabeth and James I., as well as many personal relics of both Sovereigns. 

After luncheon the iouniey was continued to Leigh Church, a 
building chiefly of the thirteenth century, with a modern tower, where 
Mr. Hope and the Rev, H. K. Coi.lum pointed out the special points of 
interest, which included an hourglass on the pulpit, dated 1597. Some 
portion of the building is thirteenth century work, and tradition has it 
that the north arcade was destroyed by fire in the reign of Henry VH. 
About ten years ago the Vieartopened out of the north wall a beautifully 
painted column. At the entrance to the chancel is a brass, with a quaint 

The President congratulated the Rector on discovering the ccJumn, 
and also on the excellent taste which had been diBplayed in the selection 
of the chancel screen and other additions. Thence to Tonbridge. Here 
a halt was made at the Castle, an interesting example of the mouiit- 
and-bailey type, the work of Richard of Clare, alias of Tonbridge, temp. 
William I. An ascent was first made to the top of the mount, when 
Mr. Harold Sands read an interesting paper on the history and 
arrangements of the Castle, and described the existing remains of the 
masonry defences. These consist chiefly of the grand thirteenth 
century four-storied gatehouse of the bailey, of the waUs of the covered 
ways that connected it and the great tower on the mount with the other 
buildings, and of the river wall; but this last is so shrouded in ivy that 
its features are almost invisible. After a careful inspection of the gate- 
house, the wirty returned by train to Tunbridge Wells. In the evening 
the concluding meeting was held in the Pump Room, wheu the annual 
report and balance-sheet were read, showing the Society to be in a sound 
and prosperous condition ; and the usual votes of thanks passed to all 
those who had assisted in the carrying out of a most successful meeting. 
Several places were suggested as the centre of next year's meeting, 
including Worcester, Colchester, Hull, and Normandy. The first-named 
received the most favour, but the final selection was, as usual, left to the 

Tuesday, August 1 . The party first went by train to Tonbridge, and 
drove thence to Old Soar, where the owner. Sir William Geary, received 
the visitors. Mr. Hope explained that what they had come to see was 
a small but perfect manor-house of the concluding years of the thirteenth 
century, now forming an appendage to an Early Georgian farmhouse. 
The place was apparently built by one of the Colepepers, but no 
history attached to the place. It was two stories in height, and 
consisted of the hall, which was raised upon a vaidted cellar, with a 
semi-detached garderobe tower at the north-west angle, and a chapel, 
also semi-detached, and on a level with the hall, at the north-east angle. 










PRorEKDiNna at meettsgs of the institute. 189 

On ihe aouth-west was a circular atair-tnrret up to the hall, the outer 
door of which had l>een covered by a pentisc supported by richly-carvorl 
corbels. The hall retains its original king-poitt roof above an inserted 
upper floor, but has lost the fire-place and its chimney. It had a large 
two-light window at each end, now bereft of their tracery. In the 
chapel is a richly-decorated piscina, but the east window has been 
destroyed for a modern entrance. 

The journey was next continued to Ighthani, where the church was 
inspected under the guidance of Mr. Hope, who pointed out that it had 
consisted on'ginally of u small square chancel and a nave of Early 
Xonnan date, to which narrow isles had been added, and a western 
tower, apparently about 1420. The interesting smith porch was built 
Irmp. Henry VII., and the north isle rebuilt in brick in the seven- 
teenth century. Attention w«h specially called to the remaining ends 
of the rood beam, to the enclosing screen of the chapel at the end 
of the south aisle, and to the seventeenth century carved pews of the 
owners of Ightbam Court, with the arms of the James family ; also to 
the tomb and efGgy of Sir Thomas Cawne, Hrca 1375, with a singular 
window over, for the making of which he bequeathed 20/. 

The rector, the Vm\. D. Barry, referred to another memorial in the 
chancel, that of l>ame Dorothy Selby, who died in 1641, and was 
believed to have l«en the person who revealed to Loril Monteagle the 
existence of the Gunpowder Treason and Plot. The Kev. D. Barry 
has kindly furnished his reasons in a note which appears on page 190. 

After luncheon a visit was made to Ightham Mote, the residence of 
Mr. T. C. CoLYER-FKRausoN. Mr. Henry Taylor, F.S.A., the writer 
of an excellent monograph on the subject, described the main features of 
this fine and well-known perfect coiu'tyard house, directing special 
attention to the gateway, the quadrangle, the great hall, the Tudor 
chapel, and drawing room. 

The journey was afterwanls resumed to Tunbridge A\'elle, and so the 
meeting of 1 905 came to an end. 

Although uo Koman or Saxon remains could Iw includeil in the 
programme, and only one prehistoric monunicnt, Kits Coty House, from 
the architectural standpoint the Tunbridge Wells meeting was 
IKirticularly satisfying. 

The pansh churches included typical Kentish examples at Hawkhurst, 
Wrotham, Aylesford, West Mailing, Penshurst, Leigh, and Ightham, as 
well as the tine collegiate church of ^faidstone and the lovely Sussex 
church at Etchingham. The religious houses comprised the White 
Canons' Abbey of Bayham, the Carmelite house at Aylesford, and the 
Benedictine nunnery at Mailing, to which may lie added the remains of 
the College at Maidstone. 'ITie purely deimestic work included such 
famous examples as Knole House, Penshurst Place, and Ightham Mote;, 
the lesser-known buildings at Yaldham and Old Soar, and the 
nrchiepiscopal manor house at Maidstone ; while the castles were filly 
illustrated by such interasting structures as Alingtoii, Bodiam, und 
Tonbridge. Liistly, mention must be made of the numerous picturesque 
old cottjiges to be met with in the tillages, especially at renshurst and 
Ightham, The lieauty of the scenery through which so many of the 
excursions wci'c nnide amply justiticd the claim of the couniy of Keiit 
to be the Canlon of Knglanil. 



BfTHB Ret. D. BARKY, M.A.. 

As far as I am aware, no one has ever yet been 
able definitely to say who wrote the letter to Lord 
Monteagle, revealing the Gunpowder Plot. Numerous 
ideas and assertions on the subject have been advanced, 
but nevertheless it still remains for some authority to 
arise who will definitely and historically determine this 
vexed question. Now there is in the village church of 
Ightham a very interesting monument to the memory of 
Dame Dorothy Selby, wife of Sir William Selby, once 
owner of the Mote, and I venture to advance the theory 
that possibly Dame Dorothy had something to do in 
making the plot known to Lord Monteagle, or what is 
the meaning of those words we find recorded on her 
monument : 

" Whose art disclosed that plot which had it Uikcn, 
Kome had triumphed and Britain's walls had shaken." 

There was also allusion to her " pen of steel and silk " 
and other things which appeared to indicate that the 
letter was executed in needlework. 

We must bear in mind that the monument was not 
erected for nearly forty years after the discovery of the 
plot, when concealment of the discloser of the plot would 
not be so necessary. My reason for considering that 
Dame Dorothy may possibly have been the means of 
laying bare the atrocious plot is chiefly centered in that 
word " disclosed " which forms part of the epitaph. If 
the lines quoted above merely refer to her needlework 
{she was, I believe, a great tapestry worker) why should 
the word'' disclosed" he used. We must also bear in 
mind that the monument together with the inscription was 
erected by Dame Dorothy's children, and we can hai-dlv 
imagine children writing a lie on their motlier's tomb. 



Undoubtedly it would have been a dangerous thing for 
the author of the anonymous letter to have disclosed 
either his or her identity at the time, but after the lapse 
of 30 or 40 years the danger would almost, if not 
entirely, have disappeared. If, in course of time, it 
transpire;* that Dame Dorothy was an active agent in 
disclosing the plot, the village of Ightham will become a 
still more interesting spot, historically, than at present, 
and visitors will come in even greater numbers to visit 
the parish church, which may fairly claim both archi- 
tecturally and from its beautiful position to be a typical 
English village church, and one of which the parishioners 
are justly proud. 

I am not a member of the Royal Archaeological 
Institute, neither have I the pea of a ready writer ; I 
simply advance the above theory for what it is worth at 
tlie request of one of its members. 

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The members of the Institute who were present at the Southampton 
meeting in 1902 will not need to he reminded of the courteous and 
kindly manner iu M'hich Lord Montagu of Beauliou presided over that 
meeting, the excellent address which ho delivered ae an intro- 
duction to the proceedine;s, the initiative that ho took in conveying 
to the King the sympathy of the members on the occasion of his 
illneas and their congratulations on his Majesty's progress towards 
recovery, and above all, the welcome he gave them to nis beautiful 
house and the other remains of the abbey De Bello Loco Begia or 
the King's beau lieu. That, however, was not the first time the 
Institute had been welcomed there by his Lordship, for as far back us 
1873, Lord Henry Douglas-Scott-Montagu, as he then was, conducted 
the members over the ruins. His death on the 4th November, 1905, 
is an event that calls for sympathetic and sorrowful record in the 
Joumai of the Institute. 

He was the second son of the fifth Duke of Buccleucb and Queens- 
lierry, and was bom on 5th November, 1832. On the day of his 
death, therefore, he completed his 73rd year. He had always, how- 
ever, been in delicate health, and had, for that reason, to leave Eton 
after two or three years stay there, and travel abroad. At various 
times in his life he \-isited the British Colonies and India, and spent 
much time in Egypt. He was elected Member of Parliament for 
Selkirkahire in 1861, and continued to represent that county until 
18C8, when he was returned for South Hampshire. He held that 
seat until 1885, when Queen Victoria raised him to the Peerage by the 
title of Baron Montagu of Beaulieu. 

Palace House, Lord Montagu's residence, which is an enlargement 
of the Abbey Gateway, and the estate of Beaulieu, including the niins 
of the Abbey, in the midst of the magnificent scenery of the New 
Forest, were the splendid gift of his father the Duke to Lord Henry 
Montagu on the occasion of his marriage in 1865 to Cecil Susan, 
youngest daughter of Lord WbamclifiTe. The author of the obituary 
notice which appeared in the Times states that Lord Montagu became 
a firm upholder of the commoners' rights and the beauties of the New 
Forest, which were at various later times attacked by the Office of 
Woods. In 1877 he procured the passage of the New Forest Act, liy 
which the old woods were secured against the designs of that Department. 
In 1890 he became official Verderer of the New Forest. His interests, 
however, were not confined to the beauties of nature in which he lived, 
for he was, as the Institute can testify, an ardent archaeologist, as well 
as an architect and artist in water colours of no mean talents. He 
had other seats at Clitheroe, in Lancashire, and at Ditton, between 
Datchet and Slough. 

His Lordship is succeeded in the Peerage b^ bis son, the Hon. John 
W. E. DougiasScott-Montagu, M.P., who jomed in the reception of 
this Institute in 1902, and who may be trusted to follow bis father's 
example, in reverent care of the noble ruins that he inherits, and in the 
love of antiquity and the history of former times. 


^oiicts of ErttatoIoQiCfll ^nblitations. 


This intereBtitig and in many waya valuable report forms a bulky 
volume of some G50 pages. It is divided into two portions, Fart I 
conaiating of the report of the progress of the U.S. National Museum 
by Mr. i^thbun the Curator of the museum, and is principally 
noteworthy as showing how generously the American pubhc support 
this and other museums by their donations. 

Part II is of greater interest to the world aS large; it consists firstly 
of a report upon the buildings of the National Museum itself hy Mr. 
Kathimn, and secondly of a report mado by A. B. Meyer, Director of 
the Koyal Zoological Museum in Dresden, on museums and kindred 
institutions in ^ew York, Albany, Buflnio, and Chicago, together with 
notes on certain European institutions of a similar character. This 
report was prepared for the penisal of Mr. Meyer's own authorities at 
Dresden after the author had taken a comprehenuive tour of survey 
and inspection. 

The English reader of the report will probably tiu-n first to those 
pages which deal with the museums of Great Britain and Ireland, and 
he will find that the conclusion arrived at by the author is much what 
he would himself have expected, namely, that the museums are with a 
few exceptions unworthy of their rich and valuable contents, hut if we 
may be permittfld to aay so, however, we think that Mr. Meyer, fresh 
from the dazzling newness of America, is rather too severe upon the 
buildings and methods of the Old World. The conditions are very 
different, and although no doubt we must lesrn in musetun adminis- 
tration as in other things in the better and sometimes expensive light 
of experience, yet in most essential matters we are still far in advance 
of other nations, perhaps not in architectural beauty and ventilation 
of our buildings, yet certainly in the facilities we offer to the student 
of Natural History, Archaeology and Art. That we are progressing is 
evidenced by the fine atnicture now rising in Kensington, which will 
do much to remove the reproach contained on page 629 of the report, 
that " the worst possible conception of the mode of arranging museums 
is exemplilied at South Ketisington." Some criticism in the report is 
we think too severe. Wo confess we have not been so unfortunate as to 
wait in the library at Bloomsbury for three-quarters of an hour until 
we received our book, nor have we felt any pang at the prohibition 
that books are not allowed to be " taken home " — surely no reference 
library could tolerate this latter proposition. These however are 
matters which in the mass of detail with which this volume is 
thronged may well be passed over. The fact stands out, that for the first 
time a book nas been placed in the hands of the public, which can be 



referred to on many pointo of detail in comparative museum adminis- 
tration and enterpriee. The book contains a large quantity of illustra- 
tions, not limited merely to representations of libraries and museums, 
but in many instances accompanied by ground plans and sections ; and 
in addition tbere are reproduced schemes for ventilating buildings, and 
patterns of the latest and most approved forms of cases and other 
museum furniture. Such a work aa this cannot fail to be of great use, 
and although it is probably published more for the benefit of those 
rising cities in the United States who will each in the near future 
heed and doiibtleas provide a library or a museum for the use of its 
citizens, yet to us in Europe it also speaks in no uncertain voice, for it 
sounds a much-needed note of warning. It shows us plainly what is 
being done there, not solely aa we sometimes imagine by the 
munificence of private individiial citizens, but by corporate bodies 
and municipal authority, to cu]tivat« taste and art not merely in one 
or two cities but in every town of importance. Arewein the Old World, 
whose opportunities are at present so much greater, going to fall 
behind owing to indifference or shortsightednesa ? The time will come 
when the available material will have oeen ahsorl>ed, and the sooner 
our great provincial cities {with one or two honourable exceptions) put 
their houaeo in order in this respect the more will they earn the 
gratitude of posterity. 

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C'est en juiUet 1901 que Son Excellence Sir William 
Haynea Smith, Haut Commissaire de Chypre, m'a fait 
I'honneur de me charger d'^x^cuter dans diverses ^glises 
de Fainagouste des fouilles iJout le r^sultat n'a pas encore 
^t^ public. Je suis heureux de donner h. I'lnstltut 
Royal Britannique d'Arch^ologie la primeur de la 
description de ces monuments qui sont la propri^t^ du 
gouveraement Britannique de Chypre, et qu'if m'a 6t6 
donn^ de d^couvrir grAce il la bienveillance du chef de ce 

Les fouilles ont ^t^ faites dans quatre ^ifices : 

(1) Saint Georges des Latins (Pknclie I) : 

(2) Saint Georges des Grecs : 

(3) Sainte Marie du Carmel (Planche II) : 

(4) Saint Francois : 

Ayant d^jJt ^tudi^ ces monuments' je ne reviendrai 
pas sur leur description. Je me suis borne k remettre au 
jour ce qui pouvait rester des aurels et des tombeaux 
sous les d^oombres accumul^ depuis 1a ruine et I'abandon 
dps quatre ^glises. 

(1) La plus belle et la plus ancienne des quatre est 
Saint Georges des Latins, petit edifice dela fin du XIII* 
sifecle, aussi 4\4gi\at que la Sainte Chapelle de Paris, et 
dont, malheureusement, on ignore I'histoire. 

Les fouilles n'ont pas ^clairci le myst^re qui enveloppe 
ce chef d'ceuvre de I'art fran^ais en Ciiypre, car d^s long- 
temps le sol avait 4t6 d^pav6 et boulevers^. J'ai reconnu 
simplement I'existence de fondations s'dlargissant en 
gradins conime celles des cath^drales d'Amiens et de 
T^rouanne. Dans le sanctuaire, on a trouv^ un cr4ne en 
parfait ^tat que M. le Dr. Heideustamm a reconnu 
pour celui d'une femme, probablement de race occidentale 
et datant du moyen ilge. 

' Vart gotiiqve et la Stnainanee en Chgprt, Paria, E. Lcrom, 1899, 2 toI., 



(2) Diina la ctithddrale grecque de Saint Georges, vaste 
^itice gothique de la fin du XIV" si^cle, j'ai d^blaytS le 
sanctuMire sans rencontrer aucune tombe, mais les fouilles 
ont mis addcouvert un curieux banc presbytdral de pierre 
dispose en forme de gradin autour de I'abside, suivantune 
disposition tr^s arcbaluue ; on a trou7^ ^galement de 
petites dalles de marbre dediverses formes ayant appartenu 
ll un pavement de marqueterie, et I'Drifice d'un trSs petit 
puite oil allaient se perdre les eaux des ablutions. 

Les deux autres eglises, c^lfebres, du reste dans rhistoire, 
avaient gard^ des souvenirs historiques importants. 

(3) L'^glise des Carmes, b&tie par les soins de Saint 
Pierre Thomas et du c^l^bre chancelier philosophe Philippe 
de M^ziSres sous le regne glorieux de Pierre I" de 
Lusignan, est en mines depuis le bombardement de 1571. 
Les boulets tures qui ont abattu le clocher-arcade lateral 
et les vofttes se sout letrouvfe parrai les d^combres, avec 
des ddbris de clonhes ; et les pierres de la voftte contenaient 
encore de cuiieuses poteries acoustiquea (Fig. 1.) 


J'esp^rais decouvrir dans le sanctuaire le tombeau 
ventre du l^gat Pierre Thomas, mais rien n'a pu m'indiquer 
m6me I'emplacement de cette sepulture dont la vertu 
op^rait des miracles. En revanche, la torabe d'un chevalier 
(Fig. 2) connu dans rhistoire de Chypre, Guy Bahin, s'est 


To jBrt ,«IK IW. 

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retrouY^e au milieu du chceur, ^cras^e sous la chAte d'une 
clef de voftte (Fig. 3) armori^e du mSme blason que le 
tombeau, et qui semble indiquer que les Babin, familledes 
plus nobles du royaume, furent les principaux bienfaiteurs 
de I'dglise. 


La tombe, malheureusement tr^s nautili, ^tait una dalle 
de marbre blanc de 2 m. 95 sur m. 85, portant I'effigie 
grav^e d'un chevalier armd de toutes pieces. L'armure 
de plates est richement cisel^e. L'ficu band^ de . . . et 
de . . . de quatre pieces nous fait conualtre les arraoiries 
d'une famille qui joua un grand r61e dans le royaume 
de Chypre, et I'^pitaphe nous apprend la date de la mort 

p 2 



dii peraonnage. Voici ce que Ton peut en lire encore 
(Fig. -J): 



[qui TRB8PA88A A . . . JORS] DE JUNG, LAN DB 


Guy Babin ^tait im gentilhomme de lacour de Pierre 
1" oil son parent Raymond ou Simon exer^ait la charge 
de boutiller. Guy avait un fils, Jean, qui dix ans aprfes la 
more de son p6re, fut pris et emmen^ comme 6tage par 
les g^nois api-^ leur odiense campagne de 1373. 

Pr&s de la tombe de Guy Babin se trouve celle d'une 
dame {Fig. 4), tout anssi mutilde, et dont les inscriptions 
sont presque illisibles : voici ce que j'ai pu d^hiffrer sur ce 
marbre grave qui mesure 2 m. 05 sur 0,70. 
[CI GIT dame] ELEN : SIRE : . . . TIN 


DE l'aME 


A ■ II ■ JUBS DE JU[lIEE] . . . E : LAK . . . [de] 0RI[8t] 






Cette dalle h. effigie est d'un travail fort groeaier et 
semble dater de la fin du XIV sifecle. 

Une troisi^me tombe de marbre trouv^ ^ c6t^ des pr^ce- 
dentes est ^videmment une oeuvre italienne du XV' 
sifecle. Elle n'a jamais eu d' inscription, et elle porte un 
simple blason band^ ^ semis de fleurettes. ^Fig, 5.) Je 
n'ai pas pu I'identifier. 

Dans le choeur de I'^glise, au nord de I'autel dont las 
iouilles ont mis h, decouvert la base, une cavity ^tait 
menagde dans le mur pour recevoir uue plaque de marbre 
ou ^tait inscrite une charte murale assurant quelque 
important privilfege au convent des Carmes de Fama- 
gouste. (Fig. 6.) 

Cette plaque a et^ descellde et bris^e lors de I'invaaion 
musulmane, car les turcs ont dft croire qu'elle cachait un 



tresor et ont d6 6tre m6me assez superstitieux pour en 
emporter des debris comme talismans, car je n'ai pu en 
rdunir qil'une moitid. Les morceaux rapprochds forment 
un fragment de m. 75 sur 0,47. On y lit ce texte, 
malheureusement fort trougu^, grav^ en belle majusoide 
gothique incrust^e de mastic bistre. 

J'ai restitu^ entre crochets des lettres et des mots qui 
ne pretent ijuere au doute. 





BRATI C0Nr[lR]MAMU[8] .... [iTEM d]eDi[MTIs] .... 










LiTEii observari dat[um sub]sigillo gomu[nitatis]. . . 

(4) L'^glise de Saint Francois a livr^ dans letout petit 
espace qui gardiit son pavement une s^rie de tombeaux, 
t^iiioins tifed curieux ues trois periodes de I'histoire de 
Famagouste. Cette ^glise, voisine du palais et de la 
grande rue marchiinde, dtait, en effet, le lieu de sepulture 
pr^li^r^ des riciies et nobles marcbauds. Sa vogue 
s'elabUt au d^but du XIV* siMe, au temps oil 
Famagouste recueillait I'h^ritage du gr;ind entivp6t 
international de commerce qu'avjiit eteSiunt Jean d'Acre, 
prispar lesSarrasius et ruin^ en 1291. De 1300 i 1^73, 
Famagouste jouit d'une pro.^ipeiit^ prodigieuse et fut ■ 
un poi'touvertk toutes les nations, mais c'^tait une ville 
Irantjaise de laugue et d'arcbitecture, ouverte surtout au 
commerce fraii^ais de la Meditemin^e ; Narbonne et 
Montpellier y avaientdescoiisulats' et Montpellier surtout 
y jouissait de privileges importiints, en vertu de trait^s 
d*? commerce qui iureiit rt-uouveles en 1364.* En 1373, 
la vUle toinUi au pouvoir des g^noie ; d^s lore, ils s'y r^serv- 
6rent le mono[K)le du coinmerce ; enfin, elle passa, k la 
fin du XV^ siecle, sous le protectorat, puis sous la domina- 
tion directe de Venise, qui tenta de la fuire revivre. Ces 
trois phases de I'existeiice de P'araagouste ont laiss^ \ 
Saint Fran^'ois des niunuments funi^raires d'un grand 
interjlt : tumbesde deux marcbands de Montpellier et d'une 

I Bera&rd Fajam, qui muurut tn Riijmond Scnallier, marchand de 

1300, ^lait Consul de Narbonae. Voir Montpellier, qui mo u rut en 1363, f lait 

' C.De'imoni, .Irlei pattfi a /■'amagimtie eii memr lemps buurjpoi* do Clijpni. 

de 1299 A 1301, Maea, 18b3, in 8°, C ear. lui qui ea 13<i3 B'Stait charge 

p. 79. d'Bppurtcr de t'lijpre k Avignon 7000 

' Voir L. de Uiii-Latrie. Hitl. de flonoB d or au roi firrr«. VoirCeleatin 

Chi/pre, 1. II, p. 268. C'eat it ModC- Furt, Eiaai nr Ckinloire da commeret 

prllier qua la sucrerie rojalc de CliTpre marilimt de Sarbonne, Paris, 1854, 

«ipediait ea 1351 une cargaison de in K°,jt.Mi,eiBibl'Olh:del'Ecoledet 

600oaiHOT. VoirlivTcaKia, la thorla, t. IX, p. 218, et Emile 

Comnutne de Monlpellier, \,. 11, p. 317, Moliiiier, I'ie d'Amoul d' Andrehen, 

"So, pieces juilicativei 62 et G4. 




dame noble du XIV* sifecle ; tombes de deux seigneurs 

f^nois du XV'; tombes de la Renaissance qui sont celles 
'un Marino, chiprois d'origine g^noise, et d'un PriuU ; 
enfin tombe d'un massier de la niahone g6noise. On 
n'avait jusqu'iei qu'une seule tombe g^noise k 
Famagouste, celle de Bellamis Marabotus (1322), dont 
on ignore leniplacenient original. (Fig. 7.) 

4(nj<:tftax>ri i.bia.iff-a)ansrs-ianii 

IS. 7.— iKstmipnos rtrKiBAiBB £ 


Toutes ces dalles fun^niires sa sont reti-ouv^es dans 
ane chapelle qui garde encore la moitid de sa voilte et de 
'see peintures, et dont j'ai en m£me temps d^ouvert 
I'autel. EUe ^tait h. demi ensevelie dans les d^ombres, 
et les fouilles m'ont permis de reconnaltre Torigine de 
cet amas. Maltres de Famagouste, les turcs avaient 
installs un bain dans Saint Francois et, suivant leur 
coutume, lis o^gligeaient I'entretien de I'edilice : k une 
date que j'ignore. la voOte tomba, dcrasant des baigneurs, 
dont les OS brisks se sont retrouv^s sur le pavement, sous 
les debris de la vo&te. Ce pavement est fait de pierres 
tombales. Celles du reste de I'^glise avaient disparu d^s 
longtemps, lors de I'installation des foyers et conduites 
de vapeur du bain turc. 

La chapelle sud a gard^ une peinture du XIV' sifecle 
que j'ai publi^e : on y voit un ^cuyer portant le gonfaiion 
royal deJ^rusalem. Sur lesmursj'airetrouvedepuisdes 

fraffites, avec deux signatures : de Malorges et Jacques le 
aige : cette dernifere d'un haut int^r^t, car on pussMe 
un tr^ curieux livre relatant le p^Ierioage que fit en 
1518 ce personnage, drapier k Douai.' 
Voici les ^pitaphes des mouuments de Saint Francois. 

' On connait de cet oaTT&ge cinq reclenienl par les Hoins <)e JI : H. K. 
exemplairM sppartenaoC i deui editions Duthilloeul, Dousi, 18S1, iu 4". 
gothiquM. II a ete tiiiil4 fort incor- 






Cette dalle de I m. 93 sur 0,80 est la plus ancienne 
de la chapelle. (Fig. 8.) L' inscription, curieuse par son 
melange de proven^al et de franQais, est trac^e en 
majuscule gotnique au b<)rd de la lame. Au centre, on 
distingue une emgie eu pied, grav^ ^galement Jtu trait, 
et malheureusement extrfimement iis^e. 

Je n'ai pu r^ussir h. etablir I'identit^ du n^gociant de 
Montpellier raort ^ Famagouste en 1314, mais il est 
probable qu'il appartenait k une famille qui traduit son 
noin par de Penna dans nombre de pieces d'ai-chivea de la 
mdme ^poque conservdes h. Montpellier et qui poss^dait 
un important mauoir d^nomm^ de meme, li 5 ou 6 kilo- 
metres de la ville. Sur une autre dalle, mesurant 2 m. 
sur 0,65, on lit eu belle majuscule gothique (Fig. 9) : 



ES . XV . JORS [de . . . la] 

N . M . CCC . XXX III ; QE d[iEU] 

AIT LAllME [de] LUF, AM[en] 

Jacme Olevier n'a pas son effigie ; son ^pitaphe grav^ 
en lignes superpos^es, suivant la plus ancienne maniere 
des tombiera de Chypre, occiipe tout le haut d'urie dalle 
de 2 iiifetres de long sur 0,65 de large, et dont le bas est 
orn^ d'un blason h quatre quartiers unis accosts de deux 
globes crucifferes. 

Une tombe presque identique se voit aujourd'hui sous 
le passage convert qui mfene h. Saint Jean au Mont ^ 
Bologne. C'est la dalle fun^raire d'un Spicier : M . . . 
Bertolini de Saraceno raort en 1385, Elle est pareille- 
ment compos^e de quelques lignes d'epitaphe surmontanl ■ 
un blason accosts de deux globes cruciftres. 

Qui ^tait Jacme Olevier i Eu ddcouvrant sa tombe, 
j'avais cru me trouver en presence du riche commer9ant 
provenijal dont les registres sont conservfe aux archives 
de Narbonne et publics par M. Alphonse Blanc' ; mais 

' BulUlia de la Committion JrcMologique df Xarbonne, 18W5 a 1901. 












plusieurs excellentes raisons s'opposeut k cette identifi- 
cation de Jacme OUivier de qui nous poss^ons les 
registres, car il est mort juste soixante ans apr^s celui de 
Pamagouste, en 1393; sa comptabilit^ va de 1381 Jt 
cette (late ; nous sommes, du rests, renseign^s sur sa vie et 
sa mort : il etait fix^ non a Montpellier, mais h, Narbonne ; 
il y fut consul en 1382, 1386 et 1393 ; il avait un fr^re, 
Johan, qui fut consul avant lui en 1361 et 1 368 ; en 1390, 
Jacme OUivier ^tait accabl^ d'infirmit^, incapable de 
chevaucher, k peine capable de marcher ; trois ans plus 
tard on faisait ses fnndrailles aux frais du tr^sor public. 
Les archives de Narbonne, qui reiiseignent si bieu sur ce 
persoiinage, sont umettes au sujet de ses ancfitres, et si 
i'on considfere que le personnage mort soixante ans 
avant lui k Famagouste portait les memes nom et pr^nom, 
et faisait comma Tui le commerce avec I'Orient, il n'est 
pas saiiR vralsemblance de supposer que Jacme OUivier 
de Narbonne ^tait petit fils du Jacme Olevier de 
MontpeUier mort h, Famagouste. En preiiaiit k son tour 
la direction de la maison de commerce, iiotre Jacme OlUvier 
ou son p6re aura trouv^ avantageux de transporter de 
Montpellier i Narbonne le centre de ses affaires. Au 
P'ant de vue du nom, il est it remarquer que I'usage 
d'eniployer le m^me pr^nom de deux en deux generations 
a H4 assez frequent. 

Une dalle de i m. 86 sur 0,68, porte una effigie de 
femme et deux blasons, le tout tr^s us^. On y lit 
(Fig. 10): 


JAD[iS ! . . . [qui TRESPASSA a . . . JORS] 

Une daUe de 1 m. 75 sur 0,60 porte rinscriptioD 
suivante (Fig. 1 0) : 










Je n'ai pti identifier ce personnage, mais il appartenait 
Jl une faraiUe bien connue dans I'histoire de Chypre et 
qui offre cette particularity que ses membres out souveot 
pris part h, dea Episodes tragiques ; le premier de qui les 
chroniqueurs se soient occup^s est Humfroi de Marino, 

f^nois d'origiiie, qui assista en 1310 Amaury prince de 
yr la nuit ou il envahit le palais de sou fr^re Henri II. 
et s'empara de sa personne et de son trAne.' 

En 1300,^ Famagouste, Manfredo, Montanoet Giacomo 
di Marino signent un acte de vente de sucre en gros dans 
r^tude du notaire g^nois Andrea di Veralli.* 

En 1374, Frani^-ois de Marino, ^galement connu comme 
g^nois d'origine, ^tait dcuyer de la reine-m^re El^onore 
d'Aragon, et se chargea pour elle d'une fortvilaine besogne ; 
c'est lui qui dirigea Fassassinat de son beau-fr^re, le prince 
Jean d'Autioche, an cours d'un festin dans le palais de 

En 1464, le roi Jacques le BAtard accorda k Jean 
Marino le fief de Stremata,' 

En ] 473, Rizzo di Marino* prit la direction d'un mouve- 
ment s^ditieux k Nicosie et aasassina Zappo conseitler et 
Gentile m^decJn de la reine ; son oucle Andr^ Cornaro p^rit 
la m6me nuit avec son neveu Mario Bembo. 

En 148B, Rizzodi Marino, qui avait titre de chambellan 
et d'ambassadeur du roi de Naples aupres du Sultan du 
Caire, avait entrepris de marier la veuve de Jacques II., 
Catherine Cornaro, au fils du roi de Naples. Pour 
couper court il ces n^gociations dont la r^ussite les eussent 
empSch^s de conaommer I'usurpation du royaume de 
Chypre, les V^nitiens s'emparerent de Rizzo, reniprison- 
nerent k Venise et le firent bientfit p^rir dans sa prison. 

Une dalle qui semble avoir mesur^ 2 metres de long et 
n'a plus que 1 m. 20 sur 0,70, a gardd intacte cette curieuse 
^pitaphe (Fig. 11): 




' Chronigae iTAmadi, publife par Sa ^ Amadi, p. 478. 

MaB-Iatrie, p. 321, 340, 341. Ckronrquc ' FJorio Bustron, p. 424. 

d« FloTxo BiutTon, publics par de Hai' ' Flurio Bustron, p. SS8 et teg. de 

Latrie,p. l!h', 205. Mas-Latrie, t. Ill paitim, Dnmintntt 

' C. DeiimoDi, Acta ginint de Fama- tumeeaai de I'hittoire de Cigpre, 

gimttt. p. CIO. 



+ bK lfir6cr?0BILVIPi-T)nS 

"oe-cflPecoa rvismflS/iR 
riPPO'-DRj. (Pfccciji-'Oic-y'iej 


ANNO . DM . M . GCCC . Ill . DIE . X . IE 

L'^pitaphe, aasez incorrecte au point de vue du texte 
et des abr^viations, est ^l^gamment grav^ en majuscule 



gothique. Cette tombe est un mouument d'une institu- 
tion tort curieuse et qui tieut une grande place dans 
I'histoire de Chypre, la Mahone, et la date de la mort 
du personnage est pr^cis^ment celle h. laquelle I'institution 
subit une modification dent on ignorait la cause ; cette 
cause a peut-Stre ^t^ la raort d'Ugolino. 

La Mahone de Chypre' ^tait, disje, une institution fort 
curieuse. On croit volontiers de nos jours que I'id^e de 
considdrer une guerre comme une operation tinanci^re est 
toute moderne. Rien n'est moins exact : lorsqu'en 1373, 
les g^nois vinrent pjller Tile de Chypre et s'empar^reat 
de FamagouBte, ils avaient, suivant une habitude d^jlt 
re9iie, organist par souscription cette expedition : c'est 
par actions que des particuliers de G^nes avaient arm^ et 
^quip^ la fiotte ; et ce fut an prorata de leurs mises, 
inscrites sur des registres, qu'ils re^urent des dividendes 
sur le butin et des int^rSts sur les revenus perp^tuels que 
la guerre avait fait naitre pour Gfenes en lui donnant 
Famagouste et un tribut annuel. Au bout d'un an, 
quand le traits fut signd, les souscripteurs, qui avaient 
mis dans 1' operation un capital de 2,560,000 francs, 
valeur absolue, se constituferent en une soci^t^ appel^e la 
Mahdue, compagnie permanente qui eut un privilege 
special pour le n^goce. Les admmistrateurs de cette 
compagnie s'appelaient massiei's et commia. 

Kn 1403, lorsque mom-lit le massier de Famagouste, 
UgoHno Prisco dit de Careto, la Mahone se d^doubla en 
vieille et nouvelle Mahone ; un peu plus tard, en 1408, on 
la voit fusiouner avec la ferme des gabelles de Famagouste, 
sous le nom d'Office de Saint Georges, qui plus tard 
encore s'appellera la Banque de Saint Georges ; raais dans 
cette compagnie, la Mahone garda sa comptabilit^ dis- 
tincte ; elle y ^tait entr^ en y prenant des actions pour 
la Bomme denviron six millions, valeur absolue. En 1447, 
Grfeues, qui depuis de nombreuses ann^es ne pouvait 
s'acquitter envera I'OflSce de Saint Georges, lui abandonna 
la colonie de Famagouste. 

Ugolino fut certainemeot un des premiers massiers de 
la Mahone de Chypre. Son nom n etait pas connu jusqu' 

Sur la tombe voisine de celle de Johan del Pieume 

> Voir de Uu-Lctrie, SUtoire d» Ckgpre, t. II, p. SB6 et 489. 



FIB. 12. — TOHBB s'Airrosio HI baki'aviii, xt< sticLi. 



le rebord porte en majuscule gothique ce reste d'epi- 
taphe (Fig. 8) : 




La dalle mesure 2 m. '03 sur 0,66. 

Cette tombe est d'un type tout h, fait italien et, il faut 
le dire, d'uo art assez grossier. EUe est ex^ut^ en 
faible relief mdplat suivant une coutume de la renaissance 
italienne : elle rappelle beaucoup les sculptures de coffres 
de bois de I'ltalie du nord, et elle date du XV' si^cle ; il 
est regrettable que le mill^sime de I'inscription soit effac^. 
Cette inscription en minuscule gothique mal trac^e court 
sur un bandeau saillant h, droite et h, gauche d'une effigie 
en pied dout la tfite s'encadre sous une arcature en tiers 
point h, intrados garni d'une suite d'engr^lurea Le 
costume du personnage, qui semble dtre un nche marchaud 
g^nois, est curleux ; il porte une ample et longue robe i 
petits plis, avec de longues manches fendues depuis le 
coude et tombant jusqu'aux chevilles ; ces fausses manches 
sont taillad^s et ^biquet^ comme des lambrequins. 
La coiffure est un bonnet arrondi et trhs aur^lev^ ; la tfite 
repose sur un coussin carrd, le menton est ras^ et 1' allure 
g^n^rale ressemble quelque peu ^ celle d'une femme. 

Un autre monument de 2 m. 06 sur 0,79 appartientau 
mSme style, mais k une date im peu post^rieure. On y 
lit en relief et en minuscule gothique (Fig. 12) : 




Cette tombe du XV' si^cle repr^sente le noble g^nois 
couch^ sur une dalle encadr^e d'un bandeau et d'une 
arcatiu-e festonn^e. Deux blasons occupent les ^coin^ons 
de celle-ci et portent une sorts d'aigle ^ploy^e i tite 
humaine couronn^e. 

Le personnage est rase, iI porte un bonnet tr^ haut 
en forme de mortier ^largi et aplati du fond et om^ de 
trois bandes superposees ; pon costume est un pourpoint 
serr^ h, la taille et formant une longue jupe pliss^e qui 







s'arrdte entre la cheville et le mollet ; les manches sont tr^ 
larges, tr^s ^vasdes et arrondies. 

A o6t^ des monuments de I'occupation c^noise, on a 
trouv^ ceux de Koccupation v^nitiemie, et a'abord cette 
inscription en belle capitale romaine {Fig. 13) : 






Cette ^pitaphe en style Inpidaire est trac^e sur im 
cartouche onduy : lalettrecomme la forme en est antique, 
les abbreviations y abondent. Sous le cartouche ^tait 
le blason des Prioli. L'ex^cution de ce petit monument 
est correcte et mtlme ^I^gante, 

La fainille patricienne des Prioli est c616bre et elle eut 
un grand r61e dans I'histoire de Chypre, maJs celle-ci 
n'a pas retenu les actes de Marco ni de Marino, p^re et 
fr^re du jeune et infortun^ Bernardino. 

On sait seulement qu'en 1489, ce fut un Priuli, Franjois, 
capitalne g^n^ral, qui re9ut k Famagoust« au nom de la 
r^publique de Venise 1' abdication de Catherine Cornaro,' 
que celle-ci ^tait ni^ce de Jean Priuli^ et i]ue Sebastien 
Priuli ^taitalorsarchevfique.' D6s 1369, un autre Marco 
Priuli ^tait ^tabli en Chypre et servit mfime d'ambassadeur 
au roi Pierre II pour conclure d'importantes n^gociations 
avec le sultan du Caire.* 

Un autre blason v^nitieu da XV* {Fig. 12) sifecle n'est 
accompagn^ d'aucune inscription. Enfin, parmi le» fratj- 
ments de tombes trouvds dans la m^me chnpelle, il en est 
d'insignifiants : une tombs qui doit avoir appartenu h, 
I'un des digtiitaires du convent au d^but de sa fond- 
ation (XIV* si^de), et qui mesure m, 68 sur 
0, 32, porte ce reste d'inscription efifac^e en majuscule 
gotbique : 

.... FRERE Gl . . . V . . . Vli. h 'lP€8K' 

■DeMu-Latrie, DoMmBBttiMHDiKiif, ^ Ibid., pp. 8G6, SIS et Eitt. d*t 

p. 467. Arehavtqtut dt Cij/pre. 

* lUd., p. 419. ' De Hu-I<tri«, Biiloirt dt Ciyprt, 

t. II, p. 84fl. 



un autre fragment, plus r^ceat celui-l^, ne porte que les 
lettres he ou he et sur un fragment v^nitien du XV* 
u^le, on lit : 


sur un autre : 

. . . ADI T . . . 

Enfin, un coin de dalle fundraire porte un morceau 
d'oreiller sculpts en assez haut relief. Ce devait 
^tre Tangle d'un monument h statue couch^ sur un 
sarcophage, car s'il ne reete plus en Chypre de monu- 
ments de ce type, il en a certainemeiit exists. Une 
chapelle de la cath^drale de Famagouste conserve 
une niche faite pour un tombeau de ce genre ; d'autres 
ont dA exister h, Saint Georges des Grecs et c'est dans 
le voisinage de ces ^ifices et de Saint FranQois qu'a 6i4 
trouv^ r^emmeiit un curieux bas relief du XI\ " si^cle 
dont je donne ici le dessin (Fig. 14). H pouvait appar- 
tenir soit k un retable soit h, un autel, soit plutdt au sode 
ou sarcophage Simula d'une tombe assez ^l^gante. J'ai 
public' des sarcophages gothiques de Chypre qui devaient 
ne porter que de simples couvercles, car les figures des 
d^fiints sont sculpt^es sur leurs parois lat^rales, mais 
rien n'emp6ehe de croire que d'autres oro^s d'arcatures 
et de blasons comme on en voit deux h, Nicosie, ou 
d'arcatures et de figurines comme le morceau qui nous 
occupe aient port^ des statues couch^es. Les statues 
des tombeaux comme celles des portails ont 4t4 an^aoties 
en 1571 par le vandalisme des turcs qui partout se sont 
acham^ sur leu figures. 

Faut-il leur attribuer aussi la mutilation bizarre qu'a 
Bubie la tombe du g^nois k Saint Francois de 
Famagouflte? le malheureux defunt a ^t^ ex^cut^ 
en emgie : on a prie la peine de lui couper le 
cou au ciseau. Les turcs me paraissent innocents de 
ce m^fait : ce n'est pas ainsi' qu'ils proc^daient ; ils 
martelaient les figures par uversiun non pour les person- 
nages represent^s, mais pour la representation bumaine en 
g^n^ral. II est bien plus probable que c'est la main d'un 
chiprois loyaliste qui s'est exerc^ sur notre monument : 
on sait comment en 1373 les provocations des g^nois 

■ L'Arl gaihiqtit ti Chgpre, I. II, p. 487, 489, 491. 



transform^rent en emeute sanglante le courouaemeat du 
jeune roi Pierre II, comment le peuple indign^ saccagea 
leur conBuIat, at comment les genoia sui'vivante trouvferent 
asile k Saint Francois mime ; comment enfiu G^nes tira 
parti das troubles qu'elle avait provoqu^ pour envahir 
Chypre, y exercer toutea lea atrocit^s, et s'emparer de 
FamagouBte. EUe leur fut reprise an 1464. Cast alors 
que dut Stra mutilee la tombe d'un notable g^nois r^cem- 
ment mort et qui devait avoir acquis des droits aux 

xiy aiicLE. 

ressentiments populairaa. Maltres de Famagouste, les 
g^nois avaient us^ de precedes analogues, car dans les 
peintures murales de I'^glisa des Carmea, lea armas des 
Luaignan furent alors partout giutt^es avec Boin. On en 
peignit d'autres lorsque Jacques II aut repris la villa im 
si^cle plus tard. 



Les d^couvertes faites en 1901 dans les ^gUses de 
Famagouste sont venues completer d'une fa^on int^res- 
santeTa collection si nombreuse et si vari^ des docnments 
qui font renaitre J'histoire de Chypre et de I'expansion 
coloniale des grandes nations du Moyen Age. II est 
permis d'esp^rer que le aol de Faujagouste et Kurtout celui 
de Nicosie renferment encore d'uutres documents qui pei- 
mettront de pr^ciser davantac;e les details de cette 

ly Google 



I had the honour, on a previous occasion, of reading a 
paper before the Institute on Japanese Sword Blades, 
when I briefly dealt with their origin, development and 
method of manufacture. However inadequately I was 
able to deal with it, the subject is an intensely interest- 
ing one, and I finnly believe the time will come when 
these wonderful weapons will be collected and studied as 
eagerly as any of the other productions of JapEin : in 
order to make this the more possible of realization, I have 
prepared the following notes ia the hope that they may 
be of some practical value to present and fiiture students of 
the subject. And by student I mean not the collector of 
swords merely because they are swords, but the true 
amateur, tlie lover of his subject, who loses no opportunity 
of adding to his knowled^ as well as to his collection. 

Tlie writer of the Kotd Meizukushi makes some 
instructive remarks for the benefit of Japanese beginners. 
On hearing a sound, he observes, we can imagine the cause, 
and by seeing any object we can form some conception (»f 
the idea in the mind of the maker, and while information 
may be obtained even from quite foolish people yet we 
must not depend entirely upon others, but must use our 
own intelligence and imagination. He goes on to say 
that the expert is primarily a man of trained memory : 
if he has studied the blades of a particular maker, he can 
recognize an example of his work at once, although it may 
not be quite usual, just as the back view of one's friend is 
readUy recognizable ; but a friend dressed in quite a 
different garb may not at first be easily identified : 

guesswork pure and simple is immoral, and imagination, 
owever useful in itself, must have the support of facts. 
He then gives certain specific instructions : first it is 
necessary to remember the names of all the provinces and 

' Bead before the lattitute, NoTember Itt, 1905. 



to be able to read and write them, then the names and 
duration of all the Nengo, or vear periods, from the period 
Daido, or 806 of our time. Everything in the books as to 
the history, technique, peculiarities, and characteristics of 
blades is to be committed to memory, since to refer to a 
book in the presence of others Is not considered polite. 
Another Japanese writer has observed that one who can 
correctly read signatures is already half an expert. . 

Thoujrh I do not suggest that it is essential for European 
students of Japanese swords to commit aU these details to 
memory, I have prepared the following tables : — 

1. Tables of the Nengo, or year periods, from 1077 

A.D. to the present time, with the English 
transliteration and corresponding date. (Figs. 
- 6, 7 and 8, see pp. 238, 239, 240.) 

2. A list gi\'ing 252 of the characters used in names 

of sword-smiths with the English transliteration. 
(Figs. 4 and 5, see pp. 234, 236.) 

3. A list of the provinces in which swords were made, 

giving in each case the Japanese characters for 
the standard and alternative forms, with the 
English transliteration. (Figs. 2 and 3, see 
pp. 232, 233.) 

4. A table (Fig. 9, see p. 255), containing 

miscellaneous information. 

It -will not often happen that a character will be met 
with which does not occur in these lists. 

The two columns on the left, in Fig. 9, ai'e the Ju-ni-shi 
and the Jikkun of the sixty-year chronological cycle. 
These are sometimes used in addition to the year period, 
but may be neglected in this case. ' I have also added four 
of the most usual family names (though these occur most 
frequently on Shinto swords) and some copies of actual 
signatures and dates with the respective transliterations. 

vie may now be presumed to have acquired some of the 
information stipulated for by the Japanese writers, and 
will see what use can be made of it. 

We learn that there is a proper way to make an 
examination of a blade, this examination being technically 



called Kantei, and the expert a Kanteisha or Mekiki. 
The observer should stand near a window, with his back 
to it, holding the blade in a vertical position, and inspection 
should take place in the following order : 

1. The search for kizti, or flaws. 

2. Tnukui'i, or the shape and workmanship. 

3. The Ya/dba, or haniened edge. 

4. The Ysuri-me, or file marks on the tang. 

5. The mei, or signature. 

1 . Flaws may appear as cracks, flaking due to imperfect 
welding, and bubbles in the metal, technically known as 

fvJcure, due to the occlusion of gas or air in the process of 
welding. Haws occurring in the temulo or moiiouchi are 
considered specially detrimental. (See my previous 
paper, pp. 15 Hnd 16 of this volume.) 

It sometimes happens that if a flaw appears on a blade 
an engraved design is cut so as to remove it, and this is 
one reason why swords are sometimes seen with engrav- 
ing of obviously later date than the blude. A flaw has 
become visible only when the blade has been worn down 
by repeated sharpenings and polishings, and the engrav- 
ing is then cut to remove it. Of couise, good blades may 
be met with in infamous condition, due to neglect and 
improper treatment, but a little experience will soon 
enable the collector to judge of the real quality, I have 
myself picked up blades for a few shdlings which I 
would scarcely part with for as many pounds, now that 
they have been sharpened and polished m Japan. 

2. The workmanship must be good and the blade true, 
straight and well finished. All the curves of the edge, back, 
and junction lines of the three surfaces on each aide of 
the blade must be perfect and free irom variation. 
Grooves if they exist must also be perfectly true with 
sharp edges, and on letting the reflection of any object 
move down them they must not produce distortion in the 
image formed. The jigane, or surface sloping down to 
the edge, should bi; slightly convex. 'Ihe shape of the 
blade sliould be carefully noted, also the length of the 
bosh', and wliether the shinogi is narrow, wide, or normal, 
as aU these variations form characteristics. 

3. The Yakiha should be distinct and usually, though 












• Google 



there are exceptions, should show a clear line of demar- 
cation between it and the softer part of the blade. It 
should not be too narrow in places compared with its 
average width and should of course be iree from defects. 
Careful examination of the Yakiba is most important, as 
it forms one of the chief characteristics. 

4. The Yasuri-me should be visible, if not there is 
reason to suspect that the tang may have been tampered 
with, though, of course, if it had been allowed to get 
very rusty this would cause their disappearance. Before 
making any examination of the tang the habaki or metal 
collar at the butt of the blade should be removed. 

5. The Mei, or signature, should be clearly cut and 
should show what is technically known as the tagane-nO' 
makura, or "chisel's pillow"; that is to say, the bun- 
raised by the chisel on the edges of the incised lines. 
Both as regards the signature and the file marks a great 
deal may he learned by carefully comparing a series of 
tangs which have been preserved intact, beginning with 
quite recent ones and going back to old ones. The gradual 
change in appearance due to agin</ then becomes clear, 
and it is extremely difficult to imitate the effect artificially : 
this 18 sometimes attempted by the use of various cor- 
rosive agents, and for that reason it is always advisable 
to examine the hole or holes in the tang carefully. 
Should they show signs uf coiTosion inside or raggednesa 
at the edges, any suspicion as to the tang having been 
tampered with will be confirmed. Signatures are some- 
times altered by eating away the original metal, recutting 
the signature of an older and more famou smith and 
then artificially giving the appearance of age. In the 
same way the date is sometimes tampered with. When 
I was selecting blades to be shown at the exhibition of 
Japanese Arms and Armour earlier in the year, I came 
across two good examples of forged dates. Each sword 
had of course originally been correctly dated, but in each 
case the characters representing the original yt-ar period 
had been removed ana those of a much older period cut in 
their place. On one blade which seemed to me to be 
obviously Shinto, I was surprised to see, on removing the 
handle, that the date was given as Emhun shichi Nen, 
or the seventh year of the year period Emhun which 



began in 1356. But as a matter of fact there were only 
five years in the period Embun, so that a seventh year 
was impussihle and the forger had not carried his alter- 
ations quite far enough. The original period was of 
course one of much later date and also one which con- 
tained at least seven years. The case of the other blade 
was precisely similar. Sometimes a genuine old tang 
with a signature on it is welded on to a comparatively 
modern blade, but it is extremely difficult to do this 
sufficiently well to deceive an intelligeDt observer- 
While we are considering this subject it may he well 
to mention that in the case of katmia and toakizashi 
the signature is always cut on that side of the blade 
called the omote. This is the side seen if the blade is 
held vertically with the edge towards the left hand. 
That is to say, that when the blades are in the correct 
position in the wearer's sash with the edges uppermost, 
the signatures would be on the outside, while the date 
is almost invariably cut on the reverse side. But in 
the case of tachi or blades which are slung on cords with 
the edge downwards the signature is always cut on the 
opposite side or ura. If, therefore, we come across a blade 
having the general appearance of a kataria and mounted 
aa one, but with the signature on the ura, we know that 
the blade was originally made as a tachi and vice versd. 
This change of type often involves an alteration to or 
cutting away of part of the tang in order to get the 
handle fixed at the proper inclination, but this cutting 
away does not imply tliat the tang has been tampered 
with for purposes of deception. Cases have come under 
my notice in which nearly half of the vertical column of 
characters on the tang has been cut away merely to alter 
the inclination of the handle. 

It is important to remember that if a blade is signed 
with a certain name it by no means follows that it is by 
the great master smith of that name. To give an analogy 
from Europe, if it were the rule to sign pictures 
with the surname only, it would be unreasonable in 
the purchnser of a picture, good, bad, or indifferent 
signed with a certain name, to assume iiTospective 
ot other data which should be taken into consideration, 
that the picture in question was by a master of that name. 



Besides the many faaious smiths there were many 
others bearing the same name. For example, in addition 
to the master smith Masamune there were thirteen others 
of that name recognised in the books and possibly others 
existed who were not worthy of record. Bimilarly there 
were seven of the name of Sadamune and no less than 
forty-six called Sakesada and forty-seven called Kuniyoshi. 
Yet there Is more than one blade signed Masamime which 
the owner, knowing or having been told that the charac- 
ters on thcj taog are read Masamune, fondly believes 
for that reason alone to be by the great master. In 
some cases the fallacy is so obvious that it is difficult 
to understand how it could deceive anyone with the 
smallest acquaintance with the subject. Dealers, often 
quite innocently no doubt, will weave the most fentastic 
legends round a blade they have for sale, while all the 
time the blade itself, for those who can read it, is ii silent 
refutation of their statements. 

I may refer here to the popular legend as to what are 
called scented blades. These are seriously believed to be 
produced by the incorporation of some perfume with the 
metal dxuing the forgmg, and command a higher price in 
consequence and also on account of the almost uncanny 
skill of the smith. It would indeed be uncanny if true. 
But no one explains what perfume known to us will com- 
bine with red hot steel, or will stand being heated to a 
bright red heat. Moreover, the scent of these blades is 
that of an organic substance easily recognisable as oil of 
cloves. This oil is not infrequently used in Japan for 
appljring to blades, and its perfume is extraordinarily 
permanent and seems to be readily absorbed by the metal. 
Some time ago I had a discussion on this point with my 
friend Mr, J, D. G. Little, in consequence of which I took 
a piece of sword blade which I had cut up for experi- 
mental purposes : and after soaking it in oil of cloves for 
some time, I sent it to him for experiment. He reported 
that boiling in nitric acid, in hydrochloric acid, and in 
concentrated solution of perchloride of mercury had no 
effect ; neither had moderate heating : a red or white 
heat for some time destroyed the scent ; also when 
boiled for some time in potassiimi ferrocyanide and then 
immersed in copper sulphate, the smell was certainly 




3|«(a— § 










greatly diminished if not altogether destroyed. This 
was possibly due to the formation of a precipitate of 
copper ferrocyanide within the pores of the steel, as a 
similar method is adopted to prepare the "semi-perme- 
able membrane" of Traube's cells used in osmosis experi- 
ments ; though of course in the latter case the precipi- 
tate is formed in the much larger pores of an earthen- 
ware pot. In any case, whatever the reason in this 
experiment, the smell became imperceptible after three 
houi-s' immersion. 

It is possible, however, to give an explanation of the 
origin of this belief which seems to me very probable. 
We have seeri in the previous paper (p. 14 of this 
volume) that certain bright specks occurring in 
clusters or bands in or near the yaJdba are called 
nioi, and a blade specially distinguished in this way 
might be called a nioi blade. The word nioi means 
perfume, and the same word written with the same 
character is used technically to describe ' this special 
feature. The other possible steps in a coiu'se of involun- 
tary deception are obvious. 

As a general rule the older smiths signed their blades 
with their name simply, sometimes followed by the 
characters read tsulcum or saku corresponding to our 
use of /ea(, but in later times it became usual to add 
other details. The province and place of abode of the 
smith, his family name and title were often added. Some 
of the Japanese books enumerate those who only used 
what is called the ni-ji-mei or two-character signature 
(or san-ji-mei in the rare cases of three characters being 
used, e.g., Samonji and liasebe) and also whether the 
signature is followed by ts%ikuru. If therefore we find a 
blade signed with two characters only and from the book 
learn that only two smiths of that name signed in this 
way we know that it must be by one of these two. If the 
date is given also we can in the majority of cases decide 
which of these two it is. If not, then we must search for 
other characteristics : similarly if we see a blade signed 
otherwise than plain "Masamune" or "Masamune 
tsukuru " we know at once that it is not by the great 

It will be seen from the above that the problem of 



deciding who was the maker even of a signed blade is often 
far from easy, and if unsigned we can at present only 
vaguely conjecture in the aosence of a decision by such 
an authority, for instance, as thepresent Director of the 
Imperial lluseum of Arms in 'Rskyo, Mr. Nagayoshi 
Imamura. A. very great deal may be learned by a careful 
study and comparison of the drawings of actual blades 
and signatures which appear in such books as the Koto 
Meizukushi and the Honcho Kaji Ko, and also of course 
by the study of authentic examplea 

We have already noted that swords are divided into 
two classes called KotO and Shinto respectively, or those 
made before and since 1603. There are some indications 
by which a Shinto can be distinguished from a Kotft 
blade. Where the hardened edge turns over the point 
on to the back, the distance It is carried down the back 
is greater in Shinto blades. There is also firequently 
seen a very marked peculiarity of Shinto blades called 
tlie yakidashi. This is a narrowing of the yakiba for 
about three or four inches at the butt of the blade. It 
does not usually appear if the yakiba is straight or nearly 
8i>. A drawing of an actual example from a blade in my 
own possession will be seen in No. I, Plate II. This blade 
is by Nagamichi of Musashi, and we know at once by 
inspection that it is a Shinto blade, being made as a 
matter of fact about 1660. There were only two smiths 
of this name, the other having worked in the latter half 
of the fourteenth century. Also in Shinto blades the 
horimono or engraving occurs more frequently and is 
more elaborata In some cases an indication of the age 
of a blade may be obtained by noting the reduction in 
thickness of the blade as compared with the tang produced 
by many sharpenings and polisbiDgB. 

The type of blade varied according to the province in 
which it was made, and aa there are hundreds of instances 
of smiths of the same name but working in different 
provinces and producing swords of different types, it is 
necessary to know something of the types peculiar to the 
provinces. For example, besides the great Masamune 
of Soshu there were smiths of that name working in 
Echizen, Tamato, Bingo, and other provinces. The four 
principal types are those of Bizen, Sagami, Seki, and 







Bingo. There are in existence a number of short poems 
or uta which are intended to be committed to memory, 
and they give some brief particulars of the characteristics 
of different provinces and smiths. From these we learn 
that Bizen blades have a considerable degree of curva- 
ture, that the boski is short, and the back of the two- 
sided type ; also that the blades are thick and rather 
narrow. The swords made in Sagami (Soshu) are thin 
and wide and also considerably curved, moku-me graiuing 
is usual, and they have a three-sided back. Tne Seki 
blades have a narrow shinogi, the shape of the blade 
looked at on the flat tends to become barrel-shaped, or 
rather wider at the middle, and the yohote is placed low 
down, making the bead of the blade long. In the Bingo 
swords, especially those made at Mihara in that province, 
the shinogi is said to be tnkakit {see previous paper, 
pp. 14 and 15), the blade is often of the type called slwbu 
(/(uAuW (see No. 2, Plate III, and No. 1 of Fig. 1), and there 
is a ni-ju yoMba. The skobu tsukun is so called because 
the shape of the blade is supposed to resemble the leaf of 
the shobu or wild flag. The ni-ju yakiba is almost 
impossible to describe in words and must be seen. There 
are many other points, of course, to be noted, but space 
does not allow of our going into them ; but we may 
remark that the SOshu blades have large and bold 
engraving, if any. Bingo swords of the ordinary, as 
distinct from the shobu type, occur in great numbers, the 
latter being only a special type. The Seki swords have 
usually the yasuri-me, called higaki. 

When we come to consider the characteristics of dif- 
ferent smiths we are confronted by such a mass of detail 
that it is impossible to put information into the form of 
a written description. I have therefore made drawings 
showing the different forma of blade, the different kinds 
of yakwa and the different kinds of hi or grooves in the 
blades. Drawings of the different forms of yakiba at the 
boshi were given in tlie previous paper (Plate VIII, p. 12). 
For each characteristic I have written out the names of 
the more important smiths who employed it. All these 
particulars apply to Koto swords. 

Having now at least in theory acquired some blades 
and learnt something about them we have to know how to 



take care of them. As a rule the best blades are kept iu 
plain white wood scabbai-ds called shirasaya. But whether 
m plain scabbards or fully mounted, the sword should be 
placed in a bag {fukuro) preferably of heavy silk and lined 
"with silk inside and should be kept in a dry place. It is 
quite unnecessary to keep the blades oiled. Blades are 
frequently to be seen which have been covered with some 
thick and sticky oil which has dried and left a messy 
coating all over the surface, and this usually results in 
stains being produced on the blade, especially on the 
t/akiba, due possibly to the presence of some free acid in 
the oil. Moreover the inside of the scabbard gets covered 
with a mixture of oil and dust, so that if the blade is 
cleaned it will become dirty again when placed in the 

To clean a blade in this condition it should be carefully 
wiped with a soft rag dipped in paraffin, taking care that 
there is no grit Jn the rag. When all the oil and para£Bn 
are cleaned off, the blade should be rubbed all over with 
the finest machine oil or vaseline, and this being wiped 
off the blade is dusted over with the uchiko. The uchiho 
is a small bag of silk or washleather filled with a white 
powder. The powder in use in Japan is not readily 
obtainable here, but the substance known in Germany as 
Wiener Kalk does equally well. The blade is patted with 
the uchiko, so that a light coating of powder adheres to 
it, and this coating is then removed by rubbing briskly 
with soft Japanese paper, leaving the blade perfectly 
clean and bright. To prepare the paper for this purpose, 
the Japanese expert folds it up until it is about four 
inches square and then crumples and rolls it until quite 
soft and silky. The blade is quite stripped while being 
cleaned, and before the hnlaki is replaced it is desirable 
to rub the part covered by it with a piece of slightly oiled 
Japanese paper, since this part ijeing at the joint between 
the handle and scabbard is most likely to be attacked by 

A blade in good condition should not be touched with 
the bare hand, and after blades have been taken out for 
examination or exhibition it is advisable to dust them 
over with the uchiko and wipe them. 

The sword expert keeps a box containing : — 



An uchiko. 

several pieces of folded and crumpled Japanese paper, 

a glass box with ground lid or stopper to hold pieces 

of oily paper, 
a piece of soft washleather, 
a small wooden mallet, 

a short piece of hard wood (beech is very suitable), 
two or three sizes of ivory or bone pegs to be used 

fur driving out the wooden pegs in the handles. 

Steel hammers, bradawls, screwdrivers, or anything ol 
that kind should never be used In taking a sword to pieces. 

If the handle is tight on the tang wrap the washleather 
round the lower pai-t of the blade, place the short piece 
of wood along the blade with the end resting on the end 
of the handle with washleather underneath it, hold in the 
left hand with the thumb on the piece of wood, and tap 
the top of the piece of wood with the mallet until the 
handle is loosened. Handles should not be so tight as 
to require this, and if they fit properly can always be 
removed by holding the handle firmly m one hand, the 
blade being vertical, and striking that hand with the 
other fist 

Having now considered the blade in a very brief way 
from a technical point of view, some notes as to its other 
aspects may be interesting. 

We have seen that the sword in Japan occupied a 
unique position and was regarded as an almost sacred 
thing. Its fame as a weapon spread &r outside Japan, 
and It had a terrible reputation in China. In an article 
in the Nineteenth Century for February of this year 
Professor Giles gives a translation of a Chinese manu- 
script of the early seventeentR centur}- in which the 
following quaint remarks occur : — 

"The Bwords uaed by these dwarfs are exquisite weapons, six 
feet in length and one for each hand, thus making a total 
length of twelve feet. Even if you succeed in parrying the 
bloTF of one sword, the other is quite enough to kill you 
infallibly. Thus the fear of the Japanese iB really the tear 
of their swords." 

The sword was regarded as being possibly possessed 
of certain magical properties, since the five elements. 

R 2 



Sui, Kwa, Moku, Kin, Do or Water, Fire, Wood, Metal, 

and Earth were required to make it. Some time ago I 

came across a poem cut on a sword guard (tsuba) wnich 

illustrates this, and a rough translation of the poem is ; — 

" A awordwhen drawn in a long corridor produces an atmospheric 

change in fine weather, even in midsummer it brings a cool 

breeze into a large house." 

A sword might be good or bad, lucky or unlucky from 

causes over which the smith had little or no control. It 

is frequently noted on blades that they were finished oa 

a kichi nichi or lucky daj-. 

As the sword entered so largely into the life of the 
people it is only natural that an elaborate etiquette was 
developed In connection with it. 

'The Samurai boy was initiated into its use at a very 
early age. When ne was five years old he was clad m 
complete Samurai costume and placed on a " go " board, 
and a real sword was thrust into his sash to replace tlie 
toy blade he had previously worn. From this time he 
was never to be seen abroad without his sword, although 
a wooden one might be substituted for every-day wear. 
At the age of fifteen he became entitled to carry the pair 
of real swords forming the badge of his Sttmurai rank, 
and these now became his lite-long companions, the 
symbols of his loyalty and honour and his most treaaur-ed 

On entering a friend's house the longer of the two 
swords was removed and handed over to the servants 
and on entering the guest room the shorter one was also 
usually removed and placed on the floor by the owner's 
side. When in this position to kick the guard of the 
sword so as to move it in the direction of any one present 
was regarded as a deliberate and deadly insult. To draw 
a blade in the presence of others without permission was 
regarded, if not as an insult, at least as a grave breach of 
good mannera 

If on the occasion of a visit to a friend's house swords 
were produced for the guest's inspection, a rigid etiquette 
regulated the way in which they should ne handled. 
The host would present the sheathed sword to his friend, 
holding the hilt in his left hand with the scabbard rest- 

' See Butiido, b; FrotwMr Nitobe, 10th edition. 



ing on the palm of his right hand and with the edge of 
the blade turned towards himself. The guest, who 
should be provided with pieces of silk so as not to touch 
the sword with his bare hands, takes the hilt in his right 
hand and the scabbard in his left, and turning the sword 
over until the edge is towards himself, bows in the pre- 
scribed manner. If the sword is a completely mounted 
one, he would first inspect the fittings and lacquered scab- 
bard, and after having admired them would ask permission 
to inspect the blade. This being given he turns the 
sword edge upwards and draws the blade an inch or two 
at a time and minutely examines it. He continues doing 
this until the blade is about three parts drawn, but on no 
account would he draw it completely without asking per- 
mission from everyone present. Before drawing the blade 
right out he woidd turn away from the others, and during 
his inspection of it would be most careful that the edge 
should not be turned towards anyone present. When he 
had finished, the sword would be sheathed and turned 
over so that the hilt was in his left hand and the edge 
towards himself, and in this way with the necessary bows 
return it to the owner. 

Any insult to a sword was equivalent to insulting its 
owner, and in order to provoke a duel to the death it was 
only necessary to carry out what was known as the saya- 
atte. This consisted in approaching one's enemy and 
deliberately rattling the scabbard of the long sword 
against that of his. 

Space does not permit of our pursuing the subject 
further or of saying anything about the mythology of 
the sword, of practical sword play or other points. But 
enough has been said to show bow great was the influence 
of the sword on the national life and how important a 
part it played in the national history. For these reasons 
it is surprising, as I have already said, that so little atten- 
tion has been given to the Japanese sword, which in all its 

aspects presents an unlimited held for enquirj' and reseai'ch. 

I can only conclude by expressing the hope that the 

two papers I have now been privileged to read before the 

Institute may be the means of inducing others more 
leisured and more competent than myself to pui-sue a most 
fascinating study. 










































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Figure 1, p. 224. 

No. 1.— Shobu tsukuri. 


£ai Kunimitsu 









Shimada of 

of Yamashiro 

of Yamato (WaehQ). 

Suruga (SunshQ). 
The Bmiths of Sagami (Soshu). 

Korishige of EtchQ (Euhtl), pupil 

of Masamune. 
The smiths of Awami (Sekishfl). 


Yoshikage j 

Ataue of Bitchu. 

The smiths of Mihara in Bingo. 

Sairen of Chikuzen (ChikushQ). 


of Yamashiro. 




Korishige of Etchu. 

Sukektmi T 

Unj'i ^ofBizen. 

\ of Sagami. 

of Etcl 


The Cormora.nt's 





TametC - of Bizen. 




Ichijo of Bingo (Bisha). 

The Smiths of Mihara in Bingo. 

Yoshimitsu of Tosa, 

Sairen of Chikuzen. 

Yasuyoshi of Bungo (HoahQ). 

' DUferent characters fur Mori. 



lika T 
aitoahi I ^ 

ini J 

No. 3.— Kmi «A. 


Rai Kunitoahi \ 
Sadamune I 
Hirotsugu >of Sagami. 
Akibiro J 

Kitijfl of SeM in Mino (Nosba), 
pupil of Masamune. 

Kagemitsu of Kaga (Kaaha). 

Kanemitsu "i 

(pupil of Kfasamime) ^of Bizen. 

Yukikuni of Nagato (ChoBha). 
Yasutaugu of Satsuma (Saeshu). 

No. 4. — ShINOGI TSUKURl. 

Yosbiiye T 

Hisakuiii >of Yamasbiro. 

Kuniteuna J 

The smiths of Yamato. 

Hiroteugu of SoshQ. 

Kaneteugu of Mino. 

Kagenaga of Inaba (Inshd). 
Yasutsuna of H5ki (Hakuaha). 
Tadasada of Izumo (Unshu). 
IcMmonjij jgj^„ 

Moniye J 





Sukeyoshi Naganori 

Yoahikane ^luneyosbi 








Moritsugu of Bitchu. 

No. 5. — Shinogi HIROKI mono. Wide skmogi. 
lUi K™iU»hi|„,Y,„„,,i„, To^„riotEtch„. 

.Unrui I , „. 

S" okai I * 

e smiths of Yamato. 
Kanetsugul j„;^^ 

No. 6. — Shinogi Seuaki mono. Narrow shinogi. 

Masamune of Sosba. 
YaautBuna of Hoki. 
The smiths of Iwami (Sekishfl). 
Morikage of Bizen. 

Hidemitsu '\ 
Masataune I . t>: 

Unsho J 

No. 7. — Ni SUJI HI. itoaife grooves. 

Nobukuni of Yamasbiro. 

"■?""" ) of SoshO. 
Sadamune I 

KinjQ of Mino (pupil of Maea- 


jof BizG 


Nagayosbi and j 

Kanemitsu (both I 

pupils of Masamune) J 









. 1- -.- - 

s* W 







\ v; 

•V,l- ■ -. "'^■■j- 


\ ^ 



V V 


.V!. - ■ ■ - 



Rai Kunimiteul . v=- 

Tayeina "^ 

Hojo Vof Yamsto. 


HI. SItSbn groove. 

Hiromiteu {pu] 

lil Uf S 

ifo. 9. — Hi SAKt SAOARU. Topof^vove hw dovm, on the blade. 

Kfti Kunitoebi of YanuBhiro. 
Tay«nia of Yamata 
YiikimitBu / 

\ of Soshtl. 

Yoebihiro of Et«hu. 

Mitsukane of Omi (Goshu), pupil 

of Rai Kunitoehi. 
Sa Yaauyoflhi of Hizen. 

No. 10. — Hi saki aqaru. 
Raj Kuniynld 
Rai Kunitoflhi 
Rai KuDimiteu 
Bai Kunitmigu , 

>of Yamashiro. 

Top of ffrooBf high up on the blade. 

BiEen swords of about tbe period 
Oei (1394-1427). 

JVo. 11.— Ko KiasAKl. Siimll point. 



Rai Kimiyuld 

Rai Kunitoebi 

Kai Kunimitau 



The smitba of Awatagucbi. 

The smiths of Yamato. 


Gassan / 

} of MutBU. 

Kageiiaga of loaba. 

Yasutsuna of Hold. 

The early smiths of I 

Icbimonii '* 







Akikuni of Nagato. 

of Bizen. 

jVo. 12, — KissAEl NOBiSHi MONO. Long pdul. 

Hasebe of Yamashiro. 
Sadamune of Sosba. 
KinjQ of Mino (pupil of Masa- 



jof 1 

N^ayoshi ~\ 

Unja J 

Sairen of Chikuzen. 

Rai Kunitoebi 
Rai KunimitBU 

Plate IIIa.— The Yakiba. 

No. 1.~SUGU HA. Straigkt. 


■of Yamasbira 

Arikuni joiVMUuhiro. 





- of Awataguchi. 

' of Yamato. 




Norinaga ' 






Sue no Kanetoshi 









Yamauchi Yoshimune 

Toehinaga of Omi 

Kaneyoehi 1 

Kanekuni > of Mino. 

Kaoeoto J 

Toshiyasu. "l 

Hojfl I of 

Gassan (when working f Muteu. 

in Dewa). J ) 

Chozuni of Echizen. 
lyetBUgu and Yoahiiye of Kaga. 
Yasuteuna of Hdki. 
Micbinaga of Izumo. 

Yukimune of Harima (Bansha). 


















of S6ahiL 












Nyusai of Aki J 

Yoshimitsu of Tosa. 

Sairen of Chikuzen. 

Nagamori of Bungo (Hosha). 

>of Bitchtu 

No. '. 

KimiMjol , j^^,(^ y 
Nonkuni J " 

Kanenaga \ - 
Norinaga / 
Kagaahiro of Izumi (Senaha). 
Shimada of Suruga. 
Kunihiro ^ 
Hirotsugu tof Soshiu 
Yoshihiro J 

— Naka sugu ha. Medium icuUh, ulraighl. 


Kanetsugu 1 , ... 
TMhitomo I"'"'™- 
Yasunobu of Echigo. 
Miuiemitsu of Mimasaka (S>i- 


ly Google 


Yukihide I Nagamitsu 1 

Tomooari Naomori 

Tochika YuloBane j- of Bizen. 

Yoehikane of Bizen. Motoahige 

Nobunao Cbikakage J 

Shigenori Ataue \. t,..„.„ 

Nontsugu J Toshiteugu/***^'^'"'- 

No. 3. — HiROKi 8UGU HA. StToighl and wide. 
Kunitsuna 1 

KunitoBhi 1 
Kuniyuki >of Yamashiro. 

Bai KunimitsuJ 
Ktuiitauna of Awataguchi. 
Kunitsuna of Yaroauchi. 
Sanemori of HQki. 
Tadasada of Izumo. 
Masatgune I'D- }«' &«•■■■ 

Suketauna I > t>- 
Yo.hihi™ ^''B"""- 
Yoshimune J 

No. 4. — O MlDARE HA. Large i 



Shimada of Suruga. 
Tsunemune of Soahu. 
Kaneuji (pupil of Masamune) of 

Sa Sadayuki of Chikuzen. 


No. 6, — MiMl KATa no MIDABB. Iirtguhr " 
Echizen (Oei 1394- Hojfl of Muteu. 

No. 6. — Ko HIDARE HA. Stmll irregular. 

Rai KunimitBu'^ 






Hisakuni ^of Awataguchi, 

KuniyoBU , 
Masatoahi of Mino. 
Qassan of Mutsu. 
Yasutaiina of Hoki. 
Tomonari 1 
Sukekane '■ 
l^kahira | 
Nobufusa' J 


' Dilterent cliaraclpra (or Nobii. 


Kunisane ] 

Sukemura | 

Moriiye > of Bkeii. 

Nobumasa 1 

Sadaaane. J 


{ Yamaahiro. 


Raneteugu of Bitchu. 
Ichijo of Bingo. 
Bizen. Yasuyoshi of Nagato. 

Yaaunori of Buoeo. 

HA. Straight v>iih mtall irreqjiia/ritUs, 

















5SS}°* Bitchu. 

fff'*"/..- .,,"!■ of Chikuzen. 
Jitflua (his pupil) J 

No. 8.— Yahazu Midare. The notch {yaham) for the bmsiring at the 

end of an arrow. 

Yoehinori of Echizen. 

Plate IIIr 

no. 1. — gu no me, ssho ni kogoru. 

Tadasada of Izumo. 

No. 2. — FuNDo ha. {FuvdO, a vxiglU.) The repealed outlines are here 
auppoied to reaewble the weights used with the Japanese scales. 

Kuniyaau of Awataguchj. 

Morihiro of Kaga. 

Kanehira ^ 






Nagamitsu y of Bizen. 







No. 3, — Uma-no-ha ha. 
|of S«8hu. 

Kaneuji (pupil of Maaamune) d 

No. 4. — Nezuhi ASHi. The rat's Ug. 

Ey6kai of YMnaahiro, Yukisada of Tamba (Tanstii). 

Sukekane of Bizen. 





Sadatoahi of Yumato. 
Kuniyasu of Awsta^chi. 

No. 5. — Juzu HA. Th£ rosary. 

Kageyasu of Bizen. 

No. 6. — Mame narabishi yo no gu-no-me. Beaiis in a 

Norioaga of Yamato. 
Michinaga of Mino. 

Nobusane"! „, d:„ 

No. 7.-0 


Kobukuni of Yamaahiro. 


Shimada of Suruga. 

ISL„ «'Bi-. 

Naotgiuia (pupil of Masamuno) of 



Morihisa of Izmna 

Ichijo of Bingo. 
Akikuni of Nagato. 


Kunihiro of CUkuzen. 


HA. The saw teeth. 

Kuriyuki of Yamaahiro. 


Kaneyoahi ' 

of Yamato. 







Sue no NagamJtsu 

of Bizen. 




of Bizen. 








Plate IVa. 


Tokinobu T 

Masatoshi "l 

Haaebe >of Yamaahiro. 

Senjuin Uf Mino. 




Naotsuna (pupil of] 


Maaamune) >of IwaraL 

Norioaga of Yamato, 



Sue no Kanenaga 

Koreaule- ] 


Hirotau^ of Soshfl 






of Bizen. 

Kanenobu 1 of Mino. 




Sue no Toahitomo 





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Noriyoebi I - Ri„n ToldyuW 

Shi^tBune p Tomomitau i- of Bungo. 

IchijS m Bingo. Nagamori 

No.2.~-Ko MIDARK m SAKA ASHl. Small irregular, wUk "aski" 
" Ugs " sloping up towards the point. 
Tomonari and Norimiine of Bizen. 

Ao. 3. — Hyotan hidare. T/k gourd. 
Hasebe of Yamaahiro. 

SSTiL' }»'»"- 

No. i. — CHfiJi HIDARE. {C%yi = doses.) The repeated forms are 

smppaeed to resemble cloves. 

Bai Kuiiiyuki 1 Kimitsmia of Awatagucbi. 

Bai Kunitoshi Vof Yamashiro. Fosho of KlutsiL 

Kunitoshi J 

No. 5. — SuGU MI KO ciiOJi. straight wiiA snuUi choji. 
Ennikiyo of Awataguchi. Naonaga of Echizen. 

No. 6.— O XOTARE. Large ungating, 
Yoahihiro of Etchu. Mortkage of Bisen. 

No. 7. — Suuu Ni SAKA Asni. Straight with " ashi," see Fig. 2. 

Byfikai of Yamashiro. Masatsune of Bitchu. 

Yasutiori of Bungo. 

No. 8.— MiDARE HA. Iiregular. 

Naganori of Yamato. HojQ of Mutsu. 

Y^uOJi of Mikawa (Sanshu). Sanekage of Kaga. 

MaBamune 1 Norishige of Elcau. 

Yukimitau I of Sukehira. 

YoBhimune (Yamauchi) f tjOshu. Sukekane. 

Kunihiro J Suketeuna. 

Plate IVb. 

No. 1. — Hitatki;ra. Lileiallij "all over burnt," or hardened places ail over 
the blade. 

Hasebe of Yamashiro. Kuninaga of Awataguchi. 



Shimada of Suruga. 









Maaanori of Omi 

Tametflu^ of Mino. 

MoriMro "| 




Sue No Tomonari 




^ I of Bingo. 

No. 2.— ChOJI ha ni midabe mi ari. CAd/i ofid irregviar combined. 

Tamekiyo of Hoki. 


























^0. 3. — CuOJl HA. Large ChOji, 

Uf E 

Kyo Hisanobu of YamasMro. Sanemori 

Arikuni of Yamato. Sadatauna 

Nobufusa 1 Sanetoahi 

Sukesane ^of Bizen. Mitautada 
Moriiye J 

JVo. 4. — ChOJI ni uaka HIDARE. Irreijidar Ckoji type with points 
tending to turn Uneards the bOshi, 

Tametsugu of Mino. NobufuBa "| 

Saiiemon of Hoki. Tochika 

Nobufusa ] Norikane 

Chikakane Yoshifuaa 

Sukefusa Norinari 

Koreeuke - Bizen. Sukesane I 

Ichimonji Kunimune 1 

Moriiye Kagehide I 

Sanemori UnshO J 

Chikafusa J 

No, 5. — Sa£A HiDAJtE. Irregular with pants sloping up towards the 

















Ao, 6. — NoTARE uiDARE. IireffuUtr undulaiing. 
Rai Ktinitsugu. 
Rai Kunimitsu. 













Senjuin of Yamato. 
Muramnsa of Ise (Seishil), a 

of Masauiune. 
Maaanori ^ 
Kinju of Mine. 

if jo. 

Saotikage of Kaga. 
Morihiro' " 

pupil NSi^}*>* ^'*''"- 
Nagayoehi of Bizen. 
Yoshitaugu of Bitchu. 
Samonji "" 
Sadayoahi j- 
Sadayuki i - 
Yoshisada J 
Kiuiitsuna 1 c ti- 
Kimiyua )»'"'«»■ 

Bai Kunimitau "^ 

Tateuma J 

Kaneuji 1 
Senjuin y of Yamato. 
Nobuyosbi J 
Shimada of Suniga. 

A'o. 7. — NotaRE. Undidating. 
Hiroyoshi \ , 








■of Soshu. 














' Diltennt chfimcti-n tor Mori. 

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Hiroyuki " 

Yoahihiro Uf Chikuzen 

Sanetsugu "X 


YoahitBugu >of Bitchu. 

YukihiBa J 

\o. 8.— Ko 

CH5JI HA. Small dwji. 





YoBhiiye of Yamashiro. 



Kuninaga J 


Kuniyasu of AwaUguchi. 


of Bizen. 

Maaatsune 1 





of Bizen. 




Plate VIII, of previous paper, /'w/. LXlI,p. 12. 
Oun.iNES or the Y'akiba at tiik boshi. 

No. 1,~B08HI SAGAItU. 

Kai Kunimiteu of Yamashiro. 
Kagashiro of Izumi. 
Akiniro 1 „i o-„l.- 
Hi^omitBU T* ^"'''"• 
Fuyuhiro of Wakasa. 
Munemitsu of Bizen. 

Loa >of Bizen. 
ina J 

Sanekage 1 
Naotsuna j 
MasatBune of Bitchu. 
Kaibu of Aw a. 
Kunihiro of Chikuze 

No. 2. — Yaki TSUME. HardeHctl pari slopped off. 

Kunikiyo of Awataguchi. 
The smitha of Yamato, 
Masamune 1 
Yukimitau ^of Soshn. 
Yukichika J 


Yasunobu of Echigo. 
Sukehira I 
Norimune | 

Nobuyoshi . 
Tsunebiro I 





Naomi tsu 





Tsunemitsu j 

Nyuaai of Aki, 

Chikushi Kyokai of Chikuzen 
(migrated to Yamashiro and 
became the pupil of Ryokai). 

Yasunori of Bungo. 



RaJ Kunitoebi 


Kaneuji ■^ 
Kaoenaga I . 

" ■ 1 r' 




SeDJuin J 
Kuuitsiina 1 
Sanekuni >of SOsbu. 
Yukifusa J_ 
Toshinaga of Omi. 

Sanekage of Kaga. jo'l^Kto- 
Hiroyoehi of OmL 
Nobufiua 1 
Mitsukane | 

Yukikuni f <>*»'«'"■ 
Sukemune | 
Sukenobu J 

No. 3. — BoSHi UARU. Roand hisH. 







Sue no Moriif e 

















Chibiehi Byokai 


Yiddmune of Higo. 

\ of Bitchu. 
I of Ch; 

Xo. 4. — BuSHi UARU. Large round. 


Rai Kuniyuki 


Rai Kunimitau 

Kai Kunitsugu 






Rai Tomokuni 





Kagashiro of Izumi. 

Shimada of Siiniga. 

Shiiitogo Kimibiro. 

Kaneuji 1 
Kanetsugu I 
Kanenobu V of Mino. 

Kaneyuk) j 
MiinemiUu ot Mimasaka. 
Morihiro of Echizen. 
lyeteugu of K^a. 
Yasuleuna of HokL 
Naotsuna of Iwami. 
Tomonari 1 

Unji i- of Bizen. 


Kunimime J 
Ichiju of Bingo. 
Kunihiro of Chikuzen. 



iVo. 5.— B6SHI KO MARU. Smail rtmtd. 









of Yamaahiro. 






of Bizen. 



Miteutada o 



AritOBhi of Yamato. 



^1 »'«»^«- 



Sue no Norimune 


H6ja of Mutsu. 


Kngenaga of Inaba. 
Micniaaga of Alino. 
KaneyOBhi of Harima. 







Masaiye of Binga 

Masahiro of Mihara in Bingo. 



of Bizen. 

Akikuni of Nagato. 


Sursn ^ 1 


Yoehihiro ^of Chikuzen. 



jVo. 6. — Bosui TOGABE. PoijUed. 

f YamaBhiro 

Kai Kunttoshi lit 

Nobukuni /*" ' 



Runihiro [* Yamato. 

Toshinaga (To8hitomo)J 

r.ST'} •'*'■"■ 

Chozuru of Echizen. 
Yukimune of Uarimo. 
Takabira ] 
Kobumasa \ 
Nagamitsu | 
Ichimonji J 

\ of Bizen. 







Yukihiaa ^of Bitchu. 
lehijo J 

Yasuyoshi of Nagato. 
Samonji of Chikuzen. 
Runimiteu of Mimasaka wbt 

working in Aki. 
Yasuyuki of Chikuzen. 
Tokiyuki of Bungo. 

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Masatoshi of Mine. 

Tauguhiro of Wakaaa. 



















Sue no Moriiye 

No. 8.- 

-Kayen BOSHI. 

yoahimitsu of Awataguchi. 

No. 9.— Jize NO BOSHI. The Itewl of JixB. 
Sadamune of Soahu. 


lof 1 

Eai Kunisane 
Bai Mitsusbig 
Kuniteuna of Soehfl. 
Kiuienobu '\ 
Kanesada I i vi- 
K«.moto p"'""- 
Mimemitm of EcMzen. 

Tomomitsu 1 
Kagemitsa K of Kaga. 
lyemaaa J 
Hiroyo^hi of Hoki 
Nagayoshi "l 
Nagamori K of Bizen. 
KlitBiikane J 
Atsue of Bitchu. 

' DiSereDt charactor for Nobu. 



< < ¥ e s 

•s-1 -' 

' 1 f M 

S 1 5 « « 

m^ 11 

jji- <^ be: 40 m 



s s i ? i 




o 1 5 

_ < 

i 1 1 ° ^ 


£ $ 

f I f 3 


BH s§ ^ Iti 










The nurhags of Sardinia, of which there are more than 
three thousand, in differeDt states of preservation, are 
sepulchral towers. Some are double or multiple and a few- 
have been altered into small forts. A typical nurhag, 
however, consists of a tower 20 to 60 feet in height, builfc 
of rude stones perhaps more or less shaped by hammer- 
ing. It often stands on a platform. The diameter of 
a nurhag is genenUIy rather greater than its height, and 
is less at the top than at the ground level, as the 
wall slopes inwardly about 1 foot for every 10 feet 
in height. There is an entrance six or more feet high, 
roofed over, either by a long stone lintel or by pro- 
jecting stones forming a false arch. The passages and 
domes are all constructed on this principle, as are those 
in the Treasurj"- of Mykenae and other prehistoric build- 
ings, and also those in Hindu temples. The wall is very 
thick, more than a quarter of the diameter of the tower. 
A short passage leads into the central chamber, which is 
roughly circular, and has thx'ee alcoves, one opposite 
the entrance, and one at each side. The chamber is 
12 or 15 feet high, and is vaulted on the overlapping 
principle, each row of stones projecting beyond the one 
below it, till the sides approach one another near enough 
to be roofed in. In large nurhags there is a similar but 
smaller chamber above the first, and in rare ca!?es a third 
above the second. The upper chamber is reached by a 
steeply sloping passage wnich does duty as a staircase. 
It opens from the side of the entrance passage and is 
constructed in the thickness of the wall. On the top 
of the most perfect nurhags I saw, was a platform. 

' Bead b«rore the Inaljtute, December 6tb, ldC@. 


Reproduced from a wal«r-colour dr&wing in Ihu pusupssiun of E. H. Fiaon, Esq. 




though some authorities think that the termination was 
a cone. A platform would suggest ancestor worship or 
some similar ceremoDies performed on it. Some have 
imagined that nurhags were defensive or watch towers. 

Doubtless some, as the curious nurhag of Loea, have 
been altered in later times into forts, as would natiirally 
occur in an island, which has suffered its share of war 
and pillage, and where vendetta has not even yet died 
out ; but the situation of many nurhags, often in groups, 
with no connection between them, precludes the idea 
that they were originally defensive, their sha)>e more- 
over is not well suitM for warfare. It is much more prob- 
able that like the tumuli of our country, and elsewhere, 
they were memorials of long forgotten chiefs. It has been 
objected, that had they been sepulchral more remains 
of the dead would have been found. Fergusson' sug- 
gested that they were Towers of Silence, like those of 
the Parsees. But cremation and the lapse of centuries 
may account for the absence of remains from towers that 
ai-e exposed to men and animals, and to the weather. 

The stones of which nurhags are built are generally 
large and oblong, but vary a good deal. There are many 
stones in some nurhags 4 or 5 feet long and I^ to 2 feet 
thick. A few stones exceed 6 feet in length. 

The Phoenicians and Egyptians seem to have traded 
with the island, and perhaps introduced metals to the 
inhabitants. Owing to the absence of harbours and 
the barrenness of the soil on the eastern side, there 
was little communication with Italy in early times. The 
Carthaginians under Hasdrubal conquered Sardinia about 
512 B.C. and very much oppressed the inhabitants, and 
consequently the Romans, who took possession of the 
island soon after the first Punic war, were bailed as 

The Sardinians are a primitive and backward people 
belonging to Professor Sergi's " Mediterranean race' ; and 
having had less intermixture with big Celts and Teutons 
than other Italians they are among the smallest people 
in Europe. 

The other prehistoric antiquities are Giants' Tombs, 

> SMde StoM Mmmmtnli. 



resembling long bai'rows, and Perdas Lungas, or menhirs, 
which are sometimes decorated with female breasts. 

Nurhags or similar monxmients ai-e not contined to 
Sardinia. Some towers in the Province of Otranto 
bear great resemblance to them. A model of one of them, 
near Lecce, is to be seen in the Museo Kircheriano in Rome, 
and might be taken for a representation of a nurbag. 
Of the Balearic Isles I will speak later on. I have 
twice visited Sardinia, and among the most remarkable 
nurhags I saw was that of Losa near Abbasanta. It was 
probably at first an ordinary nurhag consisting of a single 
tower aoout 35 feet high. Later three vaulted chambers 
were added, making it triangular. After the lapse of a 
fiirther considerable period, it was found useful for defence 
and surrounded by a wall with at least four towers, having 
a diameter of about 24 yards. A low wall outside this one 
enclosed a space, perhaps for cattle. The nurhag of 
Nurrai is near that of Losa. It is of the ordinary type 
and rather dilapidated. Its height is at present about 
24 feet, though it was orimnally considerably more : its 
diameter 12 or 15 yards. The central chamber is 14 feet 
in diameter and has some smaU niches. The longest 
stones used are about 6 feet. There are several 4 feet 
by 1 J or 2 feet. 

Near Porto Torres is a double nurhag, and that of Ortu 
has at least eight towers. Thus we find a certain amount 
of variety. 

The most interesting monuments, which resemble nur- 
hags, are the Talayots of Minorca and Majorca-' In these 
the vaults are not entirely on the overlapping principle, 
as in the nurhags, but are supported in the middle by a 

Sier, which sometimes remains when the Talayot has been 
estroyed by the stones having been removed for other 
buddings. The stones of these piers being too large for 
easy transport have survived in situ, and have been de- 
scribed by Fergusson as " bilithona." The largest Talayot 
is in the Bay of Alcudia, on the north-eastern side of the 

' For the benefit of intending Tiflitore 
to the Talsyob of H&jorca, I maj men- 
tion that tliere ii soma diffioolt; in 
flnding them. At Palma the Municipal 
auUioritiel told me thaj were eituiite 
4 kilometre! from Aloudia. I crossed 



Island of Majorca. It iB 16 metres in diameter at the 
base and 14 at the top. The shape of the summit is 
uncertain, as none of the Talayots are in very good 
preservation. One Talayot is 12 metres high, others 
measure six ; some again have two stories. The stones 
may be natural or roughly cut. Some are of very large 
size, exceeding 12 feet in length. These monuments, I 
believe, exceed 600 in number. 

Besides the Talayots there are also buildings of 50-80 
feet long, called " Navetas," from their resemblance to a 
ship turned upside down. They have a long internal cell 
ana appear to be like our " Long Barrows." 

The next monuments I will refer to ai-e the " Sesi " of 
Pantellaria (the ancient Cossyra). Of these fifty-seven 
exist in fair preservation, besides a good many that are 
ruined The Sesi are oval tumuli built of small stones, 
and penetrated by timnele. The largest is 10 metres in 
its longest diameter, and 8'70 in width. Another is 
9 metres by 5'40, and 2'60 m. in height; another, 5'80 
metres by 4*60 with a surrounding platform 65 centi- 
metres in width. In one instance there are as many as 
eleven tunnels, one of which bifurcates. These tunnels 
enter from different parts of the circumference, and each 
terminates in a small domical chamber, which was used 
for burials. They seem to have been of neolithic age, as 
no trace of metal has been found. 

Not very iar from Pantellaria, are the Islands of Malta 
and Gozo, which contain some remarkable prehistoric 
monuments, the Giants' Tower in Gozo, the Mnaidra, and 
the Hagiar Khem in Malta. They are of much better 
masonry than the buildings with which we have hitherto 
been dealing and are probably of later date. They con- 
tain oval chambers. Hagiar Khem has recently been very 
carefully excavated by Dr. Cariiana. It is 100 feet long 
by 80 in width, and has six oval chambers. Fergusson 
thinks that these buildings were roofed over, and as 
the remains of some courses of overlapping stones are still 
to be seen, it is hard to believe that it was otherwise, 
especially as the space to be covered is only about 20 feet 
wide. Dr. Caruana, however, can find no traces of the 
roofs and does not believe that they ever existed ; it is so 
long since I saw them that I will not offer an opinion on 



the question, but should Fergusaon's view be correct, 
these elaborate structures may have been developed from 
primitive Sesi, like those of Pantellaria. Fergusson holds 
that these Maltese remains were funereal and that the 
stone shelves and cupboards stUl to be seen were for 
offerings to the dead. Caruana thinks they were open 
to the sky, and were Phoenician temples of Baal and 

There are said to be some nurhag-like monuments in 
Sicily and Portugal, but of these I nave been unable to 
obtain any information. The domical tombs at Mykenae 
and other places in Greece may be considered as more or 
less related to the monuments I have been describing. 
They all are prehistoric, and belong to the neolithic 
and bronze ages. They seem to have been the work of 
Professor Sergi's "Mediterranean Race," which under 
the names of Pelasgiaus or Iberians occupied Southern 
and Western Europe. I will not detain you with the 
chambered tumuli of Spain, France, and the British Isles, 
except to remark that in all probability we owe them 
to the same dark, dolichocephalic people. 

Fergusson thought that the dolmen builders came from 
Africa, and this is still the idea of anthropologists. 
Algeria has a large nmnber and considerable variety of 
rude stone monuments. Some of these are called chouchas 
by Fergusson. One of them is represented in his book' fi-om 
a drawmg by Flower. They are low towers, not exceeding 
5 or 10 feet in height, with diameters varying from 10 to 
40 feet. They may perhaps be the ancestral forms of 
Durhags, and also of those much later tombs, the so-called 
Tombeau de la Chr^tienne, 40 miles west of Algiers, 
and the Medrassen, between Constantine and Batna. 
The Tombeau de la Chr^tienne was the sepulchre of the 
Kings of Mauretania, about 100 b.c. It stands on a hill 
and 18 visible from afar, and consists of a low cone standing 
on a cylinder, 200 feet in diameter, and decorated with 
Ionic columns. It is now 100 feet high and may have 
been 130. It has an internal gallery, which contains a 
small carved lion and lioness. 

The Medrassen is not quite so large, and is decorated 

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with rude Doric columns. It has a gallery and sepulchral 
chamber, and was probably the tomb of the Numidian 
kings. Near it are the remains of several small tombs of 
similar shape, probably those of relations or courtiers. 
There are several monuments of the same character in 
the western province of Oran. 

The dolmens of Koknia (near the hot springs of Ham- 
mam Meskotine) of which there are two or three thousand, 
are of very simple structure ; they consist of two parallel 
stones, 5 feet or more in length, with shorter stones at 
the ends. They form the sides of a box which is covered 
by a larger slab. I examined about 200, most of which 
were only large enough to hold a corpse with knees doubled 
up, but a few could hold a body at full length. The 
dolmens at Guyotville, eight miles from Algiers, are of 
very similar character; There are also thousands of 
menhirs spread over the bills near Setif, many of which I 
saw when riding to that place from Batna. 

As I have wandered somewhat from my original 
subject, I may as well add that megalithic monuments 
are also found in Syria and Arabia, consequently we can 
trace them over nearly the whole of the area occupied by 
the Mediterranean race. 

I have only in conclusion to acknowledge my obliga- 
tions to Mr. Fergusson's Rude Stone Monuments, to M. 
Cartailhac's valuable work on Majorca and Minorca, to the 
Monumenti Antichi of the Accademia dei Lincei, and to 
Professor Sergi, for the kind assistance he gave me when 
I was in Kome. 

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Report of Preliminary Excavations, May-August, 1905. 

bj a. mobay williams, b.a. 

Little Lippen Wood stands on a hillside which slopes 
sharply to the west, about a mile from West Meon. It 
has long been thought to conceal a Roman building. 
Bricks and other Koman debris have been noticed freefy 
in its eastern part : some diggings made once by 
Dr. Earl, of Winchester, yielded Roman potsherds, and 
Mr. Haverfield, who visited the site and saw the remains, 
admitted it among the villas and rural dwellings of 
Hampshire in the Victoria County History. 

In 1904, I determined to attempt excavation, and this 
vear, by the kindness and generous help of the owner of 
the wood — Mr. D. Meinertzhagen of Brockwood Park — I 
was able to uncover some part of a substantial house. 
The general area examined extends about 150 feet from 
north to south, and 50 feet from east to west ; but 
parts of this are still untrenched. At the north end of 
this area I found a block of six rooms, of which four had 
tessellated floors. This block is, I think, completely 
excavated on the north and west, hut it may extend 
further east and south. Of the individual rooms in it, 
No. 1. {10 X 33 feet) paved plainly with red-brick 
tesserae, is perhaps too broad to form a passage. As a 
sleeper wall underlies the tesserae at 10 feet from its 
west end, it may have been divided up by folding doors 
or other partition. A base of a nioulaed column in situ 
{13 inches diameter), with red paint adhering and traces 
of a similar column opposite (see plan) indicate a doorway 
leading to Room 2. 

Room 2. (11 X 10 feet) approached by this door, is 
paved like Room 1, but the red tesserae are bordered by 



a 4-inch strip of white ones. Its three inner partitions 
are sleeper walls, indicating that, as in Room I, folding- 
doors, or perhaps curtainB. may have separated it from the 
tbree rooms, 1, 3, and 4, leading out of it. 

Room 3. (11 X 21^ feet) running north from 2 was 
floored with a somewhat elaborate mosaic of geometrical 
pattern of red, black, white and blue, centering in an 
octagon panel which may have contained a figure, but is 
wholly destroyed. 

On the other side of Room 2. is another. Room 4. ( 1 1 X 
19 feet) also floored with mosaic, in this case wholly geo- 
metrical, in red, white and black. The pavement, which 
is very perfect, has sunk considerably, and perhaps lies 
over a hypocaust. As it will probably be taken up, 1 
left the examination of this detail till that occurs. In 
both 3 and 4, the red and black tesserae are due to firing, 
the blue is lias, the white a hard chalk. Of the other 
two rooms, 5 and 6, there is little to say. Even their 
dimensions are not all certain, but the evidence of flooring 
and roof-tiles seems to prove that they were rooms. 

At the other (south) end of the excavated area was 
found another block of continuous building, a hypocaust 
consisting of two chambers, each fitted with an apse on 
its west side, and floored with brick tiles (11 X 16 inches). 
The jnlae of the hypocaust are fairly well preserved and 
are constructed of bricks (8 inches square). The east wall 
of the southern room is furnished by the slope of the hill 
smoothed and hardened, and this has been somewhat 
curiously used as a substitute for the lower parts of the 
pilae near it. (Fig. 1.) 

A thick transverse wall, which cuts across the two 
apses obliquely, seems to be a later insertion. 

The relation between these two sets of building at the 



Dorth aod south ends of our excavation has not yet been 
made clear. The west wall of the north rooms, which is 
backed at the end of Room 1. by a bricked buttress 
(4^ feet square, see plan), is certainly the outer wall of its 
part of the house. But it cannot be traced southwards 
so far as the hypocaust. The east wall is equally obscure. 
Two square blocks of sandstone, 10 feet apart (see plan) 
might represent the doorposts of a gateway into some 
courtyard, but thia has not yet been excavated, and no 
wall csn be traced on either side of the two stones. Nor 
is it possible as yet to bring into any coherence the 
traceable fragments of walling which I found on the east 
side of the hypocaust. 

I do not think that the house extends much further than 
the area already touched. But further exploration is 
desirable to ascertain its proper plan. It may prove to 
be a small corridor house, or perhaps it may resemble the 
buildings at Clanville and Carisbrooke, both in the 
Hampshire region { Victoria County History, Hants, i, 296 
and 316). 

Finds of smaller objects were comparatively few, and do 
not include coins or other datable or important objectR 
But mention may be made of a deposit of charcoal, 
black earth, slag and rude potsherds found some hundred 
yards south-east of the house. The slag, examined by 
Dr. H. B. Baker, F.R.S., is iron slag, containing rather 
more iron than would be usual In modem slag. It may 
indicate some smithy, connected perhaps with the neet^ 
of the house, or of the neighbourhood. The iron worked 
in it may have been obtained from the Weald clay, which 
comes to within ten miles east of West Meoo. 

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„Coogle I 



(1) FuBTHEE Examples of Aucisba. 

In the sixtieth volume of this Journal (pp. 236-246) 
I gave an account of a class oi' Jibiilae datahte to the firet 
half of the first century a.d., and sometimes bearing the 
maker's name aucissa. I was then able to quote twenty- 
one examples of this inscription. I can now make a 
substantial addition to this number. 

(22) Found at Cirencester (Corinium Dobuvorum) : 
now in the Bathurst Museum there (T. B. Bravender 
Collection, M. 488). Inscribed (broken at the beginning) 
; /CISSA. Unpublished : my copy. Not a few undes- 
cribed Jlbulae of the Aucissa type have been found in 
Cirencester, and many other objects referable to the first 
century. ■ The coins include some British issues, some 
coins of the later republican age, of Augustus and of 
Tiberius, and a fair supply of Claudius and Nero ; Samian 
pottery of an early type is not scarce ; several fibulae 
besides the Aucissa specimens belong to the beginning of 
Roman rule in Britain or even to the period just before 
that. The site was evidently occupied in the earliest 
years of the Eoman conquest and probably was previously 
a tribal capital or centre. 

(iJS) Found at Cirencester: now in the Cripps Museum 
there. Inscribed (slightly broken) AV^tsq ^ Unpub- 
lished : my copy. 

(24) Found presumably in a Roman cemetery at 
South Ferriby, in Lincolnshire, near the south bank of 
the Humber, two or three miles east of the point where 
Ermine Street crosses the water and barely a mile from 
the Horkstow villa. Bought with other objects from 
the same site for Hull Museum in 1905. Inscribed 



IIIAVCISSA, like No. 13, which it closely resembles in 
all details. (Fig- 2.) The remains found at South 
Ferriby do not seem to include much that is of early- 
date. But among them are some British coins, an 
uninscribed Aucissa fibula and some other JihuUte which 
may belong to the first century. 

(25) Found and preserved with No. 9A. Inscribed 
AVCISSA. Unpublished: my copy. (Fig. 1.) I am 
indebted to Mr. T. Sheppard, curator of the Hull 
Museum, for information and iacilities in respect of 
Nos. 24 and 25. 


(26) Found in the river Safine at Lyons, now in the 
British Museum from the Comarraond Collection. In- 
scribed AVCISSAIIi. Copied independently by Dr. O. 
Bohn and by myself. Mentioned oy Walters, British 
Museum Catalogue of Bronzes (p. 301, No. 2118)^ but 
with the name misread " MICISSAIL or LVCISSAIL." 

(27) Unknown provenance : now in the British Museum 



from the Blacas Collection. Inscribed AVCISiA, but 
the C is very much like a G — as on some other specimens, 
such as Nos. 9 and 21. Copied hy Dr. O. Bohn and 
myself' Mentioned by Walters {ibid. No. 2119), but 
with the name misread IVGISVA. 

(28) Uncertain provenance : perhaps found in Paris. 
Inscribed +AVCISSA. Figured by Grivaud de la 
YmGeWe Arts et mStiers des aiictens (Paris 1819), Plate 
XLI, top right hand corner. I owe the reference to 
Dr. O. Bohn. 

(2) Shield-Shaped Fibulae. 

The fibula shown in Fig. 1 was found in 1899, in 
Thirst House Cave in Deepdale near Bjixton. It is a 
circular bronze piece 1^ inches in diameter, with a raised 
central knob and six small projections on its circumference. 
Behind was the pin, worked on a hinge and not on a 
spring. A similar but slightly smaller fibula l-^^ inches 
in diameter, was found araong Roman remains just outside 
the cave in 1890.' 

This type of __^6w/a seems rare and Httle known. It 
may therefore be useful to note some other instances of its 
occurrence and to offer one or two remarks on it. The 
following provenances are known to me : — 

(1) Thirst House, as above : now in Mr. Salt's collection 

at Buxton. The Koman remains in and just 
outside this cave date from the late first, second 
and third centuries down to about A.D. 270.^ 

(2) Poole's Hole on the outskirts of Buxton : found 

embedded in the stalagmite of the cave : now 
in the museum attached to the cave. The 
remains found in this cave agree in age with 
those of Thirst House with a slightly shorter 
range. They belong rather to the second and 
third centuries down to about a.d. 250.* 

(3) Cirencester : now in the Bathurst Museum there, 

in the T. B. Bravender collection (No. 135). 

' 3 . C. Go^, Journal of ihe Dtrbvihirs ' See mj account Id the Victoria 

Arehatological Socittg, liii, 197, re- Sittory of Derbgtkire, i., 2SS. 

Ertnt«d in Ancient Stmain* near Euxttm ' Victoria Sittorg of Ssrbgthire, J, 

yW.Turner (Baiton, 1S99), p. 15, and 235. 
Plate II ; Setu/van/ and Iliuitrated 
ArehatologUt, 1897, p. M. 



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The Roman remains of Cirencester coincide 
with the whole of Roman rule in Britain. 

(4) Charterhouse on Mendip in Somerset : now in the 

Pass collection in Bristol Museum. The finds 
in the Mendip lead district helong to all parts 
of the Roman period till about a,d. 340, but 
especially to the two first centuries. 

(5) Castle Nick Milecastle on Hadrian's Wall in 

Northumberland : figured in J. G. Bruce's Roman 
Wall (third edition, 1867) p. 226. Finds on 
the Roman Wall might belong to the second, 
third or fourth century. 

(6) Woodeaton near Oxford : now in the Ashmolean, 

The site at Woodeaton has yielded objects of 
all four centuries of the Roman occupation, and 
much that is Late Celtic and perhaps in part 
pre- Roman. 

All these ^&u/ae are of nearly the same shape and size, 
an inch or a trifie more in diameter, and agree in showing 
no trace of enamel. They resemble, however, certain 
enamelled disk-Jibulae which have the same central boss 
and the same projections round the circumference and 
may perhaps be a variation of these. Their date is hard 
to fix from our present evidence. But we may provision- 
ally suggest the second and early third centuries, which 
appear to form the one chronological element common to 
all the sites where these Jihulae have been found. In 
origin, the design may be Celtic. The Ashmolean, for 
instance, possesses a very similar disk — not a Jihula — 
which was bought at Uffington and is presumably of 
British ftibric, and which certainly shows Late Celtic 

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At the recent Annual Meeting of the Institute, held 
at Bristol In 1904, a visit was paid to the (larish church 
of Chepstow, and the members had an opportunity of 
examining the extraordinary treatment which the 
interior of the nave had received from modern 
"restorers" of various dates. 

The President on that occasion drew my attention to 
the barbarous manner in which the original architecture 
of these walls had been cleft, and invited me to write a 
short note on the subject. 

The history of this remote church at Chepstow carries 
us to the much wider subject of the vandalism which 
has held sway throughout the post-Reformation period. 
From the date of the dissolution of the monasteries the 
natural instinct for true architecture vanished and 
thenceforth all art depended upon the lingering taste of 
the mediaevalist. 

In the parish church at Chepstow a fr^pient of the 
original north-west pier of the central tower still 
remains in all its magnificence. It is no less than 8 feet 
3 inches square, in addition to the shaftings at the four 
angles and treble shafts on the south and north sides, 
and double ones on the east and west sides. Its 
presence makes a pleasant contrast amidst the flimsiness 
of the later work by which it is surrounded. Originally 
the church was cruciform with a central tower and was 
of monastic use, with the usual domestic buildings to the 
south, but there are no visible remains of them at the 
present time. The nave itself is of five baya (said 
originally to have had six) without aisles, its walls being 
made up of the original piers of its arcades and modern 
filling {except to one bay on the south side where the 

> Read before the Institute, Julj 6th, 1906. 







early walling remains, see plan). Within the western 
bay the present tower has been constructed, the west 
wall of the church having been made to serve for that 
of the tower. The lower parts of the north, south, 
and east walls of the tower have been dealt with in 
attempted Norman fashion ; some old fragments perhaps 
having been re-used, and after making certain allowances 
our grumbling at this need not be very bitter. The upper 
part of the tower was erected in X705-6, and there is a 
certain amount of breadth and quaintness about its 
design which in a degi'ee perhaps compensates for the 
loss of the Norman front, yet, looking at the noble west 
doorway, with its six orders of mouldings and its lateral 
arches together with the triple-light window above, one 
feels the want of the completed gable and its aisles, 
particularly having in mind the once central tower and 
its spreading transeptal wings. The second bay from 
the west on the north side accommodates late 
monumental memorial. Besides the arch in the east 
wall of the tower, there are arches in its north and south 
walls leaving useless spaces between these arches and 
the outer walls of the nave, but to these openings we are 
indebted for a precious bit of detail not preserved 
elsewhere, which throws some light on the treatment of 
the arcading and which will be alluded to hereafter. 

It was a strange thing to take away the character of 
these great piers of the nave and to turn them into mere 
wall facings, and we may well inquire. What was the 
original form of these piera on tne nave face ? The 
answer must not be given hastily or without reason. It 
is not always safe to come to conclusions on an obscure 
architectui-al point from the evidence of a single case, and 
having this m mind there occurred to me soon after 
leaving the church on the day of the Institute's visit 
sundry examples of wrecked Norman churches, and also 
the recollection that the hand of the despoilers had not 

gone to quite the same length as the "restorers" of 
!hepstow, who made a clean sweep of everything. The 
churches referred to are the Chapel of St. John in the 
Tower of London, and of Great ■ Clacton and Copford, 
both in Essex. From these examples a tentative solution 
of the particular question before us may be arrived at. At 



Chepstow the bare wall face ia left. At Great Clactou 
there are projecting piers with just a suspicion of an 
arche'l contiQuation, whilst at Copford not only the pro- 
jection but the impost to the arch and a portion of the arch 
itself, together with the lines of the cross vault of the nave, 
and of the form of the latei-al vaulting all remain. These 
points collectively, together with the vaults to the Chapel 
of the Tower of London appear to be sufficient for the 
acceptance of the opinion that the nave of Chepstow had 
originally a serai-circular vault along its entire length 
simply intersected by smaller lateral vaults and pro- 
jections to the piers as well as pilasters carrying cross 
strengthening arches to the nave vaulting. And it 
was these features — the wall pilasters with the arches 
they carried, the nave vaulting and the lateral inter- 
secting vaulting — of which the " Progressives " of former 
years made a clean sweep. I have not yet entered upon 
the question of the original treatment of the soffits of 
the arches of the arcade nor the reveals of the piers, nor 
perhaps is this point involved in the subject in hand, but 
as there ore some indications of what this treatment may 
have been it is as well just to mention them. To the 
reveals of several of the piers, there are remains ot 
projecting plinths now unoccupied by anything above 
them, and in some cases tlie sub-arches in the reveals are 
stUI partly visible, and as before hinted the out-of-the- 
way western responds with their square and shafted pro- 
jections may be the key to the point now raised. This 
character of detail is also borne out by the design of the 
remains of the great central tower pier, before described. 
At Copford this feature is dealt with as a square pro- 
jection to both pier and arch. To give emphasis to the 
fitness of the comparison chosen some particulars of each 
may be given. 

The churches of Copford and Great Clacton were 
first built without aisles, but at Chepstow the presence 
of triforium (now built up) and clerestory show plainly 
enough that aisles existed there, and hence its superiority 
of dimensions (the present nave being 89 feet 6 inches 
long, 23 feet 2 inches wide, and 39 feet 6 inches high to 
the crown of the vaulting). At Great Clacton, the 
nave is 58 feet 5 inches long and 24 feet 9 inches wide, 



and has a chancel continuous with the nave 46 feet 

7 iiiches long. At Copford the total length including an 
apsidal chancel is 79 feet 2 inches and the width 20 feet 

8 inches with a height of 2'J feet fix)m floor to crown of 
the vault. It will be noticed that in width, which is the 
material dimension on account of the span of the vault- 
ing, Chepstow is about the average. The great piers at 
Chepstow are 6 feet 6 inches east and west, and 6 feet 
north and south, whilst those at Copford are 6 feet 6 inches 




by 5 feet 6 inches, and at Great CLicton the piers (where 
no aisles exist) are 7 feet 3 inches north and south, and 
7 feet 9 inches east and west, the intermediate walling 
heing 5 feet 7 inches in thickness. 

Tliere is a marked difference in the two sides in the 
triforium openings at Chepstow. Tlie south has double 
openings and arches treated with architectural character, 
whilst the north side has a simple square edged single 
opening. What the rationale of this variation may be it 
is hard to say : much speculation may attend it, but of 
structural reason there would appear to be none. The 
sunny side may have been chosen for display. It may 
be due to the tendency of the Norman builders to 
elaborate yVonte, both ineide and outside. 

It may be that this is a case where that principle has 
been carried out in respect to the exterior. Everyone 
will remember Pugin's hatred of the modem front and 
his satire thereon, his stern assertion that the old 
builders despised such things, and preferred to spend the 
best of their powers in unseen situations ; but in Norman 
work this is certainly not the case. The elaboration of 
fronts was the common practice. 

As a striking example of this fact the tower of the 
Church of St. Mary at Dover, may be mentioned, the 
front of which is very highly decorated with arcadings 
and carvings, whilst all the other sides are treated in the 
plainest manner. There is scarcely a Norman chancel or 
tower arch within my observation where the side most 
seen is not more elaborated than the other, and this 
practice goes back even to Saxon times. 

One cannot conclude even this fragmentary glance at 
the church at Chepstow, or Sti-ugul as it was otherwise 
called, without expressing (vain though it be) a lament 
that so grand an example of Norman art, with its 
magnificent proportions and simple details, should have 
been irrecoverably sacrificed. 

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In accordance with au order of the Local Government 
Board a Public Inquiry was held at the Town HaJl, 
Berwick-on-Tweed , on Friday, 24th November, 1905, 
regarding the ancient monuments of the borough, and at 
this inquiry, held by P. M. Crosthwaite, Esq., Com- 
missioner of the Local Government Board, the following 
statement was made by the Rev. James King, B.D, ; 

The Edwardian Walls of Berwick-on-Tweed are situ- 
ated in St. Mary's Parish, of which T have been Vicar 
for twenty-six years. Some years ago a representative 
of the Board of Works called on me at St. Mary's 
Vicarage, stating that the First Commissioner of Works 
had deputed him to inspect and report on the ancient 
masonry of Berwick, and at his request I accompanied 
him on a tour of inspection round the fortifications. The 
largest of three fragments of the old wall had just been 
wantonly pulled down while the right of building on the 
site was a matter sub judice in the law courts. 
Gazing on the dilapidated blocks, white as marble, 
acrtttered over the grassy mound, the begrimed and 
neglected fragments near the Bell Tower, and the fosse 
bestrewed with rubbish, he exclaimed : '" This is pitiful, 
most pitiful." We inspected the Bell Tower, and 
from the existence of a Tudor arch in the stonework and 
other indications of comparatively late work, concluded 
that it belonged to the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and 
was merely a restoration or rather a reproduction of an 
ancient Edwardian tower that occupied the same spot in 
days of yore. The two neglected fragments are hoary 
with the age of six centuries, and are now the only frag- 



ments standing of the Plantagenet Wall tliat once 
extended from the castle eastwards to the large comer 
fort in the Magdalene Fields. The Commissioner remarked 
that the Tudor Walls were superior to the Walls of York 
and Chester, and that Berwick was the best walled town 
in the whole kingdom. He made a note to the eflfect 
that the Elizabetnan Walls, under the care of the War 
Department, were in excellent condition ; the Edwardian 
masonry under the care of the town, utterly neglected. 
Jn ancient times the glory of Jei-usalem, Troy, Rome, 
Athens, etc., consisted in a great measure In their colossal 
walls, and Berwick's fame largely consists in her ancient 
masonry. Take this away and our famous town is 
reduced to the level of a big village unnoticed and 

Shortly afterwards the Town Council sanctioned the 
demolition of the two remaining fragments of ancient 
work close by the Bell Tower, precious relics that amid 
all vicissitudes have stood firm for six hundred years, and 
link together this twentieth century with the era of the 
Plantagenets. This demolition was sanctioned on the 
plea that the site was wanted for the erection of houses, 
although there is unoccupied ground sufficient for the 
accommodation of double the number of people livin<r in 
this small parish. The news of the threatened demolition 
rapidly spread through the kingdom, and created a storm 
of indignation, as it was felt that the wanton destruction 
of precious relics of a glorious era would be an irreparable 
loss not only to Berwick but to the whole kingdom. 

His Honour Judge Greenwell, at a trial held at Berwick, 
said that the case raised the question how far the Cor- 
poration was justified as trustee of a national monument 
in destroying it for the sake of a paltry ground rent — 
especially as the Corporation wtis not like some others, 
an indigent one. 

At the Michaelmas Quarter Sessions held a month ago, 
H. F. Manisty, Esq., K.C., Recorder of Berwick, said that 
Berwick was a very ancient and historic town : their 
history was writ large in their good old walls, and as no 
man would wish to tear out one single page of his title 
deeds, so he hoped that the Walls of Berwick might 
remain a standing evidence of the history of that old 



town. Anything which recalled the history of that town 
should be preserved to the last stone, 

The British Archaeological Society, the Socie^ for the 
Protection of Ancient BuildingB, the National Trust for 
Places of Historic Interest, the Newcastle Society of 
Antiquaries, the Durham and Northumberland Archaeo- 
logical Society, and many other learned bodies, raised 
their voices against this needless destruction, and the 
public press, with a united consensus of opinion, protested 
against such burbarous Philistinism. Let me quot.n 
briefly from two voices which give adequate expression to 
public feeling. 

Mr. Nigel Bond, secretary to the National Trust for 
Places of Historic Interest, writing to the Times, says : 
" Much damage has been done in the past to the historic 
remains in Berwick-upon-Tweed but sufficient has yet 
been spared to remind the inhabitants and visitors to 
the town of its close connection with the great Plantag- 
enet who there gave judgment between the rival claim- 
ants to the Scottish throne at the end of the thirteenth 
century. The proposed demolition is to be carried out in 
order that a modern dwelling house may be erected, and 
the site thus enhanced in money value for the benefit of 
the ' Freemen ' of the town. Kesolutions expressing 
regret at the announcement which have been passed by 
the Society of Antiquaries and other bodies might be 
quoted to show the general feeling on the subject among 
those who have made archaeology a (-pecial study, and 
who are cap;< ble of forming a just opinion on the compar- 
ative value of such remains. Can it not be brought home 
to the Freemen of Berwick that they, as landlords, have 
duties and responsibilities as well as privileges, and that 
to increase the financial value of their land without 
regard to any other consideration may be to neglect these 
responsibilities ? " 

In the Quarterly Review, April, 1905, the writer on 
" Our Neglected Monuments ' says :— " There is a 
historical city in the north, once the Border capital of 
two warring kingdoms, the stronghold aimed at in every 
attack, unique among the cities of the island in the 
position inherited from those stormy times, and formerly 
a separate entity between England and Scotland, but not 



reckoned to either. This city possesses ancient monuments 
of singular value. It is enclosed in a complete circuit of 
fortifications, erected in the days of Queen Elizabeth in a 
form of particular interest to students of military works, 
and there exists remains of a fai* ampler enceinte, taking 
in a sphere half as large again as the Elizabethan, and 
larger than the existing town can fill to-day. This is the 
enceinte made when 'Edwardus Primus Scotorum 
Malleus ' fortified Berwick-upon-Tweed with a fosse eighty 
feet wide, and built a wall of solid masonry behind it, 
bristling with towers. It is the enceinte of the ancient 
days, wnen the watchmen of these towei-s looked over to 
the north and west for the gleam of spears over Halidon 
Hill, or the swift approach of wild riders on Caledonian 
pimies round the level strip along the coast. In most 
parts it has been merged in the later Elizabethan circum- 
vallation, but fifty years ago a stretch of more than half 
a mile of it remained, with the ditch fully marked, and 
fragments of Plantagenet masonry at intervals along it. 
One tower, rebuilt in Tudor times, has been called the 
' Bell Tower ' because the tocsin was paid to be sounded 
from it at the alarm of a Scottish raid. This part of the 
circuit faced the side of danger, and was vilest of all in 
historical associations. On the side towards the Tweed 
it joined the castle, also of Edwardian origin, in the hail 
of which the English Justinian gave judgment on the 
claimants to the Scottish crown. The site of the hall, 
which both Scot and English might well have united to 
honour. Is now occupied by the platform of the North 
British Bailway station, and the castle has almost passed 
out of existence. The position of the Edwardian enceinte 
just referred to remained intact till about 1850, when the 
Town Council filled in and levelled part of it for a cattle 
market. Another position was recently destroyed to form 
a site for a primary school. Early in 1904 the Tower 
Council of Berwick hammered down another fragment of 
Edwardian wall, filled up another section of the fosse and 
built thereon a house, while they let on building leases 
another ample section of the enceinte. Then at last a public 
spirited citizen lifted up a voice that for a long time 
seema to have been almost a solitary one. The Rev. 
James King, Vicar of St. Mary's, Berwick, wrote to all 



the papers and to every person of influence he could 
think of, and succeeded at last in arousing both oiBctal 
attention and that of the public to the outrageous act of 
vandalism which was in progress. The Town Council 
waa bombarded with letters of protest in the journals, 
and remonstrances from antiquarian societies, both local 
and national. Questions were asked in the House of 
Commons. Public money, moreover, was actually pre- 
ferred to make it easier fur the town to do what it 
should have been proud to accomplish, as a duty owed to 
its own fair fame and historical repute. The spirit in 
which the Town Council was pleased to receive these 
representations and the further proceedings in the matter 
of the threatened enceinte need not here lie described. 
The matter has only been adduced as an object lesson, 
and no object les:Son could display more effectively the 
attitude we adopt in this country in regard to historical 
monuments. The proposal was only made because those 
responsible for the government of the town had no sense 
of the value of that part of the civic assets, and this 
shows how precarious is the existence of many monuments 
which are part of the history of the country, and for 
the loss of which future generations will call us to 

The Rt. Hon. James Bryce, M.P., baa also written me 
a sympathetic letter. 

Amid the storm of public indignation I informed the 
Treasury, the War Office, the Board of Public Works, and 
the Local Government Board of the threatened demolition 
of the ancient fortifications, but feeling that such public 
bodies might delay in taking action, I penned a letter 
direct to His Gracious Majesty the King. 

His Majesty, on hearing of the contemplated destruction 
of these historical remains, at once dispatched a delegate 
to stay the demolition, and but for His Majesty's prompt 
intervention the ancient fortifications of Edward the 
First and King Robert the Bruce, extending as far as the 
Bell Tower, would have been levelled with the giound. 
The King's messenger was, however, too late to save a 
large fragment of Berwick's original wall, namely, a solid 
block of masonry ten feet high with external ashlars, 
welded together with hot lime and forming a mass as hard 



as adamant. This relic of a stirrincr era in our national 
history had witnessed many strange vicissitudes and out- 
lived the downfall of throaes and dynasties, but in spite 
of much earnest pleading to spare this survival of days 
of yore, it was battered down by a building contractor. 

The King's messenger recommended the Government 
to purchase the whole of the ancient f<»rtificationB extend- 
ing for about three hundred yards, but the Treasury 
refused to entirely relieve the Town Council i>f their 
responsibility. The Government consented to lease for 
150 years the section of the fortifications containing the 
Bell Tower and the two ancient fragments aforesaid, 
committing the remainder to tlie protection of the Town 

In spite of Royal intervention and Government aid, 
in spite of the moral indignation of the nation, it is sad 
to learn that the Town Council have proposed to sell for 
building purposes another site on the Eawnrdian fortifi- 
cations adjoining the section purchased hy the nation; 
andaie now only awaiting the necessaiy sanction of the 
Lords Commissioners of the Treasury. There exists no 
adequate reason for further demolition, since the proposed 
erection is not for the housing of the working classes, 
and would not only obscure the ancient work but would 
also mar the beautiful panorama that meels the eye 
on passing the cattle mart towards the sea. Should 
the Government fence off the ground leased, the site 
threatened woidd prove a great boon to my humble 
parishioners. The ruins of our ancient borough, hoary with 
the age of six centuries, from their historical associations 
ought to be regarded as inviolable Let metherefore ask 
the Local Government Board to protect from further 
demolition one of the most interesting monuments of 
antiquity which the United Kingdom possesses. Let me 
earnestly entreat the Town Council as loyal citizens and 
tnistees of our historic treasures to consider this question 
in a magnanimous spirit, and resolve to reserve every 
inch of Berwick's Edwardian fortifications intact to the 
kingdom and to posterity. 

iSotins of ^rctiaeolooital ^ubli'tations. 

It is much to be regretted that every clergyman in an interesting 
pariah does not set about the task of collecting materiala for the pro- 
duction of a scholarly history of the antiquities in his neighbourhood. 
This little book has added one to their slowly growing number. 

Situate alx)ut twelve miles from Worcester stretches this long and 
straggling parish, nowhere more than one mile wide. The author, 
Rector oT Abberley from 1865 to 1904, has examined the records, 
manorial and ecclesiastical, which bear upon his subject, and from 
them he has produced a very interesting family history, but to these 
he has unfortunately almost entirely confined himself ; yet the book 
is an example of a really good local history which could only have 
been written by one who had devoted years of loving study to the 
subject. He gives us chapters on geology, the descent of the manor, 
the succession of rectors, the old parish chiirch and register, the school 
and the charities of ancient foundation. 

He has also a good deal to say about St. Augustine's Oak which 
remained standing until two centuries ago. The author contends that 
this is the " Acca " or oak under which m 602 the Apostle of England 
met in conference the Celtic bishops and engaged in the strug^e of 
Imperial Christianity against Celtic independence. Its position 
certainly would appear to fit the description given by Bede, and the 
author puts hia case convincingly. 

But the main part of the l>ook is devoted to the descent of the 
manor. At the Norman Conquest Abberley was given to the de Tony 
or de Todeni family, descendants of the famous Hollo. This illustrious 
house was said to number among its members the Knight of the White 
Swan, well known in German legend, and reputed graridsire of Godefroi 
de Bouillon (lORO-llOO). 

The last of the de Todonis, the heiress Alicia, was married three 
times, first to Thomas de Leybonrne, of whom it was said — 

By her second husband, Guy de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, she bad 
a son, Thomas, who continued the line for five generations. 

In the time of Richard de Beauchamp, great-grandson of Guy, the 
parish makes its solitary appearance in English history. These were 
the days of Owen Glyndwr and Harry Hotspur. In 1405 Charles VI. 
of France sent to the turbulent Welshman a contingent of 12,000 men 
who with Glyndwr's followers fell to ravaging the plain of Worcester. 



On the approach of Henry IV. they retired and took up their positicoi 
on the site of a British camp in Abberley parish, while Henry posted 
his forces on Abberley Hill. For eight days the armies confronted one 
another ; then the ensmy slipped away in the night into Wales. This 
bloodless episode in the history of Abberley closed the series of Welsh 

By the marriage of Lady Anne Beauchamp with Kichard Neville, 
the King-blaker, the manor passed to him, and on his death and 
aubsequent attainder in 1471, to the Crown. 

It was presented by Henry VHI. to one Walsh, a groom of the 
King's chamber, and in the next century Elizabeth summarily bestowed 
it elaewhere ; this gift occasioned a law suit and was pronounced 
invalid, and the Walshes remained in undisturbed possession. 

From the Walshes the manor passed to the Bromleys, the last of 
whom died in 1803. Purchas.ed by J. L. Moilliet of Geneva, it was 
again sold in 1867 to Mr. J. Jones, whose descendants now own it 

The author has a few words to say concerning the Norman church 
(built about 1160). It fell into such decay in 1848 that it was 
dismantled and a new church erected. This m tiu-n was completelv 
^tted in 1873. 

There is an interesting fourteenth century bell now preserved in the 
chancel aa a curiosity. It appears to have been the gift of a north 
country rector of the name of Blamyre in the reign of Henry VIII. ; at 
any rate the bell itself hails from the north. It is inscribed in 
Lombardic characters, 

Ave plena gratia douinus tecum. 

In this little book Mr. Moilliet has confined himself almost entirely 
to what he has been able to gather from documentary evidence. 
We should have been glad to hear a little more about the 
antiquities of the parish from a descriptive point of view ; as it is, 
we have to be satisfied with a meagre account of the Norman church 
and the old bell. We should certainly have appreciated some descrip- 
tion of the old half timber work in Abberley, 

The " Igorot " or mountain people of Bontoc pueblo, a remote 
community of primitive mountaineers in Northern Luzon, is the 
subject of this bulky and profusely illustratod government publication. 

This book, in which we are dismayed to find several Americanisms 
hitherto unknown to us, hardly perhaps comes within our province 
qu& archaeologists, but au examination of the habits and legends of this 
strange little Malayan people brings vividly before us a picture of 
primitive society. 

The most noteworthy and characteristic feature of the Bontoc Igorot 
is the system of irrigated mountain agriculture, a system which alone 
raises them from the rank of utter savages to that of mere barbarians. 
It is unique in Manila and appears to be indigenous. By means of 
skilfully constructed channels, wnich remind us of the Wassmeiiangen of 



Switzerland, water U conducted over a series of senunUras or artificially 
levelled terraces which by this method are made to produce two crops 
a year— rice and aweet potato. An elaborate syBtem of water rights 
has erovn up, and almost every available drop is used. 

With regard to the archaeology of this strange people the author has 
unfortunately little to say. Hia stay in the Bontoc pueblo was of 
comparatively short duration and the disturbances caused by Aguinaldo 
and the " insurrectos " had but recently subsided. The author has been 
unable to find any traces of their ancestors or evidence of ancient burials. 
The dead are now buried in hollowed log coffins. 

The Bontoc Igorot would appear never to have had a Stone age. 
Living in a country growing such woods as the bamboo they had nO' 
occasion, before the introduction of raetals, to use anything but wood. 
Had they done so we should have expected the survival of stone 
implements for ceremonial purposes ; however, they sacrifice bogs with 
a sharpened stick and use a bamboo knife in circumcision. Their 
spears and axe handles are shaped and dressed with a bamboo cutting 
edge and bamboo spikes are placed in the trails to discomfort their 
head-hunting enemies. Consequently we find both here and in the 
Philippines an order of development different from that wide-spread in 
the temperate zones — the Stone age appears to have been omitted. 


This number contains, among other interesting papers, a very full 
account of Mount Grace Charterhouse, which was recently visited by 
our Institute. An account of the Carthusian Order in general by the 
Rev. H. V. Le Bas, M.A,, is followed by a history of this particular 
priory by Mr. William Brown, F.S.A., while Mr, St. John Hope gives 
a very full account of the architecture of Mount Grace. An exc^lenC 
coloured plan accompanies the latter paper which shows with great 
clearness each cell in its own little garden (the distinctive feature of the 
Carthusians) and the mass of other buildings of various dates grouped 
round the cloister and outer court. 


Contains a new reconstruction of Itinera V and IX of Antoninus, by 
the Bev. A. C. Yorke ; also a good paper on Cambridgeshire pre-^urvey 
maps 1579-1800, by H. G. Fordham. 

t. OlCKBS, 

This book contains a very instructive history of the Liberty of 
Peterborough and of the territorial criminal jurisdiction of the Saxou 
Abbot within the monastery's domain, which has survived the Conquest 
and the Eeformation, and which still exists unuurtailed in its authority 
under the King's Commission. 

The Liberty of Peterborough is the only county franchise which 
excludes the authority of the King's Justices of Gaol Delivery. 


^lotntitiigs at i£teel{nga of tfie ilosal glicfiatologttal 

November 1st, 1905, 
The Viscount Dillon, Hon. Vice-Pre-tident, in the Chair. 

Mr. Alfred Dobbi^b read a second paper on Japanese Sword Blades, 
and exhibited specimena with illustrations of markings, Mr. Dobr^'s 
paper appears in the Journal on page 218. 

The oiscuflsion was taken part in by Sir Henry Howorth 
(Presuleiit), Mr. Stebbing, Mr. Kice and Mr. Hardinge-Smith of the 
Japan Society, and a vote of thanks was accorded to the author of the 

December 6th, 1905. 

Sir Henry Howorth, President, in the Chair. 

A paper by Mr. Wu. Churchill was read on the subject of the 
Nurha^ of Sardinia. This paper appears in the Journal on page 256. 

Mr. FisoN exhibited a water-colour sketch of a goud specimen. The 
discussion was continued hy the President, Col, Baylis, Mr. Bell, 
the Treasurer and Sir E. Brabrook, a vote of thanks being accorded 
to the author of the paper. 

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ISepon of tbe Ofouncil (or ttc pear 1904-1905. 

The Council has the honour to present its Report, the Bixty-third 
BJnce the origin of the Institute, showing ita financial condition and 
progress during the j-eaf . 

The printed Cash At'count, prepared as usual by the Chartered 
Accountants, now placed liefore the Members, is, it is hoped, a clear 
statement of income and expenditure, as well as a record of the 
investment regarded as capital, now consisting of £1,500 Metropolitan 
two and-a-half per cent, stock. The investments at the end of the year 
comprised in the Cash Account consisted of jE1,200 stock; a further 
purchase of £300 of the same stock was made in February, 1905, thus 
raising the amount to £1,500. 

The balance of cash at the bankers at the end of 1904 was 
£398 12s, 9ii. All charges appertaining to the year are paid, with 
the exception of Part IV of the Journal (for December, 1904), which 
was only issued on the 30th June, 1905. The coat of this Part is 
estimated at £45. Five Members' subscriptions are in arrear for the 
year 1904. 

The six members of the Council who retire in rotation according to 
the rules are Messieurs Dawldns, Goolden, Goddard, Bax, Rice and 
Martineau. It is recommended that Messieurs Goolden, Bax and Rice 
be re-elected, and that the following members be elected and added to 
the Council, namely. Messieurs H. Plowman, F.S.A., and General 

One Vice-President retires by rotation. Sir Edward Brabrook, and 
Professor Boyd Dawkins is recommended in his place. 

The Council is pleased to report that Sir Edward Brabrook has 
consented to continue his valuable services to the Institute by rejoining 
the Council. 

The President's term of office for three years expires this year, and 
the Council is gratified to state that he offers himself for re-election. 

The number of new subscribing members elected during 1904 was 
nineteen, of whom one is a life-compounder. The loss by resignation 
and death was twenty-three, seven of the latter being life members. 

Amongst those who have passed away, the Council regrets to record 
the names of ftfr. J. Lewis Thomas, F.S.A., and Mr. Thomas 

Joint Honorary Editors having now been appointed, it is hoped 
the Journal will be published more in accord with the date on its title 
page than has lately been the case. 

The reports of past years mention the alliance of the Institute with 
the Congress of Archaeological Societies. The important work of the 
Congress is set forth more particularly in the fly leaves inserted in the 
December number of the Journal lately sent to all our members. 

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• 111 




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3SUS s 








Abberlej Manor, noticed, 2S4, 
Acle Ch., Norfolk, 25. 2S. 
AoouBtic potter; ia Famsgnsla, 19fi. 
Acton, paJaeolithio finds at, 37. 
Aoton Buniell Ch., SliroiMhire, 30. 
AddiDgton Ch., Suirej, 24. 
Afrieil, European armour found in, 67, 70. 
Agriculture, primitive, in Hanila, 286. 
AinoB, alluded to, ^. 
Aldeburgh, 3ir W., vill of, 74. 
Aldermaaton Ch., Berks, 2S, 31. 
Aldwinkle, St. Peter's, Northante, 2». 
Alecria, megalithio monamsnta in, 260. 
AUen, Dr. P. J., on church towers, 

alluded to, 124 not«. 
Allen, J. Bomillj, quoted, 142 tgq. ; 

151 iqq. ; 156 igq. 
Allington Caatle, described b; St, J. 

Hope, 182, 
All Sainte' Ch., TforToIk, 26. 
AlveMOt Ch., OzoD, 28. 
Alwalton Ch., Hunts, 25. 
America, emigrant minietera to, by Q. 

FotherBill, noticed, 78, 
Annual Meeting at Tunbridge Wells, 

account of, 176. 
Antigone of Sojihocles at Atheos, 92, 
Antonini itinera V and IX, noticed, 267. 
Apothocariei. historj of Uie Societj of, 

by C. B- B. Barrett, noticed, 77. 
Archaeological Coneress at Alliens, by 

Dr. Thomas Hodgtin, P.C.L,. 79. 
Archaeological publications, notices of, 

77, 133, 193, 286. 
Armenian merchants, 69. 
Armour, modern chain, ordered bj 

Khedire, 68, 
Armour in wills, bj Viscount Dillon, 73. 
Arms and armour abroad, bj Viscount 

Dillon, 07-73. 
Arms, emblaioned, to Cyprus, 197. 
Askev, Mrs. Anne, account of her 

death, 53. 
Athens, ArohaMilogii'al Conjjress at, by 

Dr. Thomas Hodgkin, D,C.L,, 79. 
Ancissa, fibulae marked with that name, 


Auden, Tho«., Shreatbary, br, noticed, 

Albridge Ch., 114, 122, 125. 
Aylesford Cli., monastery and bridge, 183. 
Aylesford, lat« Celtic cemete); at, 39. 

Baoknell Ch., llC, 127. 

Balance sheet. 1904-5, 290. 

Balearic Islands, rudo monuments in, 2S8. 

Banking and finance in the Middle Ages, 

Banwell Ch., 118, 125. 
Barrett, C. B. B., on the history of the 

Society of Apothecaries, noticed, 77. 
Barrington, quoted, 51. 
Barrows in the MediterraDean region, 

Barrows, Japanese, I. 
Barry, Ber. D., on the Q-unpowder Plot 

and Dame Dorothy Selbj, 188, 190. 
Barton-Ie-Street, tympanum at, 146. 
Batoombe Ch , 129. 
Bath Abbey, 119. 
Batheaston Ch., 114 note, 128. 
Bayham Abbey, W. H. St. J. Hope on, 

Beauohamp Tower, Thos. Myagb's 

Beaulieu. Lord Montagu of, obitnary 

notice of. 192. 
Beokford Ch.. Tympanum at, 165. 
Berwick-on-Tiveed, Edwardian walla 

of, 279. 
Binsey Cli,, Oron, 25, 
Bishops Lydeard Ch,, 114. 126. 
BlackburtoQ Ch., Oion., 23. 
Blackstone's Commentaries, quoted, 51. 
Blagdan Ch., 127. 
Bleadoii Ch., 124, 125. 
Bodiam Castle, Harold Sands on, 179. 
Boltins cloths, the expression alluded to, 

Bontoc Igorot, in Manila, noticed, 286. 
Books receired, 77, 183, 193, 285. 
Boseat Ch., Northants, 29. 
Bracebridge Ch., Lines., 22, 29. 
Braoke, Tiie, 50. 
BredOD Cli,, Worcester, 27. 

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Bnnt Enoll Ch., 126. 

Brereton, B. P., on Somrnet Chnrcli 

Towen. Stt under Somerwl- 

Bridenell, tiie torture in, 68. 
Brinkle;, CftpL, alluded to, 1, Z. 
BrislingCoD Ch„ 112, 114, 117, 127. 
Brialol, tba Back ftt, 66. 
Bristol tjpe of Somereet Church Towers, 

Britiili roini, the pig on, 41. 
Britisli Huaeum. content! referred to, 

38, 43, 67, 149. 1B6. 
Broadwell Ch , Dion , 3S. 
BroDie >.ge, Jspanesn. I ; in London, 88. 
Bronic l»*in, found st Furingdon St., 

43 note. 
Bronze «pear from Fetter Lane, .18. 
Bronze swords, Japnnrse. 1-2. 
Bronze lorque, from UoorReldi, 43. 
Brook Ch., Kent, 27, 36. 
Brown. Willi&m. F.S.A., on Mount Once 

OhsrtrrbouM 287. 
Braton Ch., 114. 124. 126. 
Bucklenburj, finds in, 46. 
Buritoo Ch., Hampshire, referred to, 34. 
Burkmair, EngrBTing bj Hans, of the 

torture, 62. 
Bamvt't Bill, o/ Iht Brforviation, quoted, 

Buraham Deepdale Ch., Norfolk, 28. 
BnrringtonCh.. 118. 

Svhidu, Maj<ou£o^Japtin, quoted, 6, 230. 
Buttresses in Somerset Church Towen, 


Buited Ch.. Suisei, 29. 
Builon, HbuUc from its neig}ihourhood, 

Cajverlej Cliarters, 188. 
CalTerley, Rer. W., quotJ^d, 144. 
Cambridge Antiquarian Soc.'e publication, 

noticed, 287. 
Cambridgeshire maps, noticed, 287. 
Campion, the Jesuit, 49. 80. 
Camps, Mount Cabum, a Late Celtic camp, 

Csrew MSS., 62. 

Carmelite Ch. in Fanugiista, 195. 

Carved corbels at SborthamptOD Chapel, 

Cash accoant, 1904-06, 290. 
Cells in the Forum Boariuni, 99 
Celtic art ajid Etruria,40j Greek influence 

on. 40; cemeterj at Ajleeford. 39; 

fibulae, 2G9; period in London, S9. 

Centre of perouaaion of Japanese swords^ 

machine for ebowing, 17, 18. 
Cbaddeslej - Corbett Ch., Woroeitcr, 

Chain armour, modem, ordered by the- 

Ehedire, 68. 
Chaldon Cb., painting at, 141, 149. 
Chalk Ch.. Kent, 23. 
Chardin,8ir John, agent for the Annemaa 

nation, 69. 
Charlbury, manor of, 157. 
Charles I. and the rojal prerogatiTe in 

nging torture, S4. 
Charlton on Otmoor Oh., Oion., 22. 
Chartrea Cathedral, alluded to, 152. 
Cheddar Ch., 122, 124, 126. 
Chedzoj Ch., 126. 
Chepsiov Ch., bj Cliaa. Ljnam, F.SX, 

Chew Hacna Cb., 127. 
Cbew Stake Cb., 114 note, 127. 
Chewton Mendip Ch., 116 note, 120. 
Church towers of Somerset, b; B. P. 

Brereton, M.A. Sae undtr Somaiaet- 

Churchill, Wm., F.S.A., on m^*IitU» 
monuments in the Mediterrsnean 
rrgion, 266. 

CircDCeater, fibulae from, 266. 

Clapham Ch., SaaMi. 22. 28, 34. 

Claaaical archaeology, 83. 
I Clsj birds, the, miracle of, painting of, 
j 166. See also list of Errata. 

Clavbrook Ch., Leicester, 25. 

CU.e Ch., 109, 
' ClTmpingCh.,8u»Bei, 22. 
I Coeur, Jacques, slluded to, 67. 
; Cogenhoe Cb., (forthanta, :i3, 32, 36. 
' Coins, pig aa an emblem on Britiah, 41. 
I Coke's /iufi/)i/«i, quoted, ei. 
I Collector'a Annual for 1904, noticed, 78. 

Colligoon, H., at Athens, S3. 

Congress at Athens, Arobaeological, bf 
Dr. Thomas Hodgkb, D.C.L., 79. 

Coombe Ch , Oion., 22. 

Coombcsl'h., Sussex, 23. 

Copford Ch., Eases, painting at, 146; 
Naniian arches at, 274 »qq. 

Cotterstock C)i., Northanls, 28. 

Courtenay, Biahop, his college at 
Maid a tone, 185. 

Cowley Ch., Oion., 24. 

Cninage, Mr., alluded to, 19. 

Cranmore Ch., 114. 

Crete. 86. 

Crewkeme Ch., 114, 118, 129. 

Crosby, Sir John, grocer, 73. 

Crusader belmete, 68. 

Currj BiTcl Ch., 129. 

Cyprus, churches at Famaguata in, by 
Cnmille Enlart, 19d. 

Cyprus in the twelfth century and after, 
201 tqj. 


Dallmgtoii Ch., XorchanU, 23. 

Damieni, death of Robert, 53. 

Darlej Dale Ob., Detbjjl.tre, 25. 

Dftrtford Ch., Kent, 39. 

Da Laoey famU;r> the, 148. 

Denmark, lov.ude windows in, 3S. 

Deninghun Oh., Norfolk, 2S. 

Deirick, Ber. E, 9,, on low-iide winduwa, 


Dolmen builder*, prob&bl; 

Africa. 260 
Dulmens in Algeria, SBI ; is Japan, 1. 
Domitian's hone, pedeital of, 102. 
Doom, paiDtiug of, 167. 
DoultinK Oil., 108. 
DoTer, St. Marj'a Ch., 278. 
Dorer Caatlc, window in the oliurch, 28, 

'Doiercourt Ch., Euei, 28. 

DowntoD Oh., WilU., 2tt. 

Drajoott Ch., 108. 

Drift period in London, 87. 

Dugdale, 3ir William, notice on, hj Sir E. 

Brabrook, 172. 
Diindr; Oh., Ill, 114, 122, 127. 
Donitar Ch., 119. 
IhiElon Ch., Norlhants. 29. 

I Ch.. 117. 
Eicantioiu in Rome, racent, by Dr. Bu»- 

eell ForbM, 96. 
Exlemsl atair turreta in Someraet charcli 

n Somenet Church Towcn, 


Dillon, Tisoount, on armour in wills, 

73 ; on armB and armour abroiid, 67 ; 

on the nek, 48. 
Dinton Ch.. Bucki. tjmpanom at, 146. 
Dobr^. Alfral, on Japanese awords, 1, 

Feltoii, Jolm, and the Ruk, 53-61. 

FergUBKin's Rinle Stoat Manuia 
i(uoted, 2J7-2S1 pauim, 

Ferriby, fibuU from, 266. 

"rtter lane, bn 
ibulae. noE«* oi 
F.8.A., 265. 

Fiosburj, ipearltead found at, 42. 
' Florence, painting in tbe Cliurcti of Or 
San Miubele at. 170. 

Forbei, Dr. Ruaaell, on Bomau Antiqui- 
ties, 90. 
I Forgxries in JTapaoese swords. 221, 222. 

Ford Cb., Susaai, paintifig id, 16C. 

Forging, different aohooli of, in Japan, 
9, 218 tqq. 

Forging Japaneae blade*, method of, 7. 
Forum Boarium, cella in, 90. 
Fotbergill, 0-., list of emigrant 

miniater* to America, notica, 78. 
Foie'e Afli and Monamenit, quoted, 

Francka, Sir A. W., hia opinion quoted, 


East. Oeorge E., the Oollectora' Annual 

f<n 1904, Dotictd, 78. 
klaat India Compao; tiading with Arme- 
nian nercbants, 69. 
Koston in Ourdano Ch., 128. 
Edwardian walla of Berwiok-on .Tweed, 

279 <jg. 
Kliiabethan walls at Uerwick-OD-X*reed, 

EI7 Cathedral, oturing at, 140. 
Emigrant tHinitttrt to America, lift of, by 

8. Fotbergill, noticed, 78. 
EnameUing b; tbe Britons, 89. 
Enlart, OimiUe, on eioavationi in Fama- 

gaiia., 195. 
Erith, palMolithie finds at, 37. 
Btehiugbam Cliurah, deacribed bv 

J. T. Mioklethwaite, 181. 
Eirnria and Celtic art, connexion between, 

■oropean armi and armonr in Oriental 

lands, 67, 72. 
Bvani, Dr. Aithnr, alluded to, 39, 46, 86. 
~ h Ch., 118, 116, 131, 129. 

FrindaburT Cli,, Kent, paintmg at, II 
Fuller's Worlkiit, quoted, SI. 


Gnesan sword blades, 8 tqq. 
Oenoa. maritime actiritj of, in the 

fifteenth centurj, 210. 
Qeorgian pewing at Shorthampton 

Chapel, 161. 
Gerratt, a Jesuit in rhe Tower, 66. 
Oilbertion, alluded to, 9 aqq. 
Olaatonburj, 109, 132 1 St. Benignus, 

127 ; St. John's, 129. 
01oncest«r Catbedral, 117. 
Oowland, Frof., alluded to, 1. 
OoEO, monuments in, 259. 
Ontfton Underwood Ch., Northanta, 27. 
Great Addington Oh., Northants, 28. 
Great Clactrat Ch., Essex, Nonnan noA 

in, 374 «.;j. 



Greece, the Arrbneolocical ConareM in, 

by Dr. Thomu Hodgkin, D.C.L., 79. 
Greek influence on Celtic Art, 4U. 
Greek newspapers, tnuisliteration of 

foreign Dames in, SO. 
Grille in low-side windoirs and otlier 

opeoingB, 26, 35. 
GuUdford Cb., Burrej, 2d. 
Oaildlinll MuMum, S7, 47, jxunn. 
Gunpowder plot, DHme Dorothj Selb;, 

and Ighthsm Mote, 189, 190. 
Ojrea, Skevington'e, 55, 59. 

Halford Cli., Woririck, iTrnpaaum at, 

Hallam, Li/. of Enrope. quoted. 149. 

Usllaton Cli., tjmpaniun at, 144. 

Ualtstadt, 40. 

Ham Hill, 108. 

Hants, Roman Villa in, 2A2. 

Hsmbill Ch.. tjinpanum at, 113. 

Harrowing of Hell, nail painting of, 149 
tqq., IS6 »gq. 

H»Terfield, K, LL.D, F.S.A.. on Fibulae, 

Hawkhurst Ch., 181. 

HawkkwoHh Cli., tympanum at, 140. 

Healaugh Ch., tjiitipanum at, 155. 

Hell cauldron, painting of, 168. 

Hell, Hallowing of, 148 tqq., 155 iq. 

Helmets, Cnusder, 68. 

Higham Ferrers Ch., Nortlianli-, 2tl. 

Hinton St. George Ch., 109, 12U. 

Historj of the Hocietj of ApothecHrieg of 
London, by C. R. B. Barrett, M.A. 
noticed, 77. 

Hodgkin, Thomas, D.C.L., on the Archaeo- 
logical CoDgrese at Atliens, 79. 

HodKBon, F. J., hia paper on luw-side 
windows alluded to, 19-20, 31!. 

Hogenberg, an enuraving bj, referred to, 

Holbom, flint chisel from, 38. 

Holinahed, quoted, 50. 

Hope, W. H. SI. J., M.A., F.a.A. on 
Allington Castle, 182 j Ajicsford Ch. 
and Monastery, 183 1 Bayfaam Abbey, 
179; Hawkhurst Cli., 181; Ightliam 
Mole, 189; low-side windows, 33-33; 
Maidslone Parish Ch. and College, 184; 
Mount Grace Charterhouse, 287; Feus- 
hurst Place, 187 ; Wrotham Ch., 181. 

Horimono or engruTed figures on Japanese 
swords, 16, 22t;. 

HoTeringhain Ch., tynipanuin at, 142. 

Howorth, Sir H. H.,on low-side windows, 

Huish Episcopi Cli., 108, 12fi. 

Hull Museum, fibulae in lUc, 266, 267. 

Button Ch., 121!. 

Ightham Mote, W. H. St. John Hopo cm, 
189. ' 

He Abbots Ch., 112, 126. 
Ilminster Ch., 113, 121, 129. 
Ipswich, oarriog in lit. Nicholas' Ch., 11». 
IreUnd, the nt^ in, 62. 
Iron Age in London, 89 iqg. 
Irrigation, primitire in Manila, 286. 

Japanese smiths, 225 ; instances of 
secrecy in, 1 1 ; names of, 3, 235 ; 
names and peculiarities, appendix of, 

Japanese stone age, 1. 

Japanese sword blades, by AJfred Dobree, 
1, 216 ; Japanese sword blades, appen- 
dii of chaiictere found on liiem, ^S j 
curvH in, 16, 2z7i different schools of 
i'oTgiaf;, 9, 241-254; fUe marks on the 
tang of . 9, 224 1 forgerieaiii,221; foTK- 
>i>S> 7 • Srinding, 13 ; machine for 
showing centre of percussion in, 17-18.; 
modem, 6 ; polite way of examining, S30 1 
scented, 223; signatures and dales OD, 
221; stone moulds for, 2) treatmentof, 
228; types of, 6, 226; YaLiba iQ,9, 1^, 


7, 251. 

Japanese Sword Society, 6, 

J^anese year periods, 221, 238, 239, 240. 

Jardine, Daiid, Utt of Torture in tlta 

Crimiuai I>ain, quoted, 54, 66. 
JesuIU on the rack, 49, 60, 61, 65. 
JecingtoD Cb., stone carving at, 156. 
Jewitt's Crramie Art referred to, 45. 
Johnston, P. M., on low-side windows, 

19-84 ; on Shorthampton Chapel will- 

paintings, 157. 

Kempley Ch., painting in, 141. 

Xeyser, C. &., MA., F.S.A., notes on ■ 
Norman tympanum at Eingswinford, 
137 ; notes on a tjfmpanum at Queo- 
ington, 155| quoted, 167nolei on low. 
side windows, 31-38, 36. 

Khedive of Kgypt orders modern cbain 
armour, 68. 

Eilmersdon Ch., 116, 127. 

King, the Bev. J., on Berwick walls, 270. 

Kingsbury £piscopi Cli., 109, 112, 126.^ 

Kingsdou Ch., 127. 

Kingston Cb., 126. 

Kingswinford Ch., Norman tvmpanu4 
at, 137. 

Kiroheriano, Museo, 258. . . 

Eirliby Stephen Ch., carred cross at, 15^ 


Kits Co^ Eoiue, IS3. 

Enole Hcnue, Kent, 181. 

Enowle*. Mist Joaophine, on Norman 

Soulpture at QuoninEtoQ, Qloa., 147. 
Kordofan, Eurapeon anaour returned 

from, 67. 
Korea, itoDS sword blade mouldl found 

in, 2. 
Eoio blades, JapineM, 6, 7, 17, 221, 226. 


lamberhurst Ch., Kent, RS. 

I^mbeth, jsTeliu bead found at, i2. 

lAngport Ch., im, 12S. 

Im Tane, 40. 

Late Cellic eametery at Ajlesford, 39; 

Kriod in London, 39; settli'ment in 
indon. b; U. F. Lunrenee, 37. 
Le Bae, the Ber. H. T., on the Carthu- 

•isD Order, 287. 
Lefih, brass of Sir Peter, in Winwick Cb., 

Leigh on Mendip Ch., 113, 129. 
Leper tbeorj lo explain the use o( some 

low-side windows, 33, 36. 
lAbeHg of Ptterborouqh, hUt. of, by L. 

B. Uaclies, noticed, 2S7. 
Limpsfield Ch , Surrej, ^7. 
Lincoln Uathedral, earring at, 140, 14^. 
Lipscomb, quoted, 146. 
Lirett., ReT. O^. M., on low-side windows, 

SB; quoted, 113; at the Annual Meetiug. 

186. 187. 
Lombard St., spearhead found at, 42. 
Londinium, area corered by, 4C. 
London, iron age in, 39. 
London, prebist^rtc, bj Q. F. Lanrence, 

London Wall, finds at, 38,41, 42, 45. 
Long MartonCh., tympanum at, 144. 
Long Sutton Cli., 11(>, 1^4, 125. 
Loppergarth, Norman Timpanum in a 

farm house at, 140. 
Low-side windows in churches. See 

Lowiok Ch., Northants, 27. 
Lympebuin Ch., 113, 127. 
Ljnam, Chas., F.S.A., on Chepstow Ch., 

MoCIatchie, T. B. H., quoted, 17. 
Machine for showing centre of piTcussion 

in Japanese sword blades, 17, 18. 
Mahone, the, a Cypriot institulion, 210. 
Maidstone Farisb Ch.. described by 9t. J. 

"--■ ' - - ^-1. 258, 2al». 

Manila, a primitire people in. 286. 
Manila had no stone age, 286. 
Mark Ch., 125. 
Martocb Ch., 127. 

>, 43, nite. 
B,' of Prof. 

Sergi. 267, 260. 
MellsCh., 113, 117,129. 
Mijton Constable Ch., Norfolk, 25, 
Merton Cb., Uion.,22,27. 
Metal working in Japan, 1. 
Miokletboaite, J. T., on Eti^hingham Ch., 

181 i on Fenshurst Ch., 187 ; on West 

Mailing Cn., 186. 
Middleioy Ch., 126. 
Minehead Cb., 137. 
Minoan eiiilization, 86. 
Minorca, monuments in, 268. 
MinorieSi London, »pearlieud fouud at, 42. 
Mirai^lo ot the tlay birds, punting of, 

166. See aUo List of Errata. 
Moilliet, the Hot. J.L.,onAbberley Manor, 

noticed, 285. 
Mokume, or wood groining, in Japanese 

blades, 8. 
Sto-nulieon, Dugdale'a, 173. 
Moiitacutc Ch., 128. 
Montague of BcauUeu, Ijord, obituary 

notice of, 192. 
Montpellier, commercial actiiit)- of, in 

meuiacval timet), 201, 204 iqq. 
Moorllclda, bronze torque from, 43; 

spearhead from, 42. 
Moreton Valence Ch., tympanum at, 146. 
Mount Cabuni, Late Celtli' camp on, 43. 
Mount drace CliarterhouBc, an account 

of, noticed, 287. 
Mucheliiey (Jh.. 109, 1B7. 
Muaeo Kireberiano, 258. 
Muaeum, British. See British Museum. 
Museums, Smithsonian report on. noticed. 

Nailsea Cfi.. 1 28. 

Narbonne, commercial activity of, in 

mediaeral times, 201, 2CH eqq. 
NeoUlliic settlement in the city of 

London, doubtful, 38. 
Niche- work in Somerset church tower*, 


Muta, monuments in 

Nitobe, Frofeesor Inaio, quoted, 5. 
Norman sculpture at (^""■""S'^"' Qlos., 

147 ; supplemental note on. by C. fi. 

Keyser, M.A., 1S6. 
Norman tendency to elaborate the 

prominent parts of buildings only, 

referred lo, 278. 
Norman tympanum at Kings uinford, 

notes on, by C. K. Keyser, 137. 


Nomukn work deitrojed in Chepstow, 
Omt Clacton ud Copford Cbnrcha, 
270 iqq. 

North Hinksoy Cli. Oion., 24. 

North Petlierton Ch., 108, 117 note, IW. 

Norton aub Homdon Ch., ltd. 

Noticeiof Archaculogical Publicatiom, 77, 
133, 193, 286. 

Nnrbagi of Sardinia, b; Wm. CUurcbill, 

Obituar;. Lord Uontaguof Be»uUcu, 192. 

Offham CU„ Kent, 24. 

Old Soar Manor Eouac, 188. 

OagsT Ch., Kuei, 27. 

Orton Longueville Ch„ Hiuita, 2«. 

Otherj Ch., Somerset, 26. 

Palaeolithic age in London, 37. 

Panstlins in form of window* in Somerset 
Churcli Towhm, 117. 

Fantellariu, tuinuU in, 269. 

Fantile* at Tunbrid([e Wells, 179. 

Parapet* in Somenet Churcli Toners, 110. 

Parish Histories, 285. 

Parker on Lotctide madoat (1644), al- 
luded to, 19 : on Someriel Chun-h Totceri, 
referred to, 114. 

Patcbam Ch.. paintin); in, 141. 

Pedestal of Domitian's HorM, 102. 

Pelasgians, 260. 

Pennington Ch.. Lanci., carrliig at, 139. . 

Penshurst Place. 187. 

Ferpundicular work in Someraet, 106-136 

Feteriorimgh. HMory of tka Liberty of, 
by L. B. Gaches, noticed, 287. 

Pfailostratus, quoted, 40. 

Pig, as an emblem on Dritish coins, 41. 

Pile divetliiiee, etc., of London Wall, 45. 

Piunaflei in Somerset Cburoh Tower*, 11 1 . 

Pitt Rivers, General, on Mount Cabum 
Cump, 43; on pile dwellings of Ijondon 
Wall, 46. 

Polebrook Ch., Nortbant^, 26. 

Portishead Ch., 116, 122. 137. 

Potterj, supposed acoustio properties of, 
in FaiDBgusta, 196. 

Prehistoric London, bv Or. F, Lawrence, 

PrerogatiTe. use of the king's, in employ- 
ing torture, 54. 

Price, Hilton, alluded to, 88. 

Frioe, J. £., on Komsn antiquities in the 
atj, lUnded to, 46. 

Prieits' doors, in connection with low.side 
windows, 22,23, 36. 

Primilire people in Manila, 286; agri. 
culture and irrigation in Abulia, 286. 

Privy Council, 48-66 pauim. 
Proceedings at meetings of the Xojsl 
-Archaeulogica] Institute, 7S, 1S2. 288. 
Publications, notices of Archaeological, 

77, 133, 193, 285. 
Publow Ch., 128. 
Pugin, alluded to, 278. 
Puiituis at Tuabridge Wells, 17S. 

Queen's Camel Ch., 128. 

Queninoton Ch., Qlos., sculpture in, 
147. Supplementar; note tber«oa by 
0. E. Eeyser, M.A. F.S.A., 166. 

Back, the, by Tiseount Dillon, 46-65. 
Back, the, in Bridewell, 63; at Bristol, 

66 ; in Ireland, 62. 
Bapes of Sussex, 180. 
KaraiUao, death of, 62. 
Beport of the Councd, 1904-1006, 289. 
Biccall Ch., medallion at, 145. 
Bingsteed Ch., Norfolk, 23. 
Bivers, Oeneral Pitt, tee Pitt. 
Bomaa Antiquities, by Dr. Bussell Forhea, 

Soma» AtUiquitie* o» ike tUe of tie 
Ifalional Hafe Depotii'M preniisei, by 
J. S. Price, alluded to, 46. 

Boman London, area covered by, 46. 

Boman VilU at West lleon, Uanl«, by 
M. Williams, B.A., 262. 

Bomaos in ^rdinia. 267. 

Borne, eicavation* is, 96 iqq, 

Boyal prerogative, the, 64. 

Buishton Ch., 127. 

Bustington, window at, 36. 

Sacra Via, 96 «jj. 

St. Albans, St. Michael's Ch. at, 29,32. 

St. Bees Ch., tympanum at, 139. 

St. Benign us Ch., Glastonbury, 127. 

St. Christopher, paiutings of, in cburehes, 

St. Citba, Silha or Zita, 167. 
St. Cuthbert's Ch., WoUs, 121, 129. 
St. Decumans Ch., Watchet, 126. 
St. Ktigius, painting of, 170. See aln 

List of Errata. 
St. Fridetnide, painting of, 163. 
St. George and the Dragon, p«mijng ef, 

St. Giles' Ch., Camberwell, 86. 
St. Helen's Ch., Biehopsgate, tombafSir 

John Crosby in, 73. 
at. James' Ch., Taunton, 126. 
St. John's Chapel, Tower of London, 274 
St. John's College, Oilord, 168. 



St. JoIiu'b Ch., OlutoDbur;, 129. 

St. Leonard, wall pcinting of, at Short. 

hamptoa Chapel, 162; at Friodibui;, 

Kent, 168. 
St. Martin 'i Ch., Oanterburj, 39. 
St. Mafj'g Cb., Cbepglow, by Charks 

Ljnam, P.S.A., 270. 
St- Mary'a Ch., Dorer, 278. 
St. Mttiy's Ch., Taunton. HI. 119, 129. 

See aUo List of Ermta. 
St. Michael tlie Archangel and Satan, on 

Nonnati tjnipana and elwirbere, 137 



St. Sitha. Sm St. Citha. 

St. Thomas of Canrerbury, painting of. 164. 

Sanda. H., on Bodiam Cutis. 179) Ton- 
bridge CiitUe, 18S. 

Sardinia, nnrliajB and other megalithic 
monuments in, 256) Bomani and Car- 
thaginian) in, 257. 

ScaTeDf^r* daughter, 6S. 

Seaford Ch,, carred etoiie at, 115. 

Sens Cathcd™), France, 153. 

Sergi, Professor, hi« " Mediterranean 
Race," 257. 

ShakeapcKre quoted with referenoe to 
bolting cloths, 49. 

Shepton Beauchanip Ch., 113, 129. 

Shapton Mallet Ch., 114, 124, 126. 

Shinto iword blades, 6, 7, 17, 221, 226. 

Shobdon Ch., tjmpanam at, 156. 

Shorthampton Chapel Wall-paintinga, bj 
P. M. Johnaton, 157. 

SSrJnctlitHy, by Tbomu Andon, noticed, 

Side irindons in charcbea. Set tiinier 

Signatures and date* on Japanese sword a, 

Singleton Ch., Sussex, 29. 

Siilon Ch., l^ncB., 23. 

Skeringion'a Gyves, 56, 69. 

Smith', Japaneae. Ste Japaneee. 

Soeiely of Apolhecarira, Hill, of, by 
0. i. B. Barrett, noticed. 77. 

Soldan of Babylon, Jocque* Cicuraccuwd 
of Belling armour to, 67. 

Solingen aword cutlers, 68, 72. 

Somera tracts, 41). 

Someraetehirv Church Towera, by R. P. 
Brereton, M.A., 106 ; animal figures in, 
116! buttreaoea in. 115; claasifioation 
of, 119 1 diagonalism in, IIS; Free- 
man, Prof., on, 119; gargoyles in, 116; 
niche work in, 112; panelling in fonn 
(rf windowB in, 117 ; parapet* in, 110; 
Perpendicular work in, 106-lSSpatnm ; 
pinnaclee in. HI; atair turrets in, 112; 
table of dimensions of, 130-131. Sf 
attti List of Corrigenda. 

Somerton Cli., 113. 

Sopboclean drama at Athens, 92. 

South Petherton Cb., 116. 

Soutbwark, celt found at, SB ; 8( 

SaTiour'a Priory, Rule of, 34. 36. 
Bouthwell Minatcr, tympanum at, 143. 
Stair turrets, external, in Somerset Chunli> 



Stanfonl-le-Hope Cb., Essei, 29. 
Staple FilEpaine Ch., 116, 126. 
Staplehurst Ch., Kent, opening in the wall 

of, 27, 35. 

Don . , __. 

Common, palaeolithic 

station at. 37. 
Stone age, Jajianese, 1 ; none in Manila, 

Stone mould* for Japsaess sword blades, 

Swaresey Ch.. Cambs., 28. 
Sword blades, Japanese. See tmiler 

Sword cutlers of Solingen, 68, 72. 
Sword in the Guildhall Museum, 42. 
Saord of Japan. Tie, by T. H. R. 

HcClatchie, quoted, 17. 
Sword Society of Tokyo, the, 6, 
Bworda at MarlbomuKh House. 69; in 

the Tower of London, 70. 
SymbolisDi in Norman eculpture ft. 

Queuington, Qlos., by Miss Josephine 

Knowles, 147 i supplementary note 

thereon by C. E. Kejser, M.A., 166. 


Talayots of Majorca, 258. 

Tales of old Japan. aUuded (o, 6. 

Taneaki, a modem Japanese smith, 6. 

TanBeld Ch., Yorks, 28. 

Tang of a Japanese swocd, file marks on, 

9, 221. 
Tanner's Societae Europaea. quoted, 54. 
Tansor Ch., Nortbants, 29, 30. 
Tatsfield Ch., Surrey, 23, 34. 
Taunton, 1^6; St. Mary's Ch., Ill, 114, 

129. See aUo List of Errata; St. 

James's Ch„ 126. 
Taunlon Dean Ch., 103, 126. 
Tliamca, diaooveriea in graTcl terraces of. 

Thirat Houae Care, Buiton, fibula from, 

Thoreaby Society, publications of, 188. 
Throckmorton, Thomas, on the Rack, 61. 
Thuming Ch., Hunts, 26. 
Tictanliara, 112, 127. 
Tokenhouse Yard, diacoreriea al, 41-42. 
Tonbridge Cattle, IBS. 
Torque, bronze found at Moorfields, 43 
TortingWo Ch , 32, 34. 
Tower of London, Indian swords at, 70 ; 

Lieutenant of, 48-66 paiiim ; Thomas 



MjBgh'a insrription in, 60 1 St. John's 
Chftpel Bt, 274. 
ToBcr« of Sompre^ Churcbei, bv B. F. 
Brerelon. M.A. See under Sotaeraet- 

Tudor wbIU at Berwick -on -T need, 282. 

Tumuli in the HeditemneaD region, 259. 

Tunbri^Ke Wells, »nniwlmoeting ■(, 177 ; 
FantileB at, 179. 

TurkB in Crprus, 203. 

Turret*, Pitemal, in Somcnet Churoh 
Towen. 112. 

TwTTell Cli., NorthanU, 23. 

Tympana at Barton-le-9treet CIi., 145 ; 
Beckford Gi., I65i Dinton Ch., 146; 
B); Cathedral, 140; GuU>n.on-the. 
WotdK Ch., 146 : Halford Cb., ISQ ; 
Hallaton Ch., 144; Harnhill Ch., 143; 
Hairkavorth Ch., 140 ; Henlaugh Ch., 
166; HoTeringham Ch ,142; Kingiwin- 
ford Ch,. 137 «ff.; Linroin Cathedral, 
140, 14D; Long HartoD Ch., 144; 
Uoreton Tnlence Cli., 145; Pennington 
Ch., ISO; Biccall Ch.. 145; St. Beea 
Ch., 139; Shobdon Ch., 166; Soulh- 
well Minater, 143. 

Tjmpanum, notes on a Nonnsn, at Kings- 
wintord, by C. E, Kejaer, M.A., 137. 

TJffington, fibula from, 269. 
UpchuTch ware alluded to, 45. 
Upton Ch., NortbantB, 23, 

Wallbrook, finds in. 46. 

Walla of Bernitk -on -Tweed, 279. 

Wandsworth, palaeolithic Gnda al, S7. 

Warbleton Ch., Suaaei, 24. 

Warre, F., on Perpendicular Toicert of 

Somertil, quoted, 110 
Watcliet, St. DeciimanB Ch., 126. 

WeareCh., 118,126. 

Wedmoro Ch., 108, 111, 125. 

Weoklej Ch., Norihanta, 27. 

Wellington Cb., 118, 127. 

Welb Cathedral, 118, 119; 8t. Cuth- 

bert'a Ch., 121, 129. 
West Cranmore Cb., 125. 
West Hailing Ch., Elizabethan ailTer jug 

from, 196. 
West Meon, Boman villa at, 262. 
West Pennnrd Ch., 112. 
Weaton Zojland Ch., 124, 125. 

■" ™ ^erto, 26. 

t Botnan rilla in 

Hanta, 262. 
Wills, armour in, h; Tiscoont Dillon, 

Windows, high aide, in ohiircbea, 30. 
Windows, low-side, discussion no, 31 ; in 

Denmark, 36 ; in the chancel, 21 ; id tli« 

nave and aislee, 27; abuttars in, 22, 26, 

Windows, low-aide, in ancient churcbe*. 

b; the ReT. H. Bedford Fim, 19. 
Winacombe Ch., 113, 114, 119, 12S. 
Winwick Ch., brass of Sir Peter tegh in, 

Witham, enamelled shield found in the 

river at, 41. 
Wood frraining, or Mokume in Japanese 

swordj, 8. 
Woodapring Ch,, 109. 
Wnwall Ch., 112, 127. 
Wrington Church, 113, 116, 121. 
Wrington tvpe of Chiireh tower, 128. 
Wrotham Ch., described b; Mr. St. J. 

Hope. 181. 
Wjatt, Sir Thomss, mentioned, 48, 

Yakibs, < 

hardened t 

edge of a iword 
different forms of, 
11, 12, 248, 247,261. 
Ysldham Manor, 162. 
Taiton, 113, 114, 118. 
Teovil, 111,127. 
Torkahire Archaeological Journal, notaeed. 


gogal |.rt^a£Dlogital |nst>tntt iif #Kat 
Britain anb |«lan&. 


9atton : 


VrMitttnt : 



Thb lord AVEBOEY, P.C. F.H.a. P.3.A. 

The Eight Kby. tbb LORD ALWYNE COMPTOK. B.D. 



GEORGK K. FOX, Kstj. Hoj». M.A. Oxok. F.S.A. 





W. H. St. JOHN HOPE, Esq. M.A. 

TALFOURD ELY, Ebq. M.A. D.Lii. F.S.A. 

Pboksbos W. BOYD DAWKINS, M.A. F.R.S. F.S.A. 



Rbt. E.'s. DKWICE, M.A. F.S.A. 


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Aonorar^ CnaSutnr. 


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Aoiiorar^) Atttttuxff. 


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ly Google 


31st DECEMBER, 1906. 

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MulgraTB Road, Sutton, Surrej 
■Cowper, H. S., Eeq. F.S.A. Uigh 

Uoiue, Hawkebead, Laocatbire 
Coi, Q. P., Esq. Stone House, 

Ooi, Eer. J. 0., LL.D. F.S.A. St. 

Alban'a, Loagton Avenue, Syden- 
ham, a.E. 
CoEeui-Smith, E., Esq. 16 Eensington 

Square. W, 
Cranage, B«t. D. H. S., M.A. F.S.A. 

8 Park Terrace, Cambridge 
Crofton, Ebt. W. d'A., M.A. Puck- 

eridge. Ware 
CunniDgbain, J. H., Esq. 2 Eaveletaa 
Place, Edinburgh 

Darie, A. Randall, Eaq. Oakland >, 

Hjtbd, Kent 
Dawkini, Prof. W. Boja, M.A. D.So. 

F.R.S. F.S.A. FaUowfield Eouse, 

FullowSeld, Manchester 
Day, MiBs, Lome Hoii»e, RoclieBter 
•Dewick, Rer. E. 3., M.A. F.S.A. 26 

Oiford Square, W. 
De Wonna, Baron G., F.S.A. 17 Park 

CrsBcent, W. 
Dickoni, J. K., Eaq. 22 Park Driye, 

Ueaton, Bradtord 
Dillon, The TiKouiit, Hon. M.A. Oion. 

F.S.A.,Ditcblej, Knatone 
Il(Mld,Un. Aahley, Godington, Aehfurd, 

Downing, Frederick. Esq. 12 King's 

Bench Walk, Temple, S.C. 
Druce, O. C, E»q. Harenaear, The 

Downs. Wimbledon, S.W. 

BoBsIair, LingaHTi Boad, Lewkham, 

•Sckenle;, 1. C, B*q. M.A. Ashfleld, 

•Kdwardea, T. Dyer, Esq. Prinkoaib 

Park, Painswiok, Stroud 
Selee, F. C, Bsq. 105 Adelaide Road, 

Egertoii o! Tatton, The Earl, 7 St. 

James's Square, B.W. 
Ely, Talfourd, Esq. M.A. DJit. 

F.S.A. S HoTc Park Oardeoi, 

Emerson, Sir W., 2 CtrosTenor 

Mansions, 76 Victoria Street, S.W. 
Evans, A. J., Eaq. M.A. F.R.S. 

Litt.D. F.3.A. Toolbuiy, Abingdon 
Evans, Sir J., K.C.B. D.C.L. LL.D. 

F.R.S. V.P.S.A. Mash MUls, Hemel 


FagHD, Lieut.-Oeaeml C. 8. F. 

Gosforth House, College Boad, 

Dulwich, S.E. 
Fallow, T. M., Eaq. M.A. F.S.A. Coat- 
ham House, Redcar 
Farquharson, Major Victor, F.S.A. 

Naval and Military Club, Pioca- 

Farr«r, William, Esq. Hall Garth, near 

Felton, W. V., Esq. Sandgate, Pul- 

borough, Sussex 
Fiion, E. E., Eeq. Stoke House, Ipswieh 
Foster, J. E., Esq. 80 Petty Cury, 

Fountain, F., Esq. 44 Croom's Hill, 

areeunich, S.E. 
FoT, F. F., Esq. F.S.A. Tate Honae, 

Yate, B.S.O. 
Foi, G. E., Esq. Hon, M.A. Oiob, 

F.S.A. 21 Campden HUl Boad, 

Kensington, W. 
Fuicroft, E. T. D., Bsq. Hinton 

Charterhouse, Bath 
•Freshfield, E., Esq. LL.D. F.S.A, 81 

Old Jewry, E.C. 
•Fryer, Alfred C, Esq. Ph.D. M.A. 

F.S.A. 13 Eaton Crescent, Clifton, 
FurnisB, T. S.. Esq. Higbam House, 

Stratford St. Mary, Colchester 

Qaratin, J. B., Esq. M.A. D.L. P.SJl. 
Braganstown, CastlebeUingbam, 




Oilroj, Captain Alist&ir, l)alli(«t, 

GiuMppi, Montague 8., Eso^F.S.A. 28 

£eniliTDrt1i Arenue, Wimbledon, 

Gle«lowe, T. 9., Esq. M.A. II Stwilej 

I'lace, Cheslrr 
Goddurd, BeT. K. H., M.A. Cljffe 

VicnniKe, Swindon 
Ooddard, Mn., HJ Randolpli Crescent, 

Ooldney, F. B., Bfq. F.S.A. Abbot'i 

Barton, Canterbury 
Ooold™, R. K. Enq. F.3.A. Horton 

U range. Muidenliead 
Gowelin-Orimfhftwe, H. R. H., Esq. 

Beugeo Hall, Hertford 
Grafton, Win, Weasington Court. 

Woolhopp, Hereford 
Grant, Mim B. U., Uonckton House, 

Alrenloke, Ooiport 
Green. H. J., Esq. 31 Castle Meadow, 

GreK, Mrs., 7 Campden Hill Square, W. 
Greg, T. T., Keq. M.A. F.8J.. West 

Mill. BontingfoTd, B.S.O. 

•Hale-Hilton, W., Esq. (Soi.. Sec.) 60 

Uontagu Square, W. 
Hale-Hilton, Mrs., 60 Montagu Square, 

Hammond, Mre. 9, F., 11 Norfolk 

Square, W. 
Hardinge-Tjler, Q. D., Esq. B.A. (Soa. 

Sdilirr) 36 Courtfield Boad, B.W. 
•Harland, H. 8., Etq. F.S.A. 8 Arundel 

Terrace, Brighton 
Harrison, Eev. F. W., CleyeUnd Manse, 

Thomabj, Stockton-on-Tees 
llarrey, T. H., Esq. illackbrook GroTe, 

-Haverfield, F., Esq. LL.D. F.S.A. 

Christ Church, Oxford 
Hill, BeT. A.Du Boulaj, M.A. The Bec- 

tory. East Bridgford, Nottingham 
Hill, O. W., Esq. Hill Top. FosUj 

Lane, Furlej 
naton, J., Esq. F.8.A. (floa. 

7r<aninir), 6(1 Montagu Square, W, 
Hobson, W. U., Esq. 130 Higli Street, 

•Hodgkin, T., Esq. D.C.L. F.S.A. 

Barmoor Castle, Beal, Northumber- 
Hodgson, .T. C, Esq. F.S.A. Abbey 

Cottage, Alnwick 
•Hooper, J. H., Esq. M.A. Tutnall, 

^lear Worcester 

Hope, W. H. St Jolin, Esq. M.A. 

Burlington Uoure, W. 
Homcastle, H., Esq. Lindisaye, Horaell, 

. Woking 
•Homer, J. F. F., Esq. Hells Parfi, 

Houldsworth, Ect. W. T., M.A. 

1 Mansfield Stnet, W. 
HoworUi, Sir Henry H., K.C.I.E. 

D.C.L. F.RS. F.S.A. {Pnndtmt), 

80 Collingliam Place, S.W, 
Howorth, Humfrey N., Esq. B.A. SO 

CoUingham Phtce, S.W. 
Howorth, Bnpert B., Esq. B.A. (Hba. 

Ediior) 30 CoUingham Place, S.W. 
Hudd, K. A., Esq. F.S.A. 9* Pembroke 

Road, Clilton, Bristol 
•Huffhes. T. Cann, Esq. H.A. F.S.A. 

7S Church Street, Lancaster 
Hulmc, Miss, IS Philbeuh Gardens, 

Hunt, Hn., 11 Warwick Square, &W. 

•Jackson, BeT. Canon Tineent, M.A. 

Boltesford Bectorr, flotliDgfaatn 
•James, Edmund, Esq. 3 Templr 

Gardens. E.C. 
JefEeries, Miss, St. Helen's Lodge, Ips- 

•Jei-Blake, Veir BeT. T. W., D.D- 

F.S.A. The Deanery, Wells 
Johnston, Philip M., Esq. 21 Dr 

Crespigny Park, DeWDark Hill, 8.B. 
Johnston- li'oster, Mn., Moor Park, 

•Jones, H., Esq. F.S.A. 42 Shooters 

HiU Boad, Blaokbeaih. S.B. 
Jones, J. CoTe, Esq. F.S.A. Loiley, 

Welleebourne, Warwick 

Eemplay, Miss, 4S Leinster Gardens, 

Kerry, W. H. R., Esq. the Sycamores, 

Key, Coptain G. T., B.N. 3 Bucking- 
ham Gate, S.W. 

Keyser, C. E., Esq. M.A. F.S-A. 
Aldermaston Court, Beading 

■Enill. Sir J., Bart. South Tale Hoosa, 
BUckheath, S.B. 

Knocker, Sir W. B., Castle Hill House, 


, 2;f Tkvutock S{|ture, 


Lowellea, Un., BelgnTC Mansions, 

QrosTeuor Qardeiii, S.W. 
Laj&rd, Miu, Bookwood, FouDcreau 

Bold, Ipamich 
Le Bm, B«t. H. T., 1S.A. The CLart«r- 

hou*e, E.C. 
*Legg, J. Wiokliam, E>q. H.D. F.S.A. 

■17 Qreen Street, Park Lano, W. 
Le Grot. Gervaiie, Swj. M^. F.S.A. 

SeaGeld, Jenej 
Linton, U. P., ^. Llandall Place, 

•Livcrp-ml, The Earl of, F^S.A. Kirk- 

hjun Abbej, York 
LiTert, Eer. G. M., B.A, F.S.A. Water. 

insbuiT Ticange, Uaidetone 
Ltsngatlock, The Lord, F.S.A. Tbe 

Bendre, Mini mouth 
Llojd, A. H., Eiq. Stone Ridge, 

Didef , Stockport 
LloTd, B. Duppa, Sh]. 2 Addison 

Creacent, Ksaiingbin, W. 
Long, Colonel W., C.U.Q. Woodkndj, 

Congreibon, Bristol 
Lonnden, U., Eiq. U7 Oiford Str««t, 

Longden, Un., 6 Westboums Park 

Villas, W. 
LucoTich, Antonio, Coiute do. The Si«e, 

■Liubinjtton, Judge, E.C. 3ti Kenting- 

lon Square, W. 
LjbII, a. H., Esq. M.A. F.S.A. it 

Cranlej Oardeiu, tjoulli E^naing- 

Um, S.W. 
Ljell, Capt. F. U., 2 EWaston Place, 

Queea't Oal«. S.W. 
LTTiam, C, Eaq. F.S.A. Stoke- oa-TrEnt 

Mucbeitn, nr. E. U., St. Mar/'s Oate, 

"Malet, Colonel H., Radnor Uouee, near 

Bandgate, Eent 
Mangtea, H. A.. Bsq. Little north 

Cnns, Seale, Famham 
Uanball, Artliur, E>q. A.E.I.B.A., 

Kinj; Street, Nottingham 
Marshall. Ueorge, Eeq. TJic Ba(cb, 

Weoblej, E.S.O. 
Mareball, K. D., Etq. Caetlerigg Manor, 


•Marlin, E. P., Eaq. The Hill, Aber- 

Martineau, P. M., E*q. Lit:lewortb, 

Hotter. C. H., Esq. Eiburf House, 

Uaj, Leonard M., Eaq. 60 Sbooter*! 

Hill Bead, Btackbeath, SJ!. 
Medlicolt, W. B., Esq. IS Campden 

HiU Gardens, W. 
Hiobell, W. G., Esq. M.A. Hillmorton 

Boad. Bugbj 
•Micklethwaiie. J. T., Eaq. P.S.A. a? 

»t. George's Squara, S.W. 
Middlemare-Whitbard, R<t. T. M., 

M.A. Hawkeslej, Douglas Aienue, 

Miller, W. E., Esq. S St. Petersburgh 

Place, W. 
MUne, Miss HL A., Thn Trees, Church 

Koad, Upper Norwood, S.K. 
MitelicU, F. J., Esq. F.S.A. Llanfrf-chfa 

Orange, Caerleon 
•Mottram, J., Esq. The Birches, 21 

Bracondale, Norniah 
Monro, Robert, Esq. LL.D. F.B.S.E. 

iif Manor Plaoe, Edinbursb 
Murrav, O. S. D., Esq. F.S.A. 25 

Campden llill Boad, Kensington, 


Nanson, W., Esq. B.A. F.S.A. r o IC. J. 

XansoD. Esq. Nortliscre, SorChair, 

Potter's Bar 
.N'eaie, C. M., Esq. 18 Tiemej Boad, 

Streatlmoi Hill, S.W. 
■Nesliam, B., Esq. Utrecnt House, 

Queen's Rond, Clapbam Park, S.W. 
•MiTen, W., Esq. F.S.A. Mario* Place, 

Greet Marloir 
Niion, Miss. 43 Qalgate, Barnard Cmlle 
Nonnan, Philip, Esq. F.S.A. 45 Ev.'ljn 

Gardens, S.W. 
•Northumberland, Tbe Duke of, E.G. 

P.C. F.S.A. Alnwick Coslie 
Kut(all,J.B.,Esq.Thornaebl, Lancaster 

•Oke, Altre.1 W., E^q. B.A. LL.M. 

32 Denmark Villas, Hotc 
OIlTPr, Andrew, Esq. 6 Queen's 

Gardens, W. 

Palmer, F. J. Morton, Esq. M.B. lloj. 
ford, Tfarale Boad, St reatbam Park, 

h 3 

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Psutoo, J. A., Eh. 29 Begent'i Park 1 Rii-liardi, H., Etq. 

Koad, NW. ' 

FaTkinson. J.. Esq. 36 Kegent Slivet. 



•Puai'uuk, E., E«j. F.S.A. ■Wickentree 

}Ii)uae, Eirtoii-in-Lind»ej 
PesrtP, W.. Esq. F.Sjl. Perrott Houbp, 

Peele, E. U.. Esq, Cjc(rfeld, Snrewsbiiry 
Pe™, C. H., Esq. M.A. F.S.A. 06 

GronTenoT Bond, S.W. 
Peers, Mm., Harrow Weald Vicarage, 

•Petrie, W. M. F„ E(q. D.C.L. Litt.D. 

LL.D. F.B.a. Vnnervty College, 

Gower Street, W-C. 
•Pljelps, Bev. L. R., HA. Oriel College, 

Pim, Rer. H. Bedford, M.A. Leaaide, 

Spencer Boud, Bromley, Kent 
Flowman, H.. Esq. F.S.A. '^3 Steele's 

B«ad, N.W. 
Ponling, C. E.. E«q. F.S.A, Wje 

Houae. MerlborouKh 
•Porter, ReF. Canon, M.A F.S.A. 

Claine* VicaraBP. Woroi-rfer 
f orter. J. H., Esq. 103 High Road, Lee, 

•Powell, Sir F. S., Bart, M.P. Horton 

Old Hull, Bradfonl 
Prescott, H. M., Eaq. 01 SI. Mark's 

Road, Nortli KenainBton, W. 
Price, F. G. UllMn, E«q. Dir.S.A.. 

F.G.S. 17 Colliiighani Oardene, 

Pritchard, John E., Esq. F.S.A. 8 Cold 

Harbour Road, Redland, Bristol 

Radford, H. O., Esq. F.SA. Park 

Cottage, East Sheen, S.W. 
Baimes, b'., Esq. Harlbum Lodge, 

Stock Ion- on -'I'ees 
•Kamsden, Sir J, W.. Bai-t. Bulstnide, 

Oerrard's Cross, Bucks 
Baren, Eer. Canon, D.IJ. F.S.A. Fres- 

singiield Ticarage. Harlcaton 
•Bead, C. H., Esq. F.S.A. 22 Carijic 

Square, S.W, 
Reader. F. W„ Esq. Pinner Eoad, 

Beddie. Q. S., Eiq. Mombasa, Britisli 

E. Africa 
Bejnai'dBon, Rer. J. B., M.A. Carebj 

Bectorv, Stamford 
Bejnaud, Prof. L. P. 24 Via Capolccasc, 

Rictiardson, Mise, The Storiingi, 

Barnard Castle 
Richardson, R. T., Esq. Barnard Cutle 
Bickards, Robert, Esq. TheFriorj, Uak,. 

Ripon, The Marquess of, K.G. P.C. 9 

Chelsea Enibankment, S.W. 
Rivington, C. B., Esq. F.S.A. 74 Elm 

Park Gardens, S.W. 
Bobinson, Eev. E. C, M.A. Hai.bury 

Vicarage, Burton -on -Trent 
Robinson, T. J., Esq. CLE, F.S.A. 

Pamhani House, UeaniinBter, 

R.S.O., Dorset 
Boper, W. O.. Esq, F.S.A, Tealrad 

Conjert, Carnforth 
Rove, J. Brooking, Eaq. F.S.A. Cattie 

Barbican. Flvnipl on 
•Bowlej, Walter, Esq. M.Inst C.E. 

F.S.A. F.G.8. Alder-bill, Wean- 

vood, Leeds 
Budler, F. W., Esq. 1.8.0. 18 5t. 

George's Eoad, Kilburn, N.W. 
Ryley, T., Esq. Junior Carlton Club, 
■ S.W. 

Sands, Harold, Esq. F.S.A. Crajthome, 

'lenterden, Kent 
Selfe, B. Carr, Esq. 10 Whileliall Place, 

Seltmau, E. J., Esq. Ejnghoe, Berk- 

Smith, H. L. Etherington, Esq. M A. 

Fjist Ella, Putney, S.W. 
Smith, J. Challcnor C, Eaq. F.S.A. 

e/o Mr. B. Roedman, 80 Oxford 

Terrace, W. 
Smith, J. H. Ethrringlon, Esq. M.A. 2 

Hsrcourt Buildings, Temple, E.C. 
Sopirirh, Mrs., 87 Barketon Gardens, 

South Kensington, S.W. 
Southam, H. B. B., £»q. FJ^.A. 

Innellan, Shrewabur.v 
•Spence, C. J., Esq. South Preston 

Lodge, North Shields 
Statham, Her. 8. P. H., B.A. Bo^lmiii 
Stebbing, W. P. D., Esq. F.O.S. 8 

Plajfair Manaions. Queen's Club 

Oardena, W. 
Stephenson, M., Esq. B.A. F.S.A. 36 

BitherdoD Boad, Tooting, S.W. 

Tadros, D. N., Esq. Jaffa, Palestina 
Talbot, J. B. F. G., Esq. Bhode Hill, 

Ljme Regis 
Tanner, Hrs., Norman stOD, Mari.. 

borough Road, Bournemouth West 
Tatlock, Miss, 16 Park Square, N.W. 


tTiylor, H., Esq. F^.A. 12 Cunon 

Fork, Chmter 
•Tajlor, E. W., Esq. M.A. LL.B. 

F.S.A. Bajsputh P»rl;, Bnfton-on- 

Thomas. Major G. T. Harlej, F.S.A, 

73 Haroourt Terrace. 8.W. 
Tliompton, Mn. W. J., Elui«r, LMttlier- 

Thvaitw, Mrs. W., West Bank, Black. 

Tille^, MisB Edith. Elmfield, Coombe- 

in-Teignhead, Tmgnntouth 
•Tredegar, The Viscount, P.S.A, 

Twdegar Park, Newport, Mon. 
Tristram, KeT. C, B.A. Badshot Lea, 


Uulier, Mn., The Deoe, Nortbiriak 

•Wiwner, H., Esq. M.A. F.S.A. 

F.B.a.S. 13 Half Uoon Street, W. 
Waldron, C, Esq. LlandaS 
Walhouie, M. J., Esq. 28 Hamilton 

Terrace, N.W. 

WaUis, a. H., Esq. F.S.A. The 
Residence, Nottingham Castle 

•Warburton, P. E., Esq. Tlie Dene, 
North with 

Way, Hon. Mn., Sidney House, 3 
Mount Ephraim, Tunbridge WelU 

WeTman, Henry T., Esq. F.S.A. 8 Blill 
* Street, Ludlow 

White, J. H., Esq. Pease Hall, Spring- 
field. ChelmsFord 

Wigan, Bar. Percy K., M.A. Puckrup 
Hat]. Tewkesbury 

Wibon, Mn., Bolton -by- Bowland Rec- 
tory, Clitheroe 

Wilson, Henry, Esq. M.A. F.S.A. 
Fsmborough, K.3.0. Kent 

•Wilson, B. H., E-q. The Old Croft, 
Holmwood, Dorking 

Winwood, Rer, H. H., M.A. 11 Caren- 
dish Crescent, Bath 

•Wood, R. H., Esq. F.S.A. F.R.G^. 
Belmont, Sidmouth 

Woolley, T. C. S., Esq. South Colling- 
ham. Neirark -on -Treat 

Wonfold, T. Cato, Esq. 9 Staple Inn, 

•Wurtzburg, J. H., Esq. Clavering 
House, 2 De Grey Road, Leeds 

Wyatt, EeT. C. F., M.A. Braughton 
Rectory, Banbury 

Young. A. W., Esq. 12 Hyde Park 

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BiRkttHOHiic, Central Free Library 
Bbadioui, Public Free Library 
Bbiohton, Public Library 
Bbibtol, Miueum and Kefereiuw Library 
ClHBKiDOl, Christ's College Library 
Selwjn College Library 
Trinity College Library 
Ciaa>L, Public Library, Toronto 
Dbhhibk, Boyal Library, Copenhagen 
DoBHBT County Muieuin, Dan:he«ter 
Ddrbau, Chapter Library 
Fbuici — Bibliotbique Rationale, Puii 

Iiutitut de France 
Hull, Subacription Library 
Ibblavp — Cork, Queen's College 

Dublin, Science and Art DepArtineut 
„ National Library of Ireland 
Lbbds, Public LibrviT 

The Leeds Library 
Lbicbbtbb, Town Museum 

LiHCOUf tND NoTTlHeKAV, Archaeological Society 
LiTlBPOOL, Free Public Library 
LoNBOH— Antiquaries, Tbe Society of 
OrVTBl and Co., Messn. H. 
Guildhall Library 
Inner Temple Li'brary 
Kilbum Public Library 
London Library 
The Boyal Institution 
Wesley and Son, Mesere. 
MiHCBiBTBB— Public Free Library 
Cfaetham'e Library 
Mblbodrbb, Public Library 

NiwcAarLB-OH-TTNB, Literary and Philosophical Society 
NoBWiI — UuiTersily Library, Christiania 
NoTTiHOBAH, Free Public Library 
OxVOBP, Aahmolean Museum 
ScoTLUCS— Edinburgh, Tlie Royal Scottish Huseuiii 

Glasgow, Uni»Br»ity Library 
Shbbbdbnb Sohool Library 
C.S.A. Cornell University, Itluwa, New Totk 
New York Public labrapy 
Feabody Instilution, Baltimore 
Public Library, Chicago 
Univereity of California 


Austbia-Edmoabt — Croatian Archaeological Society 

BiiQlVV, Academie Borale d'Arcbfologie de Belgique, Anven 

8oci6te d'Archdologie de Bruxelles 
BlBUCAL Arcliaeoloi^, Society of 

Bbistol uij) Gloucbbtbisbibb Archaeological Society 
Bkitibh Archseologicsl Association 

BucKiDOBAUBHiBi Architectural and Arehaeological Society 
ClVBBlAM Arcbaeohjsical Association 


DiBBlaHiBs Arehaeologickl uid Natonl Hiitorj Sooietj 

EiST Hbstb Archaeological Sooietj 

Emix ArchaeologicBl Societ; 

FlNLlND, Soci^ FinlaodaiM d'Arehiolo^ie, Heliingfori 

FuixcB — Soci^t^ Arch£ologique et Uistonque de la UhareDte, Angoulfane 

Soci£t£ ArohJolugiqne de Bordeaux 

Sociiti ATvh&>1ogique du Midi, Toulouae 

Socijt^ de Borda, Dai 

9oci£U Sdentifique, Uiitorique et Areh£al<^iqae de la Coiriie 
lftBi.un) — The Ro;b1 Societ; of Antiquanee uf 
JmasMT — 3ooi£t£ Jeniaise 
Knrr Archaeological Societj 
Larcishibi IKS CHiasiKS Hiitorical Society 
LiicESTBBSHiBB Archaeolopca) nnd Architectural Society 
LoFDON — AntiquBiiea, The Societj of 

Britiih UuMum. Department of Britiah Anliquitiea 

Huguenot Society, The 
NEWCiSTLR-oH'TrirB Society of Antiquarin 
PowTi-uwD Club, WeUhpool 

SHKOpgHiBi Archaeological and Natural Htitor; Society 
SmTHsOFiAif IiiBtitution, Wathinglon, U.S.A. 
SoHBRBrr Archaeological and Natural Hiitory Society 
-SuBBSl Archaeologi^ Society 
SiiHBBx Archaeological StNjietj 

Sweden, Academy of AnliquitiM, National Mnwnm, Stookbolm 
Thobisbt Society, Leeds 
Tbobotoh Society, NotlJDgham 

WiLTuHlBB Archaeological and Natural Hiitory Society 
YoBiHHiBi — Archaeological Society 

Eatt Biding Antiquarian Society 


{Tht number of Jiriliih Sononuy and Corretpottding Manhen ii limited to Tt».) 

Barthtiemy, H. Anatole de, 9 Rue d'AnJou, Paris 

Enlart, II. Camille, 14 Rue du Clicrchc'Midi, Parii 

Fo^be^ S. BoMell, Ph.D., Tin della Croce 76, Rome 

€huch, C. C. A., Attach^ to Ihe Legation of HJI, the King of Dennarh, 

21 Stanhope Oardcni, 8.W. 
■Owenwell, Bev. W., M.A. D.CL. F.B.8. F.S.A. Durham 
de Laatmie, M. le Cuiote Robert, Member of the Inetitute of France, lO^" Rue 

dn Fr£ am dent. Paris 
Lefirre-Foatalis, H. Eugene, 13 Bue de Phabbonrg, Paris 
TraTer*, M. EmUe, IS Bue de Chanoinea, Caen 

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Subacriptioiu to the Imititiite (due ennoall;, io adrance, on Juiuar; IM) >re 
payable to the Baokan of the Sooiet;, Meaars. Covtts & Co., Strand, W.C., or hj 
crooed Cheque or Pottal Order addrewed to the Hon. Secretar;, 20 HsDOTer 
Square, Londoo, W. 

Members (»ot in arrtar of their tnbtcriplioat) ate entitled to reoeiTe their 
Qdirtkbli JouEiriLB delivered gratuitouslj. In order to obriato dieappoint^ 
meat b; Don-deliverj of the Abcraeologidal Joueital, Memben are requeitod 
to remit fhsir Subscriptione, and to send infamiation aa to any oliange in their 
addreewB, reaipinations or deaths, or aoj inaccuracy nhich maj have occurred in 
the foregoing liat, to the Hon. Secretary. 

AnyMemberwiahing to witlidraw muat lignifyhis intention in wriViiiyprerioualy 
to January 1st of tlie ensuing year, otherwise he will be considered liable to pay hie 
Bubacription for the year. After being two yean in arrear, notice being giTen, hi* 
name will be remoTed from tlie List of Members. 

All persons desirous of becoming Memben of the Institute, and of receinng the 
PubliMtioaa of the Society, are requested to communicate with the Hun. Secretary. 
It is required that each Candidate shall be piuposed by a Member of the Council, 

or by two Memben of the Institute. 

Memben are reminded that they have the privilege of accese to and the u 
the Library of the Society of Antiquaries, Burlington House, W. 

HarrUon and Sont, Prialeri in Ordinary to Bit Majetlit, St. Marlin'i hant. 


p. 66, lait pongnpb, delete " I cuinot conclude . . . rewarchea," which ia n 
quotntion from kaother BUthor inadTerteatlj inaorted. 

p. 116, 1. 14, note thereto : At Wrington the effect of the long wiDdows in the 
tower is spoilt bj the fact that the belfrj portion termiiutleB ia a dutiiict 
■i]] which MpaTBtea it moat euiphatioUj from the partial]}- blind panel 
worli below. 

At BTSTcreeoh the belfry windows proper termioate below in a lesa 
emphatJcallj pronounced traniome bar. See Plates Til and Till. 

p. 117, note at foot, delete, " if not unique." 

p. 110, 1. 6, note thereto: Hie Bev. E. H. Batea baa kindW drawn mj 
attention to the Bvideoee (derired from Somertel WilU, luaed bj the 
Somerset Record So<-ietj in 1906) of eoma of money left for building tbe 
tower of Bt. Hary'a, Taunton, during the jeara 1502-1508. And in 
Tol. ni, p. 64, of Somertrt Willi we find George Qrorgcof Weatcombe, in 
tlie Parish of Batcombe, by bit will dat^d 4tli Augnat, 1639, leaving " U> 
tbe bjlding of tbe Towre of Batoombe twenty shillings," 

(This is tbe only arebitectural reference in the Tolume, which corera the 
years 15B1-1BS8.) 

p. 124, note, add. " and a further greatly enlarged paper by the same author, 
printed in the Somertel Arch. Sac. Proc. for 1904; and an even more 
striking tupplenientary paper in tbe same Society's pTvceidi%gi for 1906, 
which ererrooe interested in the subjeet should read." 

p. 126, 1. 11, ftfter'"Banwcll,"add"and." 

p. 126, last 4 lines, bracket " Lyng. Middlezoy and Chedioy " ; for " Hutton," read, 
"Hutton and Locking, which arc practically identical in design." 

p. 127, 1. 33. delete, " St. Marj's, l^nnton," which falla in Group D. 

p. 12S, 1. 2 and 3, " St. Decuniana. Watohet-," should be printed in one line. 

p. 129, 1. 1, 2 and 3, " With double windows " applies to Wringlon, ETercreecb, 
and St, Cuthberfa, Wella. 

p. 129, 1. 10 and 11 should read— 

Sw:."s'ul.b^}""' ■"■""• ""I™ " "» ■-«••■ 

Hells 1 

Leigh on Mendip Vwitb triple windows in two stages. 

Ilminater J 

p. 129, add at end, " Hemington and Buckland Denham are two anomalous towers 
apparently planned for double belfrj windows in two slages. But when 
the upper stage was added later, only single windows were inserted. The 
effect is poor, violating as it does the principle of increaae in lighlnes^ and 
ornament which sboDld be apparent as tbe eye travels up Ihe tower. Here, 
as Dr. Allen points out, we are led to an anti-climai." 
p. 131, table, substitute Che fallowing for tlie existing note, " All tbe measurements 
given were tekun by tbe author personally, except those of llminster, which 
were kindly furnished by U. St. G. Gray, Esq., of Taunton Castle, and 
those of Muchelney, by the Bcv. J. U. StiiUer<r." 

In Shepton Beauchamp and Sbept^n Mnilet. the widths are transposed. 
In "West Pennard the width of the nortti and south aides ia given in the 
column showing heigMs. (The height of this tower is unknown to the 

N.B.— Where two measurements of width are given for one tower tlie 
wider refers in almost every case to the west and cast dimensions. 

8, Benedict. Glastonbury, more correctly S. Benignus. The two width- 
dimensions should be tran^iosed, tijc wider or west measurement standing 



p. 168, [he lengtli of Ihe nare ihoald be 82 ft. 11 in. 

put* V. to fart p. 164. 

In thij plate the pale blue of the Virgin's mantle hai been aocidentallT 
omitted, and the margin iliould be a French grey or mauie. Id all 
other reipeol« these oolonred plate* are abtolute/octiniiVM of Hr. P. U. 
Johniton's tracinn. 

p. ICS. the miracle of the Ctaj Birdi should be referred to the apuriouB " Gospel 
of the Infanoj," not ta the Ki-called "Goipel of Miooderaus." (We are 
indebted to Mr. EejBer, F.8.A., for thii oorrectton.) 

The paaaage referred to, ai printed in Hone*! ApocrypJiai ifew 
Terlamenl, reads &a followi — 

"And when the Lord Jenu wu seven jeare of ^e. He ira« on a 
certain day with other boj* about the same age, Hho, when the^ were «t 
play, mode da; inio seTeml slii^es. namelr, assei, oien, birds and other 
ftcturea, each boasting of his work, and endeatonring to exceed the rest. 
Then the Lord Jesui said to the hots, I will command these fignns 
which I hare made to walk. And immediatelj tbey moved, and when 
He commanded them to return, the; returned. He had also made the 
figures of birds and sparrows, which, when He commanded to flj, did flj. 
and when He commanded to stand still, did stand still ; and if Be 
gave them meat and drink, thej did eat and drink." 

p. 167, note 2, has reference to South Leigh. 4th line, p. 168. 

p. 170, note. It ma^ be added that there is a statue of 3t. Eligius, or KI07, still 
remaining in the Chapel of Henry VII. in WestmiiiBter Abbey. 

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